[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced pancytopenia proved to be a suitable model system in mice and rhesus monkeys to study thrombopoietin (TPO) target cell range and efficacy. TPO was highly effective in rhesus monkeys exposed to the midlethal dose of 5-Gy (300 kV x-rays) TBI, a model in which it alleviated thrombocytopenia, promoted red cell reconstitution, accelerated reconstitution of immature CD34+ bone marrow (BM) cells and potentiated the response to growth factors such as GM-CSF and G-CSF. The accelerated reconstitution of BM CD34+ cells appeared to be reflected by a similar rise in peripheral blood CD34+ cells, both being augmented by concomitant GM-CSF. However, TPO was ineffective following transplantation of limited numbers of autologous BM or highly purified stem cells in monkeys conditioned with 8-Gy TBI. In the 5-Gy model, a single dose of TPO 24 h after TBI was effective in preventing thrombocytopenia and was augmented by GM-CSF. The strong erythropoietic stimulation may result in iron depletion and TPO treatment should be accompanied by monitoring of iron status. In mice, similar observations were made and the importance of dose and dose schedule for stimulation of multilineage repopulating cells versus the lineage-dominant thrombopoietic response studied in detail.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of libraries of phage-displayed human single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) has become a new, powerful tool in rapidly obtaining therapeutically useful antibodies. Here, we describe the generation of human scFv and F(ab')2 directed against the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain of coagulation factor IX. A large library of human scFv, displayed either on M13 phage or expressed as soluble proteins, was screened for binding to human Gla-domain peptide (Tyr1-Lys43). Among a panel of scFv that bound to the factor IX-Gla domain, six scFv clones recognized full-length factor IX and exhibited strong inhibitory activity of factor IX in vitro. After reformatting as F(ab')2, the affinity for factor IX of three selected clones was determined: 10C12 Kd = 1.6 nmol/l, 13D1 Kd = 2.9 nmol/l, and 13H6 Kd = 0.46 nmol/l. The antibodies specifically bound to factor IX and not to other coagulation factors, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent-type and human plasma clotting assays. The complementarity determining region amino acid sequences of clones 10C12 and 13D1 only differed at a single residue, whereas 13H6 showed little homology, suggesting that 13H6 binds to a different epitope within the factor IX-Gla domain. Despite the slightly lower affinity of 10C12 F(ab')2 versus 13H6 F(ab')2, 10C12 was consistently more potent than 13H6 in prolonging the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), in inhibiting platelet-mediated plasma clotting, and in inhibiting factor X activation by the intrinsic Xase complex. Finally, 10C12 F(ab')2 also recognized and neutralized factor IX/factor IXa of different species, as demonstrated by the specific APTT prolongation of dog, mouse, baboon and rabbit plasma. In summary, the results validate the usefulness of scFv phage-displayed libraries to rapidly generate fully human antibodies as potential new therapeutics for thrombotic disorders.
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 02/2000; 11(1):27-42. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production in vivo and promotes the development of identifiable megakaryocytes in vitro. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody, BAH-1, raised against human megakaryocytic cells, which specifically recognizes the c-Mpl receptor and shows agonist activity by stimulating megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro. BAH-1 antibody specifically binds to platelets and to recombinant c-Mpl with high affinity. Similar to TPO, BAH-1 alone supported the formation of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) colonies. The combination of BAH-1 plus interleukin-3 or of BAH-1 plus human TPO significantly increased the number of human CFU-MK colonies. In addition, BAH-1 monoclonal antibody stimulated the proliferation and maturation of primary bone marrow megakaryocytes in a dynamic heterogeneous liquid culture system. Individual large megakaryocytes as well as small megakaryocytic cells were observed in cultures of CD34(+) CD41(+) cells in the presence of BAH-1 antibodies. Similar to TPO, BAH-1 antibody induced a significant response of murine immature megakaryocytes as observed by an increase in the detectable numbers of acetylcholinesterase-positive megakaryocytes. No effects of BAH-1 antibody were observed on colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid, or colony-forming unit-erythroid colonies. In vivo studies showed that BAH-1, alone or in combination with TPO, expands the numbers of megakaryocytic progenitor cells in myelosuppressed mice. This antibody should prove useful in