Sang Woo Kim

Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

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Publications (352)747.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Affine projection sign algorithm (APSA) is a useful adaptive filter for a highly correlated input signal in the presence of impulsive noise. In this study, a novel variable step-size APSA is proposed using selective input vectors to achieve both fast convergence rate and low steady-state mean-square deviation (MSD) with low computational cost. The selective input vectors and step size are chosen so as to maximize the theoretical MSD difference derived using Price׳s theorem. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has the fastest convergence rate and lowest steady-state MSD when compared with recent variable step-size APSAs. Moreover, it effectively reduces computational cost.
    Signal Processing 10/2015; 115. DOI:10.1016/j.sigpro.2015.04.005 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Backgroud: Low back pain is associated with transversus abdominis (TrA) dysfunction. Recently, it was proposed that Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) could be used to stimulate deep abdominal muscle contractions and improve lumbopelvic stability. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal stimulation frequency required during NMES for the activation of deep abdominal muscles. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers between the ages of 24 and 32 were included. The portable research-stimulator was applied using a 10 second contraction time, and a 10 second resting time at 20 Hz, 50 Hz, and 80 Hz. Changes in muscle thicknesses were determined for the TrA, obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) by real time ultrasound imaging. Results: Significant thickness increases in the TrA, OI, and OE were observed during NMES versus the resting state (p < 0.05). Of the frequencies examined, 50 Hz NMES produced the greatest increase in TrA thickness (1.33 fold as compared with 1.22 fold at 20 Hz and 1.21 fold at 80 Hz) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that NMES can preferentially stimulate contractions in deep abdominal stabilizing muscles. Most importantly, 50 Hz NMES produced greater muscle thickness increases than 20 or 80 Hz.
    Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 10/2015; DOI:10.3233/BMR-150638 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Reconstruction of three-dimensional lower extremity defects is challenging because the dead space should be filled and the surface defect should be covered to prevent complications. We present our experience using the vastus lateralis muscle-chimeric anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap for reconstructing three-dimensional lower extremity defects. Methods: This report describes 12 cases of three-dimensional lower extremity defects that were treated via reconstruction using a chimeric ALT free flap between October 2010 and January 2015. The defects involved the foot (10 patients), distal lower leg (1 patient), and proximal lower leg (1 patient). The sizes of the surface defects ranged from 7.5 × 3 cm(2) to 16 × 7 cm(2) , and the sizes of the estimated dead spaces ranged from 2 × 3 cm(2) to 8 × 5 cm(2) . The skin and muscle segment sizes were also evaluated. Results: The sizes of the skin flaps ranged from 8 × 4 cm(2) to 17.5 × 8 cm(2) , and the sizes of the muscle segments ranged from 2 × 3 cm(2) to 9 × 5 cm(2) . Eleven cases exhibited full flap survival and one case exhibited partial necrosis. The follow-up periods ranged from 2 months to 38 months. We did not observe any ranges of motion limitations in the hip and knee joints of the operated leg, or any secondary complications (e.g., abscess or prolonged drainage). Conclusions: The vastus lateralis muscle-chimeric ALT free flap is a useful option for reconstructing three-dimensional lower extremity defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.
    Microsurgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/micr.22494 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Jin Hee Lee · Sang Woo Kim · Byoung Sung Ahn · Dong Ju Moon
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    ABSTRACT: A series of Cu–ZnO–Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation method. The pH of solution was adjusted from 6 to 8 by using Na2CO3 solution. The prepared catalysts were evaluated for methanol synthesis from syngas (H2, CO and CO2) at lower temperature and pressures. Catalysts have been characterized by N2 physisorption, porosity measurements, XRD, TG/DTA, TPD (CO2/NH3) and XPS. Among all the catalysts pH 7 catalyst was shown higher catalytic activity towards methanol formation. It was found that the catalyst is mainly possessed the higher number of surface active sites (Cu0/Cu+), acidic and basic nature and optimum synergism between three components (Cu–ZnO–Al2O3). The activity results were evaluated with and without CO2 in syngas and it was found that higher CO conversion and higher methanol selectivity in the presence CO2.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 09/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1166/jnn.2015.8352 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Jameel Lone · Jae Heon Choi · Sang Woo Kim · Jong Won Yun
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances have been made in the understanding of pharmacological and dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipose tissue in order to combat obesity by promoting energy expenditure. Here, we show that curcumin induces browning of 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat-specific genes. Curcumin-induced browning in white adipocytes was investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes/proteins by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Curcumin increased mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by transmission electronic microscopic detection and enhanced expression of proteins involved in fat oxidation. Cucurmin also increased protein levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting its possible role in augmentation of lipolysis and suppression of lipogenesis. Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown adipocyte-specific markers was possibly mediated by curcumin-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) based on the fact that inhibition of AMPK by dorsomorphin abolished expression of PRDM16, UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha while the activator 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide elevated expression of these brown marker proteins. Our findings suggest that curcumin plays a dual modulatory role in inhibition of adipogenesis as well as induction of the brown fat-like phenotype and thus may have potential therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.09.006 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Sang Woo Kim · Kwan‐Woo Lee · Sang‐A Yi · Kuk Young Cho
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    ABSTRACT: Inverse opal scaffolds presenting an embossed-pattern surface are prepared from colloidal crystal assemblies of uniformly sized golf-ball-shaped microparticles. Post-treatments, such as thermal annealing during the bridging of the microparticles for opal preparation, are avoided to prevent deterioration of surface patterns of the sacrificial template. This presents a new approach to increase the surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) by the alteration of morphological features in sophisticated 3D structures that remain largely unexamined owing to difficulties in their preparation. Previous results observed in 2D surfaces that show effective performance improvement through an increase in contact area, especially in biomedical applications, also appear applicable to patterned inverse opal scaffolds based on comparable results obtained from cell cultures. As the field of application of opal and inverse opal structures is expanding due to their unique structural advantages, such as 3D interconnectivity and periodic structures, our strategy opens the door for the use of patterned surfaces on highly sophisticated 3D structures, improving their performance via an increase in SAV.
