David E Clapham

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (251)3585.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cell Calcium 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2014.11.007 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Entry and extrusion of cations are essential processes in living cells. In alkaliphilic prokaryotes, high external pH activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which allows Na(+) to enter and be used as substrate for cation/proton antiporters responsible for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. Here, we describe a new member of the prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel family (NsvBa; N on- s elective v oltage-gated, B acillus a lcalophilus) that is nonselective among Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) ions. Mutations in NsvBa can convert the nonselective filter into one that discriminates for Na(+) or divalent cations. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrate the portability of ion selectivity with filter mutations to other Bacillus Nav channels. Increasing pH and temperature shifts their activation threshold towards their native resting membrane potential. Furthermore, we find drugs that target Bacillus Nav channels also block the growth of the bacteria. This work identifies some of the adaptations to achieve ion discrimination and gating in Bacillus Nav channels.
    eLife Sciences 11/2014; 3. DOI:10.7554/eLife.04387 · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Xinjiang Cai, Xiangbing Wang, David E Clapham
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium signaling is one of the most extensively employed signal transduction mechanisms in life. As life evolved into increasingly complex organisms, Ca(2+) acquired more extensive and varied functions. Here we compare genes encoding proteins that govern Ca(2+) entry and exit across cells or organelles within organisms of early eukaryotic evolution into fungi, plants, and animals. Recent phylogenomics analyses reveal a complex Ca(2+) signaling machinery in the apusozoan protist Thecamonas trahens, a putative unicellular progenitor of Opisthokonta. We compare T. trahens Ca(2+) signaling to that in a marine bikont protist, Aurantiochytrium limacinum, and demonstrate the conservation of key Ca(2+) signaling molecules in the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa. Particularly, our findings reveal the conservation of the CatSper channel complex in A. limacinum and C. paradoxa, suggesting that the CatSper complex likely originated from an ancestral Ca(2+) signaling machinery at the root of early eukaryotic evolution prior to the unikont/bikont split.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 07/2014; DOI:10.1093/molbev/msu218 · 14.31 Impact Factor
  • Dipayan Chaudhuri, David E. Clapham
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of genes encoding the mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) uniporter has revealed new opportunities for studying how abnormal Ca2+ signals cause disease. Ca2+ transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane is highly regulated, and the uniporter is the channel that acts as a major portal for Ca2+ influx. Low amounts of mitochondrial Ca2+ can boost ATP synthesis, but excess amounts, such as following cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload in heart failure, triggers mitochondrial failure and cell death. In fact, precisely because mitochondrial Ca2+ transport is so tightly regulated, a fundamental understanding of how the uniporter functions is necessary. Two key uniporter features allow Ca2+ influx without mitochondrial damage during normal physiology. First, the channel is significantly more selective than other known Ca2+ channels. This prevents the permeation of other ions and uncoupling of the electrochemical gradient. Second, the uniporter becomes active at only high Ca2+ concentrations, preventing a resting leak of cytoplasmic Ca2+ itself. Now possessing the identities of the various proteins forming the uniporter, we can proceed with efforts to define the molecular determinants of permeation, selectivity and Ca2+-regulation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.04.141 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channels are important targets for the development of pharmaceutical drugs, because mutations in different human sodium channel isoforms have causal relationships with a range of neurological and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, functional electrophysiological studies