understanding the structure-function aspects of the c-Mpl receptor as well as in evaluating the effects of the sustained activation of this receptor in preclinical models of severe thrombocytopenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been used in preclinical myelosuppression models to evaluate the effect on hematopoietic reconstitution. Here we report the importance of dose and dose scheduling for multilineage reconstitution after myelosuppressive total body irradiation (TBI) in mice. After 6 Gy TBI, a dose of 0.3 microgram TPO/mouse (12 microgram/kg) intraperitoneally (IP), 0 to 4 hours after TBI, prevented the severe thrombopenia observed in control mice, and in addition stimulated red and white blood cell regeneration. Time course studies showed a gradual decline in efficacy after an optimum within the first hours after TBI, accompanied by a replacement of the multilineage effects by lineage dominant thrombopoietic stimulation. Pharmacokinetic data showed that IP injection resulted in maximum plasma levels 2 hours after administration. On the basis of the data, we inferred that a substantial level of TPO was required at a critical time interval after TBI to induce multilineage stimulation of residual bone marrow cells. A more precise estimate of the effect of dose and dose timing was provided by intravenous administration of TPO, which showed an optimum immediately after TBI and a sharp decline in efficacy between a dose of 0.1 microgram/mouse (4 microgram/kg; plasma level 60 ng/mL), which was fully effective, and a dose of 0.03 microgram/mouse (1.2 microgram/kg; plasma level 20 ng/mL), which was largely ineffective. This is consistent with a threshold level of TPO required to overcome initial c-mpl-mediated clearance and to reach sufficient plasma levels for a maximum hematopoietic response. In mice exposed to fractionated TBI (3 x 3 Gy, 24 hours apart), IP administration of 0. 3 microgram TPO 2 hours after each fraction completely prevented the severe thrombopenia and anemia that occurred in control mice. Using short-term transplantation assays, ie, colony-forming unit-spleen (CFU-S) day 13 (CFU-S-13) and the more immature cells with marrow repopulating ability (MRA), it could be shown that TPO promoted CFU-S-13 and transiently depleted MRA. The initial depletion of MRA in response to TPO was replenished during long-term reconstitution followed for a period of 3 months. Apart from demonstrating again that MRA cells and CFU-S-13 are separate functional entities, the data thus showed that TPO promotes short-term multilineage repopulating cells at the expense of more immature ancestral cells, thereby preventing pancytopenia. The short time interval available after TBI to exert these effects shows that TPO is able to intervene in mechanisms that result in functional depletion of its multilineage target cells shortly after TBI and emphasizes the requirement of dose scheduling of TPO in keeping with these mechanisms to obtain optimal clinical efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several lines of evidence have indicated an expanded role for thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor, c-mpl, in hematopoiesis. In addition to being the primary physiological regulator of platelet production, it is now apparent that TPO also acts during early hematopoiesis. To futher define the role of TPO in early hematopoiesis we have identified discrete murine and human stem cell populations with respect to c-mpl expression and evaluated their potential for hematopoietic engraftment. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of enriched stem cell populations showed the presence of c-mpl expressing subpopulations. Approximately 50% of the murine fetal liver stem cell-enriched population, AA4(+)Sca+c-kit+, expressed c-mpl. Analysis of the murine marrow stem cell population LinloSca+c-kit+ showed that 70% of this population expressed c-mpl. Expression of c-mpl was also detected within the human bone marrow CD34(+)CD38(-) stem cell progenitor pool and approximately 70% of that population expressed c-mpl. To rigorously evaluate the role of TPO/c-mpl in early hematopoiesis we compared the repopulation capacity of murine stem cell populations with respect to c-mpl expression in a competitive repopulation assay. When comparing the fetal liver progenitor populations, AA4(+)Sca+c-kit+c-mpl+ and AA4(+)Sca+c-kit+c-mpl-, we found that stem cell activity segregates with c-mpl expression. This result is complemented by the observation that the LinloSca+ population of c-mpl gene-deficient mice was sevenfold less potent than LinloSca+ cells from wild-type mice in repopulating activity. The engraftment potential of the human CD34(+)CD38(-)c-mpl+ population was evaluated in a severe combined immunodeficient-human bone model. In comparison to the CD34(+) CD38(-)c-mpl- population, the CD34(+)CD38(-)c-mpl+ cells showed significantly better engraftment. These results demonstrate a physiological role for TPO and its receptor, c-mpl, in regulating early hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin is a lineage-dominant cytokine involved primarily in the control of platelet production. The physiological importance of thrombopoietin (TPO) in the regulation of megakaryocyte and platelet production was demonstrated by the production of mice deficient in TPO or its receptor, c-Mpl. Even though these mice are profoundly thrombocytopenic they maintain a basal level of approximately 10% of the normal count of fully functional platelets. These platelets prevent any abnormal bleeding episodes and highlight the potential importance of other factors in the control of platelet production. Among the factors with in vitro megakaryocytopoietic activity, the most potent is undoubtedly interleukin 3 (IL-3). To analyze the contribution of IL-3 to platelet formation in the absence of TPO, we have generated mice deficient in both c-Mpl and IL-3Ralpha by taking advantage of a natural mutation present in this gene in the A/J mouse. Surprisingly, these double knockout mice did not show any further reduction in their platelet or megakaryocyte counts when compared with c-Mpl-deficient mice. Similarly, progenitors from other lineages that are also reduced in c-Mpl-deficient mice are not further affected by the absence of a functional IL-3Ralpha gene. These results demonstrate that IL-3 alone is not responsible for the production of a basal level of normal platelets in the absence of thrombopoietin signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced pancytopenia proved to be a suitable model system in mice and rhesus monkeys for studying thrombopoietin (TPO) target cell range and efficacy. TPO was highly effective in rhesus monkeys exposed to the mid-lethal dose of 5 Gy (300 kV x-rays) TBI, a model in which it alleviated thrombocytopenia, promoted red cell reconstitution, accelerated reconstitution of immature CD34+ bone marrow cells, and potentiated the response to growth factors such as GM-CSF and G-CSF. In contrast to the results in the 5 Gy TBI model, TPO was ineffective following transplantation of limited numbers of autologous bone marrow or highly purified stem cells in monkeys conditioned with 8 Gy TBI. In the 5 Gy model, a single dose of TPO augmented by GM-CSF 24 h after TBI was effective in preventing thrombocytopenia. The strong erythropoietic stimulation may result in iron depletion, and TPO treatment should be accompanied by monitoring of iron status. This preclinical evaluation thus identified TPO as a potential major therapeutic agent for counteracting radiation-induced pancytopenia and demonstrated pronounced stimulatory effects on the reconstitution of immature CD34+ hemopoietic cells with multilineage potential. The latter observation explains the potentiation of the hematopoietic responses to G-CSF and GM-CSF when administered concomitantly. It also predicts the effective use of TPO to accelerate reconstitution of immature hematopoietic cells as well as possible synergistic effects in vivo with various other growth factors acting on immature stem cells and their direct lineage-committed progeny. The finding that a single dose of TPO might be sufficient for a clinically significant response emphasizes its potency and is of practical relevance. The heterogeneity of the TPO response encountered in the various models used for evaluation points to multiple mechanisms operating on the TPO response and heterogeneity of its target cells. Mechanistic mouse studies made apparent that the response of multilineage cells shortly after TBI to a single administration of TPO is quantitatively more important for optimal efficacy than the lineage-restricted response obtained at later intervals after TBI and emphasized the importance of a relatively high dose of TPO to overcome initial c-mpl-mediated clearance. Further elucidation of mechanisms determining efficacy might very well result in a further improvement, e.g., following transplantation of limited numbers of stem cells. Adverse effects of TPO administration to myelosuppressed or stem cell transplanted experimental animals were not observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin (TPO) was evaluated for efficacy in a placebo-controlled study in rhesus monkeys with concurrent administration of either granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or granulocyte CSF, (G-CSF). Rhesus monkeys were subjected to 5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), resulting in 3 weeks of profound pancytopenia, and received either TPO 5 microg/kg intravenously (I.V.) at day 1 (n = 4), GM-CSF 25 microg/kg subcutaneously (S.C.) for 14 days (n = 4), TPO and GM-CSF (n = 4), G-CSF 10 microg/kg/d S.C. for 14 days (n = 3), TPO and G-CSF (n = 4), or placebo (carrier, n = 4; historical controls, n = 8). Single-dose I.V. treatment with TPO 1 day after TBI effectively counteracted the need for thrombocyte transfusions (provided whenever thrombocyte levels were <40 x 10(9)/L) and accelerated platelet reconstitution to normal levels 2 weeks earlier than placebo controls. TPO/GM-CSF was more effective than single-dose TPO alone in stimulating thrombocyte regeneration, with a less profound nadir and a further accelerated recovery to normal thrombocyte counts, as well as a slight overshoot to supranormal levels of thrombocytes. Monkeys treated with TPO/GM-CSF uniformly did not require thrombocyte transfusions, whereas those treated with GM-CSF alone needed two to three transfusions, similar to the placebo-treated monkeys, which required, on average, three transfusions. Also, reticulocyte production was stimulated by TPO and further augmented in monkeys treated with TPO/GM-CSF. TPO alone did not stimulate neutrophil regeneration, whereas GM-CSF shortened the period of neutrophil counts less than 0.5 x 10(9)/L by approximately 1 week; TPO/GM-CSF treatment elevated the neutrophil nadir, but did not further accelerate recovery to normal values. TPO also augemented the neturophil response to G-CSF, resulting in similar patterns of reconstitution following TPO/G-CSF and TPO/GM-CSF treatment. TPO/GM-CSF resulted in significantly increased reconstitution of CD34+ bone marrow cells and progenitor cells such as GM-CFU and BFU-E. Adverse effects of combining TPO with the CSFs were not observed. It is concluded that (1) a single I.V. administration of TPO is sufficient to prevent severe thrombocytopenia following myelosuppression, (2) TPO/G-CSF and TPO/GM-CSF treatment result in distinct response patterns, with TPO/GM-CSF being superior to TPO/G-CSF in stimulating thrombocyte and erythrocyte recovery while being equivalent in stimulating neutrophil recovery; and (3) TPO significantly improves the performance of CSFs in alleviating severe neutropenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous treatment with human thrombopoietin (TPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was evaluated in a placebo-controlled rhesus monkey study using 5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) to induce 3 weeks of pancytopenia. Daily administration of TPO (10 microg/kg/day injected subcutaneously [sc] days 1-21 after TBI) promoted platelet and reticulocyte recovery, resulting in less profound nadirs and a rapid recovery to normal levels. Platelet transfusions were not required in these animals, in contrast to controls, and hemoglobin levels stabilized rapidly. TPO treatment did not influence neutrophil counts. G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day sc days 1-21) stimulated neutrophil regeneration and had no effect on platelet levels. Simultaneous treatment with TPO and G-CSF was as effective as treatment with TPO alone in preventing thrombocytopenia, although with the former regimen platelet levels did not rise to the supranormal levels seen with the latter. Neutrophil recovery was greatly augmented compared with G-CSF treatment alone, resulting in a less profound nadir and a recovery that started much earlier, as did monocyte, CD11b+, CD16+, and CD56+ cell reconstitution. In addition, TPO strongly promoted the recovery of bone marrow cellularity and granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells: The number of bone marrow CD34+ cells was greater by two orders of magnitude in TPO-treated animals than in controls in the second week of treatment, whereas G-CSF by itself had no influence. In the third week after TBI an elevation of LDH1 values was observed in TPO-treated monkeys concurrent with normoblastosis; both of these findings were attributed to rapid erythropoiesis. TPO had no effect on hemostasis parameters. Adverse TPO and/or G-CSF effects were not observed. This study demonstrates that simultaneous TPO and G-CSF treatment after cytoreductive treatment prevents thrombocytopenia, accelerates platelet and red cell reconstitution, alleviates neutropenia, and promotes the recovery of immature bone marrow cells. The effect on CD34+ GM progenitor cells may explain the augmented G-CSF responses in TPO-treated monkeys; it also suggests that TPO may become a key growth factor in the design of treatment regimens to accelerate both immature bone marrow and mature blood cell reconstitution after cytoreductive therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin (TPO) and recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in stimulating platelet and neutrophil recovery was evaluated in a placebo-controlled study involving transplantation of limited numbers (1-3 x 10(4)/kg) of highly purified autologous stem cells (CD34++/RhLA-DR[dull]) into rhesus monkeys after the animals were subjected to 8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) (x-rays). The grafts shortened profound TBI-induced pancytopenia from 5 to 6 weeks to 3 weeks. Daily subcutaneous (sc) injection of TPO (10 microg/kg/day, days 1-21 after TBI) did not stimulate platelet regeneration after transplantation either alone or in combination with G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day sc, days 1-21 after TBI). G-CSF treatment failed to prevent neutropenia in the monkeys and did not stimulate recovery to normal neutrophil levels. Simultaneous administration of TPO and G-CSF did not influence the observed recovery patterns. To test the hypothesis that the limited number of cells transplanted or the subset chosen was responsible for the lack of effectiveness of TPO, three additional monkeys were transplanted with 10(7)/kg unfractionated autologous bone marrow cells. Two of these animals received TPO and the other served as a control. In this setting, as well, TPO treatment did not prevent thrombocytopenia. This study demonstrates that treatment with TPO does not accelerate platelet reconstitution from transplanted stem cells after high-dose TBI. These findings contrast with the rapid TPO-stimulated platelet recovery in myelosuppression induced by 5 Gy of TBI in rhesus monkeys; we conclude from this that the clinical effectiveness of the TPO response depends on the availability of TPO target cells in the first week after TBI, that is, before endogenous TPO levels reach the saturation point. In addition, protracted isolated thrombocytopenia was observed in two G-CSF-treated monkeys, one of which also received TPO. Furthermore, TPO treatment for 7 days in the 6th week after TBI during severe thrombocytopenia in one monkey produced prompt clinical improvement and an increase in platelet counts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of thrombopoietin (TPO) in alleviating thrombocytopenia was evaluated in a placebo-controlled study involving rhesus monkeys exposed to 5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) (300-kV x-rays) to result in 3 weeks of pancytopenia. Supraoptimal treatment with human recombinant TPO (10 microg/kg/d subcutaneously, days 1 to 21 after TBI) was highly effective in preventing thrombocytopenia, with nadirs for thrombocytes, on average, far higher than 100 x 10(9)/L, a greatly accelerated recovery to normal values, and no need for thrombocyte transfusions. TPO appeared to act selectively in that neutrophil regeneration was not influenced but red blood cell lineage recovery was prominently stimulated, with reticulocyte regeneration being initiated 10 days earlier than in placebo-treated animals. The reticulocytosis was followed by a normoblastosis that occurred earlier and was more pronounced than in placebo-treated monkeys. The effect of TPO on the red blood cell lineage was also reflected in a less profound nadir for hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit values than in placebo controls. However, this effect was not followed by a rapid recovery to normal values, due to development of a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Iron depletion was demonstrated by measurements of total serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and could be prevented by prophylactic intramuscular (IM) iron before TBI or corrected by IM iron after TPO treatment. Rechallenging with TPO in week 8 after TBI demonstrated a homogenous thrombocyte response similar in magnitude to the initial response, but a greatly diminished reticulocyte response. This demonstrated that the erythropoietic response to TPO administration depends on the hemopoietic state of the animal and may reflect multiple TPO target cells. It is postulated that the extremely rapid erythropoiesis due to TPO treatment in the initial regeneration phase following myelosuppression results in iron depletion by a mechanism similar to that seen following erythropoietin treatment in patients with end-stage renal failure. It is concluded that protracted TPO therapy to counteract thrombocytopenic states may result in iron depletion and that the iron status should be monitored before, during, and after TPO treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) levels appear to be directly regulated by platelet mass and that removal of plasma TPO by platelets via binding to the c-Mpl receptor is involved in the clearance of TPO in rodents. To help elucidate the role of platelets in the clearance of TPO in humans, we studied the in vitro specific binding of recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) to human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), washed platelets (WP), and cloned c-Mpl. Using a four-parameter fit and/or Scatchard analysis, the approximate affinity of rhTPO for its receptor, which was calculated from multiple experiments using different PRP preparations, was between 128 and 846 pmol/L, with approximately 25 to 224 receptors per platelet. WP preparations gave an affinity of 260 to 540 pmol/L, with approximately 25 to 35 receptors per platelet, and erythropoietin failed to compete with 125I-rhTPO for binding to WP. Binding and dissociation studies conducted with a BiaCore apparatus yielded an affinity of 350 pmol/L for rhTPO binding to cloned c-Mpl receptors. The ability of PRP to bind and degrade 125I-rhTPO was both time- and temperature-dependent