    Advanced Materials Interfaces 07/2015; 2(12). DOI:10.1002/admi.201500152
  • Hee Chul Yeom · Dong Ju Moon · Kwan Young Lee · Sang Woo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: We report the fabrication of nickel nanofiber catalysts supported on nickel metallic foam using a modified electrospinning with a grounded rotor and sequential reduction process. The robust deposition of aligned Ni nanofibers with a uniform morphology on the highly porous surfaces of the metallic foam could be achieved by controlling electrospinning parameters such as applied voltage, tip-collector-distance (TCD), concentration of polymer, and humidity. The diameters of the obtained nanofibers decreased with increasing voltage and TCDs. The uniform and thinnest Ni nanofibers on the Ni foam were obtained at a humidity of less than 30%, 15 kV applied voltage, and 17 cm TCD when using a precursor composed of nickel nitrate salt and poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone. The Ni foam catalyst support exhibited the superior thermal conducting property than other supports of MgO–MgAl2O4, Al2 O3, and SiC, enabling to a higher heat transfer during catalytic reaction. As a result, the Ni nanofiber catalyst with a high surface area and superior heat transfer performance, which is supported on the metallic foam, were successfully fabricated via a modified electrospinning for potential application of XTL process converting anything to liquids, such as for Gas-to-Liquid (GTL), Coal-to-Liquid (CTL), and Biomass-to-Liquid (BTL).
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 07/2015; 15(7). DOI:10.1166/jnn.2015.10414 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) and its targets (TNFα, Il6, CRP, and Fn1) as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2). Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNFα and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131189. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131189 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prohibitin (PHB) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein that participates in diverse cellular processes, and its functions are linked to a variety of diseases. In the present study, to explore transcriptional activation and signaling pathways involved in PHB regulation in response to sex hormone treatment, we investigated the effects of estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) on regulation of PHB in several metabolic tissues from male and female rats. Elevated expression of PHB was prominent in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver, and E2 stimulated PHB expression in both ND and HFD-fed rats. To further confirm the expression of PHB which was increased in WAT and the liver, we analyzed PHB expression levels in 3T3-L1 and C9 cells after the treatment of E2. Transcription and protein levels of PHB were dose-dependently increased by E2 treatment in both cell types, supporting our in vivo data. To further evaluate the possible role of E2 in elevation of PHB via estrogen receptors (ER), the potent ER inhibitor fulvestrant was treated to 3T3-L1 and C9 cells. Fulvestrant markedly suppressed both transcription and protein levels of PHB, suggesting that PHB expression in both tissues may be regulated through ERs. GeneMANIA, a predictive web interface, was used to show that Phb is regulated via the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway, suggesting a role for ERs in expression of Phb as well as other metabolically important genes. Based on these results, we expect that targeting PHB would be a useful therapeutic approach for treatment of obesity.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 06/2015; 407(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2468-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S.‐W. Kim and co‐workers report a novel highly sensitive piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) for self‐powered pressure sensors based on a micro‐patterned piezoelectric polymer P(VDF‐TrFE) thin film. The micro‐structured PNGs presented on page 3203 has five times larger output power compared to the flat film‐based PNG. The micro‐structured PNG shows high sensitivity and mechanical durability under various circumstances such as rain drop and wind blow.