show that the prokaryotic sodium channel from Magnetococcus marinus (NavMs) binds and is inhibited by eukaryotic sodium channel blockers in a manner similar to the human Na(v)1.1 channel, despite millions of years of divergent evolution between the two types of channels. Crystal complexes of the NavMs pore with several brominated blocker compounds depict a common antagonist binding site in the cavity, adjacent to lipid-facing fenestrations proposed to be the portals for drug entry. In silico docking studies indicate the full extent of the blocker binding site, and electrophysiology studies of NavMs channels with mutations at adjacent residues validate the location. These results suggest that the NavMs channel can be a valuable tool for screening and rational design of human drugs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; 111(23). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1406855111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TRPM7 is a ubiquitous ion channel and kinase, a unique "chanzyme," required for proper early embryonic development. It conducts Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) as well as monovalent cations and contains a functional serine/threonine kinase at its carboxyl terminus. Here, we show that in normal tissues and cell lines, the kinase is proteolytically cleaved from the channel domain in a cell-type-specific manner. These TRPM7 cleaved kinase fragments (M7CKs) translocate to the nucleus and bind multiple components of chromatin-remodeling complexes, including Polycomb group proteins. In the nucleus, the kinase phosphorylates specific serines/threonines of histones. M7CK-dependent phosphorylation of H3Ser10 at promoters of TRPM7-dependent genes correlates with their activity. We also demonstrate that cytosolic free [Zn(2+)] is TRPM7 dependent and regulates M7CK binding to transcription factors containing zinc-finger domains. These findings suggest that TRPM7-mediated modulation of intracellular Zn(2+) concentration couples ion-channel signaling to epigenetic chromatin covalent modifications that affect gene expression patterns. PAPERCLIP:
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    ABSTRACT: Spermatozoa must leave one organism, navigate long distances, and deliver their paternal DNA into a mature egg. For successful navigation and delivery, a sperm-specific calcium channel is activated in the mammalian flagellum. The genes encoding this channel (CatSpers) appear first in ancient uniflagellates, suggesting that sperm use adaptive strategies developed long ago for single-cell navigation. Here, using genetics, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and phosphoproteomics, we investigate the CatSper-dependent mechanisms underlying this flagellar switch. We find that the CatSper channel is required for four linear calcium domains that organize signaling proteins along the flagella. This unique structure focuses tyrosine phosphorylation in time and space as sperm acquire the capacity to fertilize. In heterogeneous sperm populations, we find unique molecular phenotypes, but only sperm with intact CatSper domains that organize time-dependent and spatially specific protein tyrosine phosphorylation successfully migrate. These findings illuminate flagellar adaptation, signal transduction cascade organization, and fertility. PAPERFLICK:
    Cell 05/2014; 157(4):808-22. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.056 · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caspase-11 is a highly inducible caspase that controls both inflammatory responses and cell death. Caspase-11 controls interleukin 1β (IL-1β) secretion by potentiating caspase-1 activation and induces caspase-1-independent pyroptosis downstream of noncanonical NLRP3 inflammasome activators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-negative bacteria. However, we still know very little about the downstream mechanism of caspase-11 in regulating inflammation because the known substrates of caspase-11 are only other caspases. Here, we identify the cationic channel subunit transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) as a substrate of caspase-11. TRPC1 deficiency increases the secretion of IL-1β without modulating caspase-1 cleavage or cell death in cultured macrophages. Consistently, trpc1(-/-) mice show higher IL-1β secretion in the sepsis model of intraperitoneal LPS injection. Altogether, our data suggest that caspase-11 modulates the cationic channel composition of the cell and thus regulates the unconventional secretion pathway in a manner independent of caspase-1.
    Cell Reports 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.015 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are abundant in the brain where they regulate transmission of sensory signals. The expression patterns of different TRPC subunits (TRPC1, 4, and 5) are consistent with their potential role in fear-related behaviors. Accordingly, we found recently that mutant mice lacking a specific TRP channel subunit, TRPC5, exhibited decreased innate fear responses. Both TRPC5 and another member of the same subfamily, TRPC4, form heteromeric complexes with the TRPC1 subunit (TRPC1/5 and TRPC1/4, respectively). As TRP channels with specific subunit compositions may have different functional properties, we hypothesized that fear-related behaviors could be differentially controlled by TRPCs with distinct subunit arrangements. In this study, we focused on the analysis of mutant mice lacking the TRPC4 subunit, which, as we confirmed in experiments on control mice, is expressed in brain areas implicated in the control of fear and anxiety. In behavioral experiments, we found that constitutive ablation of TRPC4 was associated with diminished anxiety levels (innate fear). Furthermore, knockdown of TRPC4 protein in the lateral amygdala via lentiviral-mediated gene delivery of RNAi mimicked the behavioral phenotype of constitutive TRPC4-null (TRPC4(-/-)) mouse. Recordings in brain slices demonstrated that these behavioral modifications could stem from the lack of TRPC4 potentiation in neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala through two Gαq/11 protein-coupled signaling pathways, activated via Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and cholecystokinin 2 receptors, respectively. Thus, TRPC4 and the structurally and functionally related subunit, TRPC5, may both contribute to the mechanisms underlying regulation of innate fear responses.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(10):3653-67. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2274-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The leucine zipper, EF hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (Letm1) gene encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane protein, whose depletion severely perturbs mitochondrial Ca(2+) and K(+) homeostasis. Here we expressed, purified, and reconstituted human Letm1 protein in liposomes. Using Ca(2+) fluorophore and (45)Ca(2+)-based assays, we demonstrate directly that Letm1 is a Ca(2+) transporter, with apparent affinities of cations in the sequence of Ca(2+) ≈ Mn(2+) > Gd(3+) ≈ La(3+) > Sr(2+) > Ba(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+). Kinetic analysis yields a Letm1 turnover rate of 2 Ca(2+)/s and a Km of ∼25 µM. Further experiments show that Letm1 mediates electroneutral 1 Ca(2+)/2 H(+) antiport. Letm1 is insensitive to ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, and CGP-37157, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Functional properties of Letm1 described here are remarkably similar to those of the H(+)-dependent Ca(2+) transport mechanism identified in intact mitochondria.
    The Journal of General Physiology 12/2013; DOI:10.1085/jgp.201311096 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A primary cilium is a solitary, slender, non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, primary cilia also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signalling and hedgehog signalling pathways. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia use diverse ion channels. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells, but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC and PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane proteins (PKD1, PKD1L1 and PKD1L2) remarkable for a large extracellular amino terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site, and the 6-transmembrane channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2L1 and PKD2L2; TRPPs). Evidence indicates that the PKD1 proteins associate with the PKD2 proteins via coiled-coil domains. Here we use a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and use it to record directly from primary cilia, and demonstrate that PKD1L1 and PKD2L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with an accompanying manuscript, we show that the PKD1L1-PKD2L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established hedgehog pathways.
    Nature 12/2013; 504(7479):315-318. DOI:10.1038/nature12832 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are solitary, non-motile extensions of the centriole found on nearly all nucleated eukaryotic cells between cell divisions. Only ∼200-300 nm in diameter and a few micrometres long, they are separated from the cytoplasm by the ciliary neck and basal body. Often called sensory cilia, they are thought to receive chemical and mechanical stimuli and initiate specific cellular signal transduction pathways. When activated by a ligand, hedgehog pathway proteins, such as GLI2 and smoothened (SMO), translocate from the cell into the cilium. Mutations in primary ciliary proteins are associated with severe developmental defects. The ionic conditions, permeability of the primary cilia membrane, and effectiveness of the diffusion barriers between the cilia and cell body are unknown. Here we show that cilia are a unique calcium compartment regulated by a heteromeric TRP channel, PKD1L1-PKD2L1, in mice and humans. In contrast to the hypothesis that polycystin (PKD) channels initiate changes in ciliary calcium that are conducted into the cytoplasm, we show that changes in ciliary calcium concentration occur without substantially altering global cytoplasmic calcium. PKD1L1-PKD2L1 acts as a ciliary calcium channel controlling ciliary calcium concentration and thereby modifying SMO-activated GLI2 translocation and GLI1 expression.
    Nature 12/2013; 504(7479):311-314. DOI:10.1038/nature12833 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation. The molecular identities of the calcium-permeant channels that underlie the initiation of embryonic development are not established. Here, we describe a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel current activated by TRP agonists that is absent in TrpV3(-/-) eggs. TRPV3 current is differentially expressed during oocyte maturation, reaching a peak of maximum density and activity at metaphase of meiosis II (MII), the stage of fertilization. Selective activation of TRPV3 channels provokes egg activation by mediating massive calcium entry. Widely used to activate eggs, strontium application is known to yield normal offspring in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer. We show that TRPV3 is required for strontium influx, because TrpV3(-/-) eggs failed to conduct Sr(2+) or undergo strontium-induced activation. We propose that TRPV3 is a major mediator of calcium influx in mouse eggs and is a putative target for artificial egg activation.
    Cell Reports 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.11.007 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    David E Clapham
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    ABSTRACT: Massive endocytosis is initiated by a series of steps that involve a sudden influx of calcium ions, changes in mitochondria, and modification of surface proteins by lipids. A better understanding of this process could lead to new approaches to reducing the tissue damage that is caused by heart attacks.
    eLife Sciences 11/2013; 2. DOI:10.7554/eLife.01738 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial uniporter is a highly selective calcium channel in the organelle's inner membrane. Its molecular components include the EF-hand-containing proteins mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) and MICU2 and the pore-forming subunit mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). We sought to achieve a full molecular characterization of the uniporter holocomplex (uniplex). Quantitative mass spectrometry of affinity-purified uniplex recovered MICU1 and MICU2, MCU and its paralog MCUb, and essential MCU regulator (EMRE), a previously uncharacterized protein. EMRE is a 10-kD, metazoan-specific protein with a single transmembrane domain. In its absence, uniporter channel activity was lost despite intact MCU expression and oligomerization. EMRE was required for the interaction of MCU with MICU1 and MICU2. Hence, EMRE is essential for in vivo uniporter current and additionally bridges the calcium-sensing role of MICU1 and MICU2 with the calcium-conducting role of MCU.
    Science 11/2013; DOI:10.1126/science.1242993 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    David E Clapham
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    ABSTRACT: Human sperm cells rely on an unusual type of potassium ion channel.
    eLife Sciences 10/2013; 2:e01469. DOI:10.7554/eLife.01469 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channels have essential roles in electrical signalling. Prokaryotic sodium channels are tetramers consisting of transmembrane (TM) voltage-sensing and pore domains, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. Previous crystal structures of bacterial sodium channels revealed the nature of their TM domains but not their C-terminal domains (CTDs). Here, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with molecular dynamics, we show that the CTD of the NavMs channel from Magnetococcus marinus includes a flexible region linking the TM domains to a four-helix coiled-coil bundle. A 2.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the NavMs pore indicates the position of the CTD, which is consistent with the EPR-derived structure. Functional analyses demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain couples inactivation with channel opening, and is enabled by negatively charged residues in the linker region. A mechanism for gating is proposed based on the structure, whereby splaying of the bottom of the pore is possible without requiring unravelling of the coiled-coil.
    Nature Communications 09/2013; 4:2465. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3465 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During passage through the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm undergo a maturation process termed capacitation that renders sperm competent to produce fertilization. Capacitation involves a sequence of changes in biochemical and electrical properties, the onset of a hyperactivated swimming behavior, and development of the ability to undergo successful fusion and penetration with an egg. In mouse sperm, the development of hyperactivated motility is dependent on cytosolic alkalization that then results in an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). The elevation of Ca(2+) is thought to be primarily driven by the concerted interplay of two alkalization-activated currents, a K(+) current (KSPER) composed of pore-forming subunits encoded by the Kcnu1 gene (also termed Slo3) and a Ca(2+) current arising from a family of CATSPER subunits. After deletion of any of four CATSPER subunit genes (CATSPER1-4), the major remaining current in mouse sperm is alkalization-activated KSPER current. After genetic deletion of the Slo3 gene, KSPER current is abolished, but there remains a small voltage-activated K(+) current hypothesized to reflect monovalent flux through CATSPER. Here, we address two questions. First, does the residual outward K(+) current present in the Slo3 (-/-) sperm arise from CATSPER? Second, can any additional membrane K(+) currents be detected in mouse sperm by patch-clamp methods other than CATSPER and KSPER? Here, using mice bred to lack both SLO3 and CATSPER1 subunits, we show conclusively that the voltage-activated outward current present in Slo3 (-/-) sperm is abolished when CATSPER is also deleted. Any leak currents that may play a role in setting the resting membrane potential in noncapacitated sperm are likely smaller than the pipette leak current and thus cannot be resolved within the limitation of the patch-clamp technique. Together, KSPER and CATSPER appear to be the sole ion channels present in mouse sperm that regulate membrane potential and Ca(2+) influx in response to alkalization.
    The Journal of General Physiology 09/2013; 142(3):305-13. DOI:10.1085/jgp.201311011 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular block are common clinical problems, often necessitating permanent pacemaker placement, yet the pathophysiology of these conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a divalent-permeant channel-kinase of unknown function, is highly expressed in embryonic myocardium and sinoatrial node (SAN) and is required for cardiac automaticity in these specialized tissues. TRPM7 disruption in vitro, in cultured embryonic cardiomyocytes, significantly reduces spontaneous Ca(2+) transient firing rates and is associated with robust down-regulation of Hcn4, Cav3.1, and SERCA2a mRNA. TRPM7 knockdown in zebrafish, global murine cardiac Trpm7 deletion (KO(αMHC-Cre)), and tamoxifen-inducible SAN restricted Trpm7 deletion (KO(HCN4-CreERT2)) disrupts cardiac automaticity in vivo. Telemetered and sedated KO(αMHC-Cre) and KO(HCN4-CreERT2) mice show episodes of sinus pauses and atrioventricular block. Isolated SAN from KO(αMHC-Cre) mice exhibit diminished Ca(2+) transient firing rates with a blunted diastolic increase in Ca(2+). Action potential firing rates are diminished owing to slower diastolic depolarization. Accordingly, Hcn4 mRNA and the pacemaker current, If, are diminished in SAN from both KO(αMHC-Cre) and KO(HCN4-CreERT2) mice. Moreover, heart rates of KO(αMHC-Cre) mice are less sensitive to the selective If blocker ivabradine, and acute application of the recently identified TRPM7 blocker FTY720 has no effect on action potential firing rates of wild-type SAN cells. We conclude that TRPM7 influences diastolic membrane depolarization and automaticity in SAN indirectly via regulation of Hcn4 expression.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; 111(17). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1311865110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parasympathetic regulation of sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity modulates multiple ion channels to temper heart rate. The functional role of the G-protein-activated K(+) current (IKACh) in the control of SAN pacemaking and heart rate is not completely understood. We have investigated the functional consequences of loss of IKACh in cholinergic regulation of pacemaker activity of SAN cells and in heart rate control under physiological situations mimicking the fight or flight response. We used knockout mice with loss of function of the Girk4 (Kir3.4) gene (Girk4(-/-) mice), which codes for an integral subunit of the cardiac IKACh channel. SAN pacemaker cells from Girk4(-/-) mice completely lacked IKACh. Loss of IKACh strongly reduced cholinergic regulation of pacemaker activity of SAN cells and isolated intact hearts. Telemetric recordings of electrocardiograms of freely moving mice showed that heart rate measured over a 24-h recording period was moderately increased (10%) in Girk4(-/-) animals. Although the relative extent of heart rate regulation of Girk4(-/-) mice was similar to that of wild-type animals, recovery of resting heart rate after stress, physical exercise, or pharmacological β-adrenergic stimulation of SAN pacemaking was significantly delayed in Girk4(-/-) animals. We conclude that IKACh plays a critical role in the kinetics of heart rate recovery to resting levels after sympathetic stimulation or after direct β-adrenergic stimulation of pacemaker activity. Our study thus uncovers a novel role for IKACh in SAN physiology and heart rate regulation.
    The Journal of General Physiology 07/2013; DOI:10.1085/jgp.201310996 · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

27k Citations
3,585.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Manton Center of Orphan Disease Research
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2014
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1988–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Neurobiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1997
    • University of California, Davis
      • Area of Chemical Biology
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1996
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 1993–1996
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States