and was blocked by the addition of excess cold rhTPO. Analysis of platelet pellets by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that 125I-rhTPO was degraded into a major fragment of approximately 45 to 50 kD. When 125I-rhTPO was incubated with a platelet homogenate at pH = 7.4, a degradation pattern similar to intact platelets was observed. Together, these data show that human platelets specifically bind rhTPO with high affinity, internalize, and then degrade the rhTPO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin (TPO) has recently been cloned and shown to regulate megakaryocyte and platelet production by activating the cytokine receptor c-mpl. To determine whether TPO is the only ligand for c-mpl and the major regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis, TPO deficient mice were generated by gene targeting. TPO-/- mice have a >80% decrease in their platelets and megakaryocytes but have normal levels of all the other hematopoietic cell types. A gene dosage effect observed in heterozygous mice suggests that the TPO gene is constitutively expressed and that the circulating TPO level is directly regulated by the platelet mass. Bone marrow from TPO-/- mice have decreased numbers of megakaryocyte-committed progenitors as well as lower ploidy in the megakaryocytes that are present. These results demonstrate that TPO alone is the major physiological regulator of both proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells into mature megakaryocytes but that TPO is not critical to the final step of platelet production.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/1996; 183(2):651-6. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1994 four biotechnology research groups reported the isolation and cloning of the ligand for the cytokine receptor c-Mpl and showed it to be the long-sought regulator of platelet production, thrombopoietin. Thrombopoietin is a hematopoietic growth factor of 332 amino acids composed of an amino terminal domain homologous to erythropoietin and a highly glycosylated carboxyl domain. The erythropoietin-like domain is the functional domain, whereas the glycosylated domain appears to stabilize circulating thrombopoietin. Thrombopoietin stimulates both proliferation of progenitor megakaryocytes and their maturation to platelet-producing megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin induces dramatic increases in megakaryocyte number and platelet production in mice, indicating that it regulates both thrombopoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis. Thrombopoietin also accelerates the recovery of platelets in myelosuppressed animals, suggesting that it will be clinically useful for the treatment of thrombocytopenia.
Current Opinion in Hematology 06/1995; 2(3):167-71. · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin (TPO), the ligand for c-mpl, is a novel cytokine comprising an amino terminal domain with homology to erythropoietin and a glycosylated carboxyl terminal domain that does not bear overall homology to other known proteins. We report the cloning of cDNAs encoding the porcine and murine TPO and the characterization of the human TPO gene. The cDNA for an additional splice form (TPO-2) with a four-amino-acid deletion within the erythropoietin-like domain has been isolated and is conserved between humans, pigs, and mice. Species comparison of TPO shows that the amino terminal erythropoietin-like domain is highly conserved, while the carboxyl terminal domain is less conserved. Recombinant murine TPO and human TPO are each able to activate both the murine and human c-mpl receptors, indicating an absence of strict species specificity. Human TPO is encoded by a single gene consisting of six exons and located on chromosome 3q27-28.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the ligand for c-mpl has been identified and cloned. Initial studies of this molecule indicate that it is the platelet regulatory factor, thrombopoietin (TPO). Previous work has indicated that c-mpl is expressed in very immature hematopoietic precursors and thus raised the possibility that TPO may act directly on the hematopoietic stem cell. Therefore, in these studies, we investigate the effects of TPO on hematopoietic stem cell populations isolated from the murine fetal liver and bone marrow. Cocultivation of stem cells with fetal liver stroma give rise to multilineage expansion of the stem cells but with little or no megakaryocytopoiesis. Addition of TPO to these cocultures gives significant megakaryocyte production. This production is enhanced in combination with Kit ligand or interleukin-3. The addition of TPO to stem cell suspension cultures produces a dynamic thrombopoietic system in which stem cells undergo differentiation to produce megakaryocytes and proplatelets. These experiments show that the megakaryocytopoietic and thrombopoietic activities of TPO are initiated at the level of an early progenitor cell or upon the hematopoietic stem cell.