    Advanced Functional Materials 06/2015; 25(21). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201570145 · 11.81 Impact Factor
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    Hwan-Su Jung · Ikchan Jeon · Sang Woo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is reported at a rare level of incidence, and is frequently associated with underlying coagulopathy or those receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents; some cases accompany concomitant intracranial hemorrhage. The spontaneous development of spinal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a neurological emergency; therefore, early diagnosis, the discontinuation of anticoagulant, and urgent surgical decompression are required to enable neurological recovery. In this report, we present a simultaneous spinal subdural hematoma and cranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, which mimicked an aneurysmal origin in a female patient who had been taking warfarin due to aortic valve replacement surgery.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 05/2015; 57(5):371-5. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.5.371 · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • 04/2015; 39(2):525-530. DOI:10.17779/KAOMP.2015.39.2.525
  • 04/2015; 39(2):513-520. DOI:10.17779/KAOMP.2015.39.2.513
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    ABSTRACT: For afternoon colonoscopy, same-day administration of sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and citric acid (PM/Ca) is recommended. However, few studies have evaluated the bowel-cleansing efficacy and safety of this regimen. The aim of this study was to compare the bowel-cleansing efficacy, side effects, and patient's tolerability of a same-day split administration of PM/Ca with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for afternoon colonoscopy.Patients were randomly assigned to a PM/Ca group or a PEG group. The PM/Ca group consumed 1 sachet of PM/Ca at 06:00 and 1 sachet of PM/Ca 4 hours before the colonoscopy. They also took 2 tablets of bisacodyl before sleep on the night before. The PEG group consumed 2 L of PEG at 06:00 and 2 L of PEG 4 hours before the colonoscopy. All subjects were instructed to finish the bowel cleanser or fluid at least 2 hours before colonoscopy. All colonoscopic examinations were performed in the afternoon on the same day. The bowel-cleansing efficacy was scored using 2 scales: the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (OBPS) and the Aronchick scale. Ease of using the bowel cleanser was rated from 1 (very easy) to 5 (very difficult).Two hundred nine patients underwent colonoscopy. The bowel-cleansing scores by OBPS did not differ between groups (5.0 vs 4.9, P = 0.63). Ease of using the bowel cleanser was superior in the PM/Ca group (P < 0.01).The cleansing efficacy of PM/Ca administered on the day of colonoscopy is comparable to that of PEG. Patients prefer PM/Ca.
    Medicine 04/2015; 94(13):e628. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000628 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    Sang Woo Kim · Kuk Young Cho
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    ABSTRACT: With increasing interest in flexible electronic devices and wearable appliances, flexible lithium ion batteries are the most attractive candidates for flexible energy sources. During the last decade, many different kinds of flexible batteries have been reported. Although research of flexible lithium ion batteries is in its earlier stages, we have found that developing components that satisfy performance conditions under external deformation stress is a critical key to the success of flexible energy sources. Among the major components of the lithium ion battery, electrodes, which are connected to the current collectors, are gaining the most attention owing to their rigid and brittle character. In this mini review, we discuss candidate materials for current collectors and the previous strategies implemented for flexible electrode fabrication.
    03/2015; 6(1):1-6. DOI:10.5229/JECST.2015.6.1.1
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    ABSTRACT: Background When patients using the Ilizarov device need a free-flap procedure for their thigh and leg, it is difficult to isolate the major vessels as the recipient vessel due to the limited working space around the Ilizarov rings and pins. The usefulness of a perforator as the recipient vessel to allow minimally invasive surgery was investigated in this study. Methods Between October 2011 and December 2013, 77 patients using the Ilizarov device needed free flap reconstruction using an anterolateral thigh perforator flap or superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap. The perforator was used as a recipient vessel in 50 cases, with which end-to-end anastomosis was performed using a perforator-to-perforator approach, and major vessels were used as a recipient vessel in 27 cases (n = 20, anterior tibial vessel; n = 7, posterior vessel). Results When the perforator was used as the recipient vessel, total loss developed in one case and marginal necrosis in four cases. When the major vessel was used as the recipient vessel, whole necrosis developed in one case and marginal necrosis in two cases. The procedure increased the freedom of hand movement, decreased the recipient vessel dissection time, and reduced the recipient dissection scar. Conclusions The use of perforators as recipients overcomes the obstacles associated with the Ilizarov device and allows convenient and rapid reconstruction, with similar success as microsurgery using major vessels. Further studies are needed to address the limitations of this approach, which include perfusion physiology and the viable limit of the flap dimension. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
    Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 03/2015; 31(06). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1548549 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare central, regional and relational corneal thickness values obtained with multiple technologies in normal patients and to determine their equivalence and interchangeability. Retrospective analysis of 100 eyes from 50 patients evaluated by ultrasound pachymetry (Pachette II), scanning-slit (Orbscan II), Scheimpflug (Pentacam HR) and spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (OCT) (RTVue-100) obtained as average values (OCT-A) and point measurements (OCT-P). Measurements included central corneal thickness (CCT) for all technologies and thinnest corneal thickness for scanning-slit, Scheimpflug and OCT. Peripheral thickness measurements were obtained at the 3 mm radius in the superior (S), nasal (N), inferior (I) and temporal (T) regions. CCT values were: 563.9±36.1μ ultrasound, 570.9±36.1μ scanning-slit, 552.8±33.8μ Scheimpflug, 550.5±32.7μ (OCT-A), 549.4±32.7μ (OCT-P). Ultrasound and scanning-slit were significantly different from each other (p<0.0001), and both were significantly different from all other devices (p<0.0001), while Scheimpflug was similar to OCT-A and OCT-P (p=0.4). Differences between CCT and thinnest corneal thickness were significantly different from all technologies except scanning-slit and OCT-A. For peripheral values, almost all locations' measurements