David Sloan

University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (16)2.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we explore the role of age and fluid intelligence on the behavior of people looking for information in a real-world search space. Analyses of mouse moves, clicks, and eye movements provide a window into possible differences in both task strategy and performance, and allow us to begin to separate the influence of age from the correlated but isolable influence of cognitive ability. We found little evidence of differences in strategy between younger and older participants matched on fluid intelligence. Both performance and strategy differences were found between older participants having higher versus lower fluid intelligence, however, suggesting that cognitive factors, rather than age per se, exert the dominant influence. This underscores the importance of measuring and controlling for cognitive abilities in studies involving older adults.
    Proceedings of the 14th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Designers often struggle to create interfaces that are optimal for both younger and older adults, as they may interact differently with the same interface. Human-performance models have been used to aid designers in evaluating the efficiency of user interfaces. Can we create age-specific models to help designers create interfaces that are efficient for all age groups? We modeled a target acquisition task using published younger and older person parameters. While the younger model's mean prediction matches younger human data well (within 3.2%), the older model overestimates older users' mean task times by 34.6%. Further work should explore the influence of device type and the role of error-avoidance on parameter values for models of older adult interactions with technology.
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    Sergio Sayago · David Sloan
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    Sergio Sayago · David Sloan · Josep Blat
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    ABSTRACT: Based on a 3-year ethnographical study, this paper discusses the prolonged use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools by approximately 400 older people in an adult education centre in Barcelona (Spain). Contrary to oversimplified views of older people as ICT users, this paper shows that they make a very rich use of CMC tools. Relevant elements of this use are their permanent desire to feel and be included, social, independent and competent ICT users. Despite the numerous interaction issues they face when using ICT, some are constant across different tools. Difficulties due to cognition limit their interactions more severely than those problems due to perceiving visual information or using the mouse. By examining the longitudinal aspect of the study, this paper addresses the evolution of technology use and whether the interaction issues that most of the current older people exhibit will be relevant when today’s more ICT literate young adults grow older. Interaction issues due to cognition are time-persistent, and independent of both experience and practice with ICT. Difficulties reading from the screen or using input devices are overcome with ICT experience. The strategies adopted by older people for coping with all these interaction issues are always targeted at feeling and being included, social, independent and competent ICT users. The results deepen current understanding of tools use in connecting older people with their social circles and the interaction issues most of them encounter when using ICT. The results also suggest that cognitive-related problems will be the most important ones in our work with the next generation of older people.
    Interacting with Computers 09/2011; 23(5):543-554. DOI:10.1016/j.intcom.2011.06.001 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    B. Kelly · D. Sloan
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    ABSTRACT: This paper argues that, as we move towards a 'post-digital' world where use of the Web becomes normalised, there is a need to address Web accessibility measurement challenges within a wider real-world context. Strategy and policy that defines Web accessibility purely by the conformance of digital resources with technical guidelines can lead to a danger that 'good enough' solutions may fail to be deployed; they also fail to consider a wider measure of user experience in accessibility measurement. We propose that metrics should draw on aspects of user experience to provide a more meaningful, real-world measure of the impact (or not) of accessibility barriers and therefore priority in addressing them. Metrics should also consider context in terms of the quality of effort taken by organisations to provide an inclusive experience; one option for doing so is the framework provided by British Standard 8878 Code of Practice for Web Accessibility. In both cases, challenges exist in the complexity of defining and implementing such metrics.
    W3C WAI RDWG Symposium on Website Accessibility Metrics, Online Symposium 5 December 2011.; 01/2011
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    Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and eInclusion - 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I; 01/2011
  • David Sloan
    Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology 08/2009; 4(4):209-11. DOI:10.1080/17483100902903275
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    ABSTRACT: The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) was established to enhance the accessibility of Web resources for people with disabilities. In this article we argue that although WAI's advocacy work has been very successful, the WAI approach is flawed. Rather than WAI's emphasis on adoption of technical guidelines, the authors argue that the priority should be for a user-focused approach, which embeds best practices through the development of achievable policies and processes and which includes all stakeholders in the process of maximizing accessibility. The article describes a Tangram model, which provides a pluralistic approach to Web accessibility, and provides case studies that illustrate use of this approach. The article describes work that has informed the ideas in this article and plans for further work, including an approach to advocacy and education that coins the term Accessibility 2.0 to describe a renewed approach to accessibility, which builds on previous work but prioritizes the importance of the user.
    Journal of Access Services 02/2009; 6:pp. 265-294. DOI:10.1080/15367960802301028
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    Annalu Waller · Vicki L. Hanson · David Sloan
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a unique approach to undergraduate teaching in which accessibility topics are completely integrated throughout the curriculum, treating accessibility not as a separate topic, but rather as an integral part of design and development. Means of accomplishing this integration throughout the entire four-year curriculum are presented. We also describe how our expertise in accessible design has extended beyond the education of computer science and engineering students to include Web content authors across campus.
