ABSTRACT: Platelet deposition and aggregation are central to the pathogenesis of ischemic complications of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Pharmacodynamic effects of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist eptifibatide have been delineated in healthy subjects but not in patients with ACS. We assessed effects of eptifibatide on ex vivo platelet aggregation in patients enrolled in the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin (eptifibatide) Therapy (PURSUIT) trial of ACS.
Patients were randomly assigned to an intravenous bolus (180 microgram/kg) and 72-hour infusion of eptifibatide (2.0 microgram/kg per minute, n=48) or placebo (n=50). We assessed correlations of plasma eptifibatide levels with receptor occupancy and inhibition of ex vivo platelet aggregation at 5 minutes and 1, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours during treatment and 4 and 8 hours after termination of infusion. Blood was collected in buffered citrate and D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethylketone anticoagulants. Although eptifibatide produced profound, prolonged inhibition of platelet aggregation during therapy, aggregation appeared to recover partially by 4 hours after the bolus. The aggregation response was greater with thrombin receptor agonist peptide versus ADP stimulation; inhibition of platelet aggregation was greater in blood samples anticoagulated with citrate versus D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethylketone (PPACK). Plasma eptifibatide levels correlated significantly with receptor occupancy but not with inhibition of platelet aggregation.
A bolus and infusion of eptifibatide inhibits platelet aggregation profoundly in patients with ACS and is followed by brief, partial recovery. These results enhance our understanding of the relation between pharmacodynamic and clinical effects of eptifibatide in such patients and may have important implications for its use in percutaneous interventions.
Circulation 08/2001; 104(4):399-405. · 14.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Clinical trials of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors have shown that these potent antiplatelet agents are effective in reducing the ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary interventions. However, even though stents are now implanted in >75% of percutaneous interventional procedures, only one study, a trial of the monoclonal antibody abciximab, has formally evaluated adjunctive GP IIb/IIIa inhibition in this setting.
Eptifibatide, a nonimmunogenic and rapidly reversible inhibitor of the platelet receptor integrin IIb/IIIa, has also undergone evaluation as an adjunct to coronary intervention. In clinical trials performed heretofore, however, it has appeared to have less relative clinical efficacy than the monoclonal antibody abciximab. Since the early seminal trials, it has been recognized that the doses of eptifibatide previously used achieved only 30% to 50% of maximal platelet GP IIb/IIIa integrin inhibition. This is considerably less than the 80% level of receptor inhibition that has been proposed to prevent coronary thrombus formation in animal models and that has been achieved in clinical trials with abciximab.
The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial was designed to test the safety and efficacy of a high-dose, "180/2.0/180" double-bolus regimen of eptifibatide (a 180-microg/kg bolus followed 10 minutes later by a second 180-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide combined with a 2.0-microg/kg per minute infusion) as an adjunct to nonacute percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. In this report, we review the rationale, design, and methods of this clinical investigation.
American Heart Journal 12/2000; 140(6):834-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet therapy is the mainstay of the treatment and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of lotrafiban, an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, as a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease.
Overall, 451 patients with a recent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular acute ischemic event were randomized in a double-blind fashion to 1 of 5 dosing regimens for 12 weeks: placebo or 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg lotrafiban, both twice daily with 300 to 325 mg/d aspirin. The primary end point was the incidence and tolerability of major and minor bleeding during treatment. Secondary end points included inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical events. The placebo and lotrafiban 5-mg groups had similarly low rates of minor and major bleeding, but the 100-mg arm was terminated early because of excess major bleeding. Protocol-defined thrombocytopenia (<100 000 platelets/microL) occurred in 5 lotrafiban-treated patients (1.4%, 95% CI 0.2% to 2.7%) and 1 placebo patient (1.1%, 95% CI 0% to 3.1%). Three lotrafiban-treated patients had a nadir platelet count <20 000/microL (0.9%, 95% CI 0% to 1.8%). Lotrafiban produced dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation; 5 mg lotrafiban did not differ significantly from placebo, whereas 100 mg inhibited aggregation by nearly 100%.
-Lotrafiban provides dose-dependent platelet inhibition when administered to a range of patients with atherosclerosis. The level of platelet inhibition appears to correlate with bleeding risk and drug tolerability.
Circulation 08/2000; 102(7):728-35. · 14.74 Impact Factor