[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present experimental results on the measurement of fidelity decay under contrasting system dynamics using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The measurements were performed by implementing a scalable circuit in the model of deterministic quantum computation with only one quantum bit. The results show measurable differences between regular and complex behavior and for complex dynamics are faithful to the expected theoretical decay rate. Moreover, we illustrate how the experimental method can be seen as an efficient way for either extracting coarse-grained information about the dynamics of a large system or measuring the decoherence rate from engineered environments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present two polarization-based protocols for quantum key distribution. The protocols encode key bits in noiseless subspaces or subsystems and so can function over a quantum channel subjected to an arbitrary degree of collective noise, as occurs, for instance, due to rotation of polarizations in an optical fiber. These protocols can be implemented using only entangled photon-pair sources, single-photon rotations, and single-photon detectors. Thus, our proposals offer practical and realistic alternatives to existing schemes for quantum key distribution over optical fibers without resorting to interferometry or two-way quantum communication, thereby circumventing, respectively, the need for high precision timing and the threat of Trojan horse attacks.