    Proceedings of the 11th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, ASSETS 2009, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, October 25-28, 2009; 01/2009
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    D. Sloan · B. Kelly
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    ABSTRACT: The W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has a well-established framework for addressing accessibility based on three components: the accessibility of Web content, accessibility support in browsers and accessibility support in authoring tools, with a corresponding set of guidelines for each. These guidelines have been successful in raising awareness in Web accessibility at a political level, but have been less successful than might have been expected influencing the wider promotion and adoption of accessibility in Web technology. This is increasingly apparent as Web content becomes increasingly heterogeneous in terms of source, type, author and function. Standards, policy and guidelines overwhelmingly focus on accessibility of the end product - i.e. the Web page or site - and not the process used to create it. This is at odds with the transformation of Web-based user goals from receipt of static information to communication, and receipt or delivery of services and experiences. Thus it is the accessibility of the end goal that should be critical, and is dependent on the quality of the route(s) available to reaching that goal - making assessing accessibility of a technical unit such as a Web page less relevant. Instead, we argue a holistic approach is necessary - one that views positively, where appropriate, aggregation of alternatives in a way that allows each route to provide the best possible chance for disabled users to achieve the end goal, even if individual routes may themselves exclude certain groups. Since 2004 the authors have developed a framework for addressing the accessibility of Web resources, inspired by the holistic use of Web technology in e-learning, building on WAI guidelines but providing the flexibility needed to address the limitations of the guidelines and the diverse ways in which the Web is now being used. This paper reflects how the influence and impact of WCAG has changed over time, and, by reviewing the authors' work conducted in recent years, considers how a more holistic approach to Web Accessibility in a Web 2.0 world can best be achieved.
    ADDW08; 01/2008
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    D. Sloan · Kelly · L. B. Phipps · H. Petrie · H. Fraser
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    ABSTRACT: The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has developed guidelines to support the creating of Web content that is accessible to the widest possible audience, regardless of disability. Yet without considering the context in which a Web site will be used, a purely guideline-based approach may leave levels of accessibility and usability to disabled people disappointingly low. A reliance on end-user adoption of appropriate browsing technology and author adoption of appropriate authoring tools may also prevent effective accessible design, while inappropriate reference to guidelines in policy and legislation may also lead to problems. This paper promotes a framework for a holistic application of the W3C's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines in designing Web content, by supporting consideration of the target audience, the intended outcome or experience the resource will provide its users, the usage environment, and the existence of alternative delivery mechanisms. Examples are given of how the framework might be applied to support more effective implementation of accessible Web design techniques.
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    ABSTRACT: As the Web becomes more integral to day-to-day life, there is a danger that many older people will be excluded if their access needs are not considered by content designers. Although accessibility guidelines for designers are available, experience shows that these guidelines have not been successful enough in producing Web sites accessible to older people. In this paper, the shortcomings of relying solely on accessibility guidelines are reviewed, and several ideas are proposed for encouraging a more holistic approach to accessibility.
    Ibm Systems Journal 02/2005; 44(3-44):557 - 571. DOI:10.1147/sj.443.0557 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    B. Kelly · D. Sloan · L. Phipps · H. Petrie · F. Hamilton
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1999 the W3C's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) have provided a solid basis for implementation of accessible Web design. However it is argued that in the context of evaluation and policymaking, inappropriate reference to the WCAG may lead to serious practical difficulties in implementation and monitoring of an effective accessibility policy. There is a pressing need for a framework that guides appropriate application of the WCAG in a holistic way, taking into account the diversity - or homogeneity - of factors such as context of use, audience and audience capability, and access environment. In particular, the current promotion of W3C technologies at the expense of widely used and accessible proprietary technologies may be problematic, as is the apparent reliance of the WCAG on compliant browsing technology. In this paper, a holistic application of the WCAG is proposed by the authors, whereby the context of the Web resource in question and other factors surrounding its use are used to shape an approach to accessible design. Its potential application in a real world environment is discussed.
    W4A 2005; 01/2005
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the motivation for research aimed at extending predictive cognitive modeling of non-expert users to a broader population. Existing computational cognitive models have successfully predicted the navigation behavior of users exploring unfamiliar interfaces in pursuit of a goal. This paper explores factors that might lead to significant between-group differences in the exploratory behavior of users, with a focus on the roles of working memory, prior knowledge, and information-seeking strategies. Validated models capable of predicting novice goal-directed exploration of computer interfaces can be a valuable design tool. By using data from younger and older user groups to inform the development of such models, we aim to expand their coverage to a broader range of users. KeywordsCognitive modeling–information foraging–usability testing–accessibility–interface design–older users
    01/1970: pages 149-158;
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    A. Carmichael · M. Rice · D. Sloan
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    Rolf Black · David Sloan · Annalu Waller
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    ABSTRACT: Computational support for enhancing the quality of conversation-al output of electronic communication aids is limited to literacy-based devices, even though most users are not literate. Current systems for pre-literate users are dependent on carers for input and content maintenance; no computational support is given in gene-rating and retrieving appropriate utterances. Utilizing the Social Web and the computing power afforded by online connectivity opens up exciting new possibilities of supporting communication aspects that so far have not been adopted by the communication aids industry. This is an area of high potential for impact and in-novation as recent projects have shown.