D M Little

Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (74)145.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transplantation of renal allografts with anatomic variability or injured vasculature poses a challenge to the transplanting surgeon but can be salvaged for transplantation with ex vivo bench reconstruction of the vasculature. We investigated whether renal allograft function is impaired in these reconstructed allografts; compared to the donor-matched, un-reconstructed allograft. Reconstructed allografts were transplanted into 60 patients at our institution between 1986 and 2012. A control group was selected from the matched pair of the recipient in deceased donor transplantation. We found no significant difference in the overall graft and patient survival rates (P = 1.0, P = 0.178). Serum creatinine levels were not significantly higher in the study group at 1, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. There were two cases of vascular thrombosis in the study group that were not related to the ex vivo reconstruction. A significantly greater proportion of reconstructed patients were investigated with a colour duplex ultrasound postoperatively (0.007). Although we have demonstrated a higher index of suspicion of transplant failure in patients with a reconstructed allograft, this practice has proven to be a safe and useful technique with equivocal outcome when compared to normal grafts; increasing the organ pool available for transplantation.
    Transplant International 05/2014; 27(5):458-66. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus due to their immunosuppressed status. Herein, we investigate the incidence of MRSA infection in patients undergoing renal transplantation and determine the effect of MRSA colonisation on renal allograft function and overall mortality. Between January 1st 2007 and December 31st 2012, 1499 consecutive kidney transplants performed in our transplant unit and a retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study was performed on this patient cohort. The 1-, 3- and 5 - year overall graft survival rates were 100%, 86% and 78% respectively in MRSA positive recipients compared to 100%, 100% and 93% respectively in the control group (p<0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall patient survival rates were 100%, 97% and 79% respectively in MRSA positive recipients compared to 100%, 100% and 95% respectively in the control group (p = 0.1). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, colonisation with MRSA pre-operatively was an independent predictor for renal allograft failure at 5-years (hazard ratio: 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 1-30.7, p=0.048). These findings demonstrate that the incidence of long-term renal allograft failure is significantly greater in this patient cohort compared to a matched control population.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Transplant International 05/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation in recipients with an ileal conduit is uncommon and occasionally controversial as it has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. We report on 17 patients with an ileal conduit who received a deceased donor renal transplant at our institution between January 1986 and December 2012. We retrospectively reviewed their allograft and surgical outcome. There were four mortalities at five, five, 39, and 66 months post-transplant. Sixteen of 17 grafts functioned immediately; one patient had primary non-function secondary to vascular thrombosis. Thirteen of 17 (76.5%) grafts were functioning at a mean follow-up period of 105 months. The mean serum creatinine at follow-up was 111 μM (±38.62). Five patients had seven episodes of urosepsis requiring hospital admission, and five patients received treatment for renal stone disease. We conclude that given improvements in immunosuppression, surgical technique, infection treatment, and selection criteria, we believe that renal transplantation in the patient with an ileal conduit yields excellent graft survival, although there is a high morbidity rate in this cohort of patients in the long term.
    Clinical Transplantation 01/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lithium is an effective therapeutic agent used in the management of bipolar disorder. However, lithium is also associated with several side effects, including renal toxicity. We present a case of a symptomatic cystic mass lesion in the kidney of a patient who had a history of lithium therapy for the management of bipolar disorder.
    Urology Case Reports. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionVon Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a syndrome that is defined by variety of tumours, including; cerebellar haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, phaeochromocytomas, pancreatic adenomas and ear, nose and throat (ENT) adenomas. This disease is often genetic and inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and can present in childhood, adolescence or in adult life. This study describes the presentation, natural history and manifestations of patients attending our institutions with this condition. We aim to highlight the importance of screening in diagnosing the manifestations of VHL.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all patients diagnosed with VHL and coded as such by the national Hospital Inpatient Enquiry Scheme (HIPE) at Beaumont Hospital Dublin and Cork University Hospital. This was performed over a 20 years period between 1989 and 2009. Age, sex, mode of presentation, presence or absence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) and genotype were documented. Presence or absence of the characteristic tumours of VHL was also recorded, as were the initial presenting features of these tumours.ResultsThirty-six patients were diagnosed with VHL. These patients ranged from 18 to 78 years old. Three patients were members of the Irish travelling community. The most frequent mode of presentation was altered neurological signs (40%), with a significant proportion presenting with haematuria (23%). Patients diagnosed prior to 1995 were more likely to have presented with significant complications of VHL, while those diagnosed after this time were more likely to have been diagnosed via screening. Genetic testing was performed on 17 patients; those who did not have genetic testing performed were more likely to have been diagnosed prior to the era of genetic testing. Thirty-one patients had received screening for complications of VHL including; renal cell carcinomas, CNS haemangioblastomas and phaeochromocytomas. The patients who did not receive any screening presented with neurological symptoms.Conclusion Beaumont Hospital Dublin and Cork University Hospital are tertiary referral centres for nephrology, urology and neurosurgery and deals with a significant proportion of patients diagnosed with VHL in Ireland. This study highlights the significant burden of this illness, and emphasises the importance of screening for these renal/central nervous system (CNS) and ENT complications. This study also highlights the importance of family screening in diagnosing this condition.
    QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 12/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Transplant International 11/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review the incidence and long-term outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder in patients after kidney transplantation. Between January 1976 and March 2013, five patients from one center (0.0013%) developed SCC of the bladder after undergoing a deceased donor kidney transplant. Their relevant risk factors included long-term self-intermittent catheterization/indwelling catheter (n = 2), smoking history (n = 2), and a prior history of cyclophosphamide treatment for vasculitis (n = 1). Primary outcome variables were overall patient survival and latency period between transplantation and SCC diagnosis. The duration of long-term follow-up was 94 ± 89 (range: 4-239) months. The latency period between transplantation and bladder SCC was 87 ± 87 (range: 2-228) months, and all five patients were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Four patients had suspected metastases upon presentation, and one patient presented with organ-confined disease. This patient underwent a radical cystectomy and remains disease free eight months post-operatively. Despite radical treatment, the remaining four patients died from metastatic disease 7 ± 4.4 (range: 2-11) months after their initial diagnosis. SCC of the bladder has a poor prognosis particularly in renal transplant patients. Early detection with flexible cystourethroscopy in patients with risk factors for SCC may improve long-term outcomes in this patient cohort.
    Clinical Transplantation 10/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our institution is a 680-bed tertiary referral centre with broad medical and surgical subspecialty services. We retrospectively audited the pattern of inpatient consultations from all specialities within our institution to the urology department over a 1-year period. All consultations to the urology service were identified from our computerised inpatient consultation system from July 2010 to June 2011. Follow up data on investigations, interventions and subsequent outpatient appointments were also identified by review of individual patient discharge letters. Seven hundred and twenty five inpatient consultations were received over the period. The male to female ratio was 7:3. Mean age of patients was 66 (15-96) years. Seventy three percent of referrals were from medical sub-specialities, most commonly nephrology (17%), gastroenterology (11%) and respiratory medicine (9%). The remainder were from general surgery (16%) and other surgical sub specialities (11%). Interns (66%) and senior house officers (SHO) (28%) communicated the majority of consults. Male lower urinary tract/benign prostate related issues resulted in 25% of all consultations. Less than half of consults (47%) resulted in interventions initiated by urology, most commonly of which were catheter insertions (48%) and endoscopic procedures (35%). Only 43% of consultations were followed up in the outpatients setting. Inpatient consultations constitute a significant workload for urology services. The majority of these referrals did not require any urological intervention and could have been seen routinely in the outpatient setting. Providing structured referral guidelines and achieving better communication with referring teams may help to optimise this service.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 07/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early transplant failure is a devastating outcome after kidney transplantation. We report the causes and consequences of deceased donor renal transplant failure in the first 30 d at our center between January 1990 and December 2009. Controls were adult deceased donor transplant patients in the same period with an allograft that functioned >30 d. The incidence of early graft failure in our series of 2381 consecutive deceased donor transplants was 4.6% (n = 109). The causes of failure were allograft thrombosis (n = 48; 44%), acute rejection (n = 19; 17.4%), death with a functioning allograft (n = 17; 15.6%), primary non-function (n = 14;12.8%), and other causes (n = 11; 10.1%). Mean time to allograft failure was 7.3 d. There has been a decreased incidence of all-cause early failure from 7% in 1990 to <1% in 2009. Patients who developed early failure had longer cold ischemia times when compared with patients with allografts lasting >30 d (p < 0.001). Early allograft failure was strongly associated with reduced patient survival (p < 0.001). In conclusion, early renal allograft failure is associated with a survival disadvantage, but has thankfully become less common in recent years.
    Clinical Transplantation 01/2012; 26(4):544-9. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.
    Nephrology 08/2011; 16(6):607-11. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assess our long-term experience with regards the safety and efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) in our low risk renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to Azathioprine (AZA) immunosuppressive regimen. Patients and methods. Between January 1999 and December 2005, 240 renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol (MMF group). AZA group of 135 renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (AZA group). Patients received Cyclosporine was excluded from this study. The incidence of biopsy proven 3-month acute rejections was 30 (12.5%) in MMF group and 22 (16%) in AZA group respectively (P = 0.307). Patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 97 and 94%, respectively, compared to 100% and 91% at 1 and 5 years respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.61). Graft survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 95 and 83%, respectively, compared to 97 and 84% at 1 and 5 years, respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.62). There was no difference in acute rejection episodes between MMF and AZA based immunotherapy. Additionally, we observed no significant difference concerning graft survival in the MMF group when compared to AZA group.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2011; 27(2):840-4. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.
    Pediatric Transplantation 05/2011; 15(3):240-4. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.
    Case reports in transplantation. 01/2011; 2011:370596.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.
    Transplant International 12/2009; 22(12):1159-63. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular (CV) risk factor response in Irish patients with type 1 diabetes following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK), analyzing response based on mode of immunosuppression and surgical drainage in a uniquely homogenous population. A retrospective review of SPKs carried out between 1993 and 2005 in the National Renal and Pancreatic Centre of Ireland was performed. Weight, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) were measured pre- and post-operatively. Fifty-eight SPK patients with functioning grafts were analyzed. Thirty-two were male. Following transplantation, mean HbA1c fell from 8.1 (+/-1.5) to 5.2 (+/-0.5)% (p < 0.0001), total cholesterol from 5.2 (+/-1.2) to 4.5 (+/-1.0) mmol/L (p = 0.0004), serum triglycerides from 1.5 (+/-0.6) to 1.1 (+/-0.6) mmol/L (p < 0.0001), and serum creatinine from 699.3 (+/-273.4) to 162.5 (+/-135.8) mmol/L (p < 0.0001). Systolic and diastolic BP fell from 148.5 (+/-23.3) to 136.9 (+/-22.4) mmHg (p = 0.02), and 84.8 (+/-11.7) to 77.8 (+/-10.4) mmHg (p = 0.003), respectively. Cholesterol reduction was significantly greater in the group that received cyclosporine (n = 29) compared with a tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid mofetil (MMF) combination (1.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, p = 0.003). Choice of exocrine vs. endocrine graft drainage did not affect risk factor response. SPK resulted in significant improvements both in glucose control and other measured CV risk factors.
    Clinical Transplantation 09/2009; 23(5):616-20. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of recipient variables have been identified which influence waiting list times for a renal allograft. The aim of this study was to evaluate these factors in the Irish population. We examined patients accepted onto the transplant list from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2005. Inclusion criteria were adults listed for kidney only, deceased donor transplants. We included patients previously transplanted. Patients were censored, but still included in the analysis, if they died while on the list, permanently withdrew from the list or if they were not transplanted at the time of the study. There were a total of 984 patients accepted onto the waiting list during the study period, of which 745 of these were transplanted. Factors significantly associated with longer waiting times included age above 50 yr, blood group O and high peak panel reactive antibodies level. Gender and patient body mass index were not associated with longer waiting times. We have identified factors associated with a longer waiting time on the Irish cadaveric renal transplant list. This information can help our patients make informed decisions regarding likely waiting times and the merits of living related transplantation.
    Clinical Transplantation 09/2009; 24(3):381-5. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched. Dual kidney transplantation was done in 24 of 1,091 transplants (2.1%) from 2001 to 2008. In patients with dual kidney transplant vs single kidney transplant mean recipient age was 60.6 vs 60.8 years, mean HLA-A, B and DR mismatches were 3.3 vs 2.9, and average patient waiting time was 15.6 vs 13.9 months. All grafts were perfused with University of Wisconsin solution with a mean cold ischemia time of 17.9 hours. On donor dual kidney biopsy in the dual kidney transplant vs single kidney transplant group the average fibrosis rate was 30% (range 25% to 45%) vs 25% (range 3% to 40%) and the glomerulosclerosis rate was 17.9% (range 3.2% to 40.7%) vs 7.1% (range 0% to 50%). Good postoperative renal function was noted in 14 dual kidney transplantation cases. Acute tubular necrosis requiring dialysis developed in 5 patients as well as acute rejection in 1. Two dual kidney recipients (8%) died in the postoperative period with no single kidney deaths. One patient underwent bilateral transplantectomy. Mean anesthesia time was longer in the dual group (371 vs 212 minutes). Patient and graft survival was equivalent to that in the control group at 36 months. Careful selection of marginal kidneys based on clinical and histological criteria allows the use of organs that would not ordinarily be sufficient for transplantation with acceptable outcomes. This is a valid strategy to address the organ shortage.
    The Journal of urology 09/2009; 182(4):1477-81. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flow cytometric techniques are increasingly used in pretransplant crossmatching, although there remains debate regarding the clinical significance and predictive value of donor-specific antibodies detected by flow cytometry. At least some of the discrepancies between published studies may arise from differences in cutoffs used and lack of standardization of the test. We selected cut-off values for pretransplant flow cytometric crossmatching (FCXM) based on the correlation of retrospective results with the occurrence of antibody-mediated rejection. The impact on long-term renal graft survival of prospective FCXM was determined by comparing graft survival between patients crossmatched with complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) only with those prospectively crossmatched with both CDC and FCXM. Chosen cut-off values gave a positive predictive value of FCXM for antibody-mediated rejection of 83%, and a negative predictive value of 90%. After the introduction of prospective B- and T-cell crossmatching by flow cytometry in addition to CDC in our center, there was a significant improvement in renal graft survival in highly sensitized patients (P=0.017). Four-year graft survival in highly sensitized patients after the introduction of FCXM was 89%, which did not differ significantly from that seen in nonsensitized patients (93%; P=0.638). Our data demonstrate that prospective FCXM improves renal transplant outcome in highly sensitized patients, provided that cut-off values are carefully validated and results interpreted in the context of sensitization history and antibody screening results.
    Transplantation 05/2009; 87(7):1052-6. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.
    Pediatric Transplantation 04/2009; · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 04/2009; 87(7):10582-1056. · 3.78 Impact Factor