were significantly different from one another (p<0.0001). Superior-inferior values and ratios were also significantly different from one another for almost all devices with no consistent patterns detectible. There are significant clinically relevant differences between regional and relational thickness measurements obtained with ultrasound, scanning-slit, Scheimpflug and OCT devices. Screening metrics devised for one system do not appear directly applicable to other measurement systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    The British journal of ophthalmology 03/2015; 99(9). DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-306340 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most interesting issues in obesity research is why certain humans are obesity-prone (OP) while others are obesity-resistant (OR) upon exposure to a high-calorie diet. However, the pathways responsible for these phenotypic differences are still largely unknown. In order to discover marker molecules determining susceptibility and/or resistance to obesity in response to high fat diet (HFD) or anti-obesity herbal medicine (TH), we conducted comparative proteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from OP, OR, as well as TH-treated mice. OP mice fed HFD gained approximately 33% more body weight than OR mice, and TH significantly reduced body weight gain in HFD-fed mice by 30%. These mice were further subjected to proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Proteomic data revealed 59 spots that were differentially regulated from a total of 1,045 matched spots, and 57 spots of these were identified as altered WAT proteins between OP and OR mice by peptide mass finger printing. Interestingly, 45 proteins were similarly regulated in OR mice in response to TH treatment. Of these, 10 proteins have already been recognized in the context of obesity; however, other proteins involved in obesity susceptibility or resistance were identified for the first time in the present study. Our results suggest that TH actively contributed to body weight reduction in HFD-fed obese mice by altering protein regulation in WAT, and it was also found that TH-responsive proteins can be used as potent molecules for obesity treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 03/2015; 35(4):1482-1498. DOI:10.1159/000373967 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    Ikchan Jeon · Sang Woo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior vertebral translation as a type of spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis is observed commonly in patients with degenerative spinal problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient literature on retrolisthesis compared to anterolisthesis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of retrolisthesis, and its developmental mechanism associated with a compensatory role in sagittal imbalance of the lumbar spine. From 2003 to 2012, 230 Korean patients who underwent spinal surgery in our department under the impression of degenerative lumbar spinal disease were enrolled. All participants were divided into four groups : 35 patients with retrolisthesis (group R), 32 patients with simultaneous retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis (group R+A), 76 patients with anterolisthesis (group A), and 87 patients with non-translation (group N). The clinical features and the sagittal parameters related to retrolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed based on the patients' medical records. There were different clinical features and developmental mechanisms between retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis. The location of retrolisthesis was affected by the presence of simultaneous anterolisthesis, even though it predominantly manifest in L3. The relative lower pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and lumbar lordosis compared to anterolisthesis were related to the generation of retrolisthesis, with the opposite observations of patients with anterolisthesis. Retrolisthesis acts as a compensatory mechanism for moving the gravity axis posteriorly for sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine under low pelvic incidence and insufficient intra-spinal compensation.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 03/2015; 57(3):178-84. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.3.178 · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • 02/2015; 39(1):403-412. DOI:10.17779/KAOMP.2015.39.1.403

Publication Stats

3k Citations
747.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2014–2015
    • Kongju National University
      • Division of Advanced Materials Engineering
      Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Shinshū, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2010–2015
    • University of Ulsan
      • College of Medicine
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hoseo University
      Onyang, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
    • POSCO E&C
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2009–2015
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Seoul National University of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul Veterans Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
    • Kyungpook National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2015
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Dongguk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dong-A University
      • Department of Electronics Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004–2015
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Clean Energy Research Center
      • • High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2015
    • Daegu University
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–2015
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Brown University
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Kangwon National University
      • Department of Applied Plant Sciences
      Kang-neung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Computational & Systems Biology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Inje University
      • College of Medicine
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Advanced Display Manufacturing Research Center
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Pathology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Chung-Ang University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      • Department of Advanced Materials Engineering
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • School of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2010
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2008
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2008
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2005–2006
    • Chungbuk National University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Chinsen, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
  • 1989–2003
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hannam University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1996
    • Korea University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994
    • University of Seoul
      • School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea