David R Jacobs

University of Oslo, Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway

Are you David R Jacobs?

Claim your profile

Publications (822)4566.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Public health concerns related to menthol cigarettes include that they may promote smoking initiation and prevent cessation. It is well documented that among smokers, African Americans, youth, females, and people with lower education have a higher prevalence of menthol cigarette use than their counterparts. However, not much is known about lifetime course of menthol cigarettes use. This study adds 10 years of follow-up to a previous examination of menthol cigarettes in CARDIA. Methods: Using data from CARDIA, a community-based prospective cohort of young adults at baseline, we analyzed data in 2,028 smokers who provided cigarette brand information. The study assessed at each of its 8 exams if the current cigarette brand smoked was menthol or non-menthol. We plan to also determine if menthol cigarette use predicts quitting and relapse. Results: A majority of smokers exclusively smoked either menthol or non-menthol cigarettes over the assessed 25 year period; approximately 13% switched types at some point. Among those who switched, 67% switched from a menthol to non-menthol brand while 33% switched from a non-menthol to menthol brand. Among smokers, smoking a menthol brand was highly associated with race (80% of African-Americans always smoked menthol) and education (64% with ≤ high school education always smoked menthol), but not age. Conclusion: Switching from one type (menthol or non-menthol) of cigarette brand to another was rare among young and middle age adults in this cohort. Better understanding of switching patterns may inform smoking cessation efforts.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: . Insulin resistance is linked to many human chronic diseases. Paradoxically, however, impaired insulin signaling contributes to longevity in various organisms and is suggested as an adaptive mechanism against external stressors, including obesity. We formulated a novel hypothesis that insulin resistance can be beneficial in obese humans, insofar as it does not cause glucose dysmetabolism.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Higher levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk among individuals without diabetes and may also be positively associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study investigated the association of HbA1c with CAC progression in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.
    Diabetes care. 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial load is composed of resistive and various pulsatile components, but their relative contributions to left ventricular (LV) remodeling in the general population are unknown. We studied 4145 participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who underwent cardiac MRI and radial arterial tonometry. We computed systemic vascular resistance (SVR=mean arterial pressure/cardiac output) and indices of pulsatile load including total arterial compliance (TAC, approximated as stroke volume/central pulse pressure), forward wave amplitude (Pf), and reflected wave amplitude (Pb). TAC and SVR were adjusted for body surface area to allow for appropriate sex comparisons. We performed allometric adjustment of LV mass for body size and sex and computed standardized regression coefficients (β) for each measure of arterial load. In multivariable regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders, SVR (β=0.08; P<0.001), TAC (β=0.44; P<0.001), Pb (β=0.73; P<0.001), and Pf (β=-0.23; P=0.001) were significant independent predictors of LV mass. Conversely, TAC (β=-0.43; P<0.001), SVR (β=0.22; P<0.001), and Pf (β=-0.18; P=0.004) were independently associated with the LV wall/LV cavity volume ratio. Women demonstrated greater pulsatile load than men, as evidenced by a lower indexed TAC (0.89 versus 1.04 mL/mm Hg per square meter; P<0.0001), whereas men demonstrated a higher indexed SVR (34.0 versus 32.8 Wood Units×m(2); P<0.0001). In conclusion, various components of arterial load differentially associate with LV hypertrophy and concentric remodeling. Women demonstrated greater pulsatile load than men. For both LV mass and the LV wall/LV cavity volume ratio, the loading sequence (ie, early load versus late load) is an important determinant of LV response to arterial load.
    Hypertension 10/2014; · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Duk-Hee Lee, David R Jacobs
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is linked to many chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Among several possible mechanisms are gradual glutathione depletion and mitochondrial dysfunction after chronic exposure to very low doses of POP mixtures. However, it is biologically noteworthy that glutathione status and mitochondrial function is subject to hormesis, defined broadly as mild stress-induced stimulation of cellular protective mechanisms, including increased synthesis of glutathione and promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis. Although high levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS) can cause cellular damage, certain levels of ROS function as signalling molecules to induce hormetic effects. Thus, similar to many other stressors generating ROS, glutathione status and mitochondrial function can be improved at higher POP doses. However, higher POP levels are dangerous despite their hormetic effects due to other adverse phenomena. Also, the persistent nature of POPs can make hormetic effects less effective in humans as hormesis may be the most active with transient stressors. Hormesis-inducing stressors should be placed into three categories for public health purposes: (1) disadvantageous: chemicals like POPs and radiation, that could harm humans by endocrine disruption, action of chemical mixtures and susceptible populations; (2) neutral: cold, heat, and gravity; and (3) advantageous: moderate exercise, phytochemical intake, and calorie restriction. Noting that regulation of POPs, while critical, has provided insufficient protection because POPs persist in human bodies and the food chain, advantageous stressors should be used by the public to mitigate glutathione depletion and mitochondrial dysfunction due to POPs.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean diet has been reported to be inversely associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) among older adults; however, this association has not been studied in young African American and white adults. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of a modified Mediterranean diet (mMedDiet) score with the 25-year incidence of the MetSyn in 4713 African American and white adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. A diet history questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake at baseline, year 7 and year 20 and a mMedDiet score was created. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at multiple examinations over 25 years. The MetSyn was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was use to evaluate associations for incident MetSyn across the mMedDiet score categories adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and BMI. Higher mMedDiet scores represented adherence to a dietary pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish, but poor in red and processed meat and snack foods. The incidence of MetSyn components (abdominal obesity, elevated TAG concentrations and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations) was lower in those with higher mMedDiet scores than in those with lower scores. Furthermore, the incidence of the MetSyn was lower across the five mMedDiet score categories; the hazard ratios and 95 % CI from category 1 to category 5 were 1·0; 0·94 (0·76, 1·15); 0·84 (0·68, 1·04); 0·73 (0·58, 0·92); and 0·72 (0·54, 0·96), respectively (P trend= 0·005). These findings suggest that the risk of developing the MetSyn is lower when consuming a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish.
    The British journal of nutrition. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cumulative exposure to elevated systolic BP (cumSBP) may affect progression of urine albumin excretion in the absence of diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cumSBP exposure and progression of spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in a multi-ethnic cohort of adults without diabetes.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary protein has been shown to increase urinary Ca excretion in randomised controlled trials, and diets high in protein may have detrimental effects on bone health; however, studies examining the relationship between dietary protein and bone health have conflicting results. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary protein (total, animal and vegetable protein) and lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) among participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n 1658). Protein intake was assessed using a FFQ obtained at baseline examination (2000-2). Lumbar spine vBMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography (2002-5), on average 3 years later. Multivariable linear and robust regression techniques were used to examine the associations between dietary protein and vBMD. Sex and race/ethnicity jointly modified the association of dietary protein with vBMD (P for interaction = 0·03). Among white women, higher vegetable protein intake was associated with higher vBMD (P for trend = 0·03), after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking, educational level, hormone therapy use, menopause and additional dietary factors. There were no consistently significant associations for total and animal protein intakes among white women or other sex and racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, data from the present large, multi-ethnic, population-based study suggest that a higher level of protein intake, when substituted for fat, is not associated with poor bone health. Differences in the relationship between protein source and race/ethnicity of study populations may in part explain the inconsistent findings reported previously.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether inclusion of the coronary artery calcium score improves cardiovascular risk prediction in individuals with CKD, a population with unique calcium-phosphate homeostasis, is unknown. Among 6553 participants ages 45-84 years without prior cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score was assessed for cardiovascular risk prediction beyond the Framingham predictors in those with (n=1284) and without CKD and contrasted with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index (two other measures of subclinical atherosclerosis). During a median follow-up of 8.4 years, 650 cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease) occurred (236 events in subjects with CKD). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for Framingham predictors, each subclinical measure was independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes, with larger adjusted hazard ratios (HRs; per 1 SD) for coronary artery calcium score than carotid intima-media thickness or ankle-brachial index in subjects without and with CKD (HR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.45 to 1.97 versus HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25 and HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.32, respectively). Compared with inclusion of carotid intima-media thickness or ankle-brachial index, inclusion of the coronary artery calcium score led to greater increases in C statistic for predicting cardiovascular disease and net reclassification improvement. Coronary artery calcium score performed best for the prediction of coronary heart disease and heart failure, regardless of CKD status. In conclusion, each measure improved cardiovascular risk prediction in subjects with CKD, with the greatest improvement observed with coronary artery calcium score.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arterial wave reflections have been associated with mortality in an ethnically homogenous Asian population. It is unknown whether this association is present in a multiethnic population or whether it is independent of subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that reflection magnitude (defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the backward wave [Pb] to that of the forward wave [Pf]) is associated with all-cause mortality in a large multiethnic adult community-based sample. We studied 5984 participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had analyzable arterial tonometry waveforms. During 9.8±1.7 years of follow-up, 617 deaths occurred, of which 134 (22%) were adjudicated cardiovascular deaths. In Cox proportional hazards models, each 10% increase in reflection magnitude was associated with a 31% increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-1.55; P=0.001). This relationship persisted after adjustment for various confounders and for markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (HR=1.23; 95% CI=1.01-1.51; P=0.04), including the coronary calcium score, ankle-brachial index, common carotid intima-media thickness, and ascending thoracic aortic Agatston score. Pb was independently associated with all-cause mortality in a similarly adjusted model (HR per 10 mm Hg increase in Pb=2.18; 95% CI=1.21-3.92; P=0.009). Reflection magnitude (HR=1.71; 95% CI=1.06-2.77; P=0.03) and Pb (HR=5.02; 95% CI=1.29-19.42; P=0.02) were mainly associated with cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, reflection magnitude is independently associated with all-cause mortality in a multiethnic population initially free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease. This relationship persists after adjustment for a comprehensive set of markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Hypertension 08/2014; · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on trends in poststroke survival, both in the early period after stroke and over the long term. We examine these trends by stroke subtype.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related condition associated with cardiovascular mortality. Yet, whether or not NAFLD is independently related to atherosclerosis is unclear. In a population-based cross-sectional sample of middle-aged adults free from liver or heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that NAFLD is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC)) independent of obesity.
    Atherosclerosis 06/2014; 235(2):599-605. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Seongbeom Cho, David R Jacobs, Kyong Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):527. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: -Early repolarization (ER), a common electrocardiographic phenotype, has been associated with increased mortality risk in middle-aged adults. Data are sparse on long-term follow-up and outcomes associated with ER in younger adults. -We prospectively examined 5,039 participants (mean age 25 years at baseline, 40% black) from the CARDIA cohort over 23 years. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed at Years 0, 7 and 20 and coded as definite or probable ER using a standardized algorithm. Cox regression was used, and models were adjusted for important baseline and clinical covariates. Kaplan-Meier curves were created for presence of ER and total mortality and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Participants with ER were more likely to be black, male, smoke, have higher systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate, and BMI, and also higher exercise duration, and longer PR, QRS and QT intervals. ER was associated with total mortality (HR1.77, 1.38-2.28, p<0.01), and CV mortality (HR 1.59, 1.01-2.50, p=0.04) in unadjusted analyses, but adjustment for age, sex, and race attenuated associations almost completely. Sex-race stratified analyses showed no significant associations between ER and outcome for any of the subgroups except blacks. -The presence of ER at any time point over 23 years of follow-up was not associated with adverse outcomes. Black race and male sex confound the unadjusted association of ER and outcomes, with no race-sex interactions noted. Further studies are necessary to understand the factors associated with heightened risk of death in those who maintain ER into and beyond middle age.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 04/2014; · 5.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later. We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985-1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test). Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001). Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier.
    Neurology 04/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimWe investigated the relationship between periodontal disease, a clinical manifestation of periodontal infection, and prediabetes.Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 enrolled 1,165 diabetes-free adults (51% female) aged 30-80 years (mean ± SD=50±14) who received a full-mouth periodontal examination and an oral glucose tolerance test. Participants were classified as having none/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis and also according to mean probing depth≥2.19 mm or attachment loss≥1.78 mm, (respective 75th percentiles). Pre-diabetes was defined according to ADA criteria as either: i) impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds of IFG and IGT were regressed on levels of periodontitis category.ResultsThe odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having IGT among participants with moderate or severe periodontitis, relative to participants with none/mild periodontitis were 1.07[0.50,2.25] and 1.93[1.18,3.17], P=0.02. The ORs for having IFG were 1.14[0.74, 1.77] and 1.12[0.58, 2.18], P =0.84. PD≥75th percentile was related to a 105% increase in the odds of IGT: OR[95%CI] =2.05[1.24, 3.39], P=0.005.Conclusions Periodontal infection was positively associated with prevalent impaired glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional study among a nationally representative sample.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Henry Blackburn, David Jacobs
    International Journal of Epidemiology 04/2014; · 6.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • AHA EPI/NPAM; 03/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies of the associations of vitamin E with lung function have reported conflicting results. However, these reports primarily examine the alpha-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E and have not included the isoform gamma-tocopherol which we recently demonstrated in vitro opposes the function of alpha-tocopherol. We previously demonstrated, in vitro and in animal studies, that the vitamin E isoform alpha-tocopherol protects, but the isoform gamma-tocopherol promotes lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. To translate these findings to humans, we conducted analysis of 4526 adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) multi-center cohort with available spirometry and tocopherol data in blacks and whites. Spirometry was obtained at years 0, 5, 10, and 20 and serum tocopherol was from years 0, 7 and 15 of CARDIA. In cross-sectional regression analysis at year 0, higher gamma-tocopherol associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.03 in blacks and p = 0.01 in all participants) and FVC (p = 0.01 in blacks, p = 0.05 in whites, and p = 0.005 in all participants), whereas higher alpha-tocopherol associated with higher FVC (p = 0.04 in blacks and whites and p = 0.01 in all participants). In the lowest quartile of alpha-tocopherol, higher gamma-tocopherol associated with a lower FEV1 (p = 0.05 in blacks and p = 0.02 in all participants). In contrast, in the lowest quartile of gamma-tocopherol, higher alpha-tocopherol associated with a higher FEV1 (p = 0.03) in blacks. Serum gamma-tocopherol >10 muM was associated with a 175-545 ml lower FEV1 and FVC at ages 21-55 years. Increasing serum concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were associated with lower FEV1 or FVC, whereas increasing serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol was associated with higher FEV1 or FVC. Based on the prevalence of serum gamma-tocopherol >10 muM in adults in CARDIA and the adult U.S. population in the 2011 census, we expect that the lower FEV1 and FVC at these concentrations of serum gamma-tocopherol occur in up to 4.5 million adults in the population.
    Respiratory research 03/2014; 15(1):31. · 3.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

37k Citations
4,566.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • University of Oslo
      • • Department of Nutrition
      • • Division of Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1979–2014
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • • Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
      • • Medical School
      • • Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2013
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Wollongong
      • Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute
      Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    • Shiga University of Medical Science
      Ōtu, Shiga, Japan
    • Bastyr University
      Kenmore, Washington, United States
    • University of Western Australia
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2009–2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Pathology
      Burlington, VT, United States
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Loyola University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2002–2013
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of General Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 2012
    • Kyungpook National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Medical Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2009–2012
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Nutrition
      • • Department of Family Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Exponent
      San Mateo, California, United States
    • Wake Forest University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Prevention
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • • Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences
      • • Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • University of New Mexico
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Albuquerque, NM, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Biology
      Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway
  • 1979–2012
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Division of Epidemiology and Community Health
      • • Department of Kinesiology
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2011
    • Oakland University
      • Department of Psychology
      Rochester, MI, United States
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Wageningen University
      • Division of Human Nutrition
      Wageningen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • Catholic University of Daegu
      • Department of Medicine
      Hayang, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
      Joensuu, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 1997–2011
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Preventive Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • Kurume University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Куруме, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2010
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Health Studies
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • KU Leuven
      • • Division of Artherosclerosis and Metabolism
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 2001–2007
    • Harvard University
      • • Department of Nutrition
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      • Centre for Prevention and Health Services Research (PZO)
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • University of Alabama
      • College of Education
      Tuscaloosa, AL, United States
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • The Cardiovascular Institute
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001–2003
    • Kosin University
      • College of Medicine
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2000
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
      Columbia, SC, United States
    • Wayne State University
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988–1995
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 1993
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States