D J King

University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States

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Publications (21)43.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines in the United States is currently determined using vaccination and challenge of experimental animals against a velogenic strain of NDV. Because velogenic strains of NDV are now classified as select agents in the United States, all vaccine potency testing must be performed in live animals under biosafety level 3 agriculture conditions. If the minimum amount of inactivated viral antigen required for clinical protection can be determined using other methods, vaccines meeting these criteria might be considered of adequate potency. The linearity of correlation between the hemagglutination (HA) assay measurement and the 50% embryo infectious dose titer ofNDV Hitchner B1 vaccine virus was determined. Correlation between hemagglutinin units (HAU) per vaccine dose, clinical protection, and antibody response was then determined using a vaccinate-and-challenge model similar to Chapter 9 of the U.S. code of federal regulations approved method for vaccine potency testing. The dose providing 50% protection of an in-house water-in-oil emulsion vaccine formulated with inactivated NDV B1 was determined to be between 400 and 600 HAU from two separate trials. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.97) was observed between antibody response and HAU per vaccine dose. Serum antibody responses from vaccinated birds indicate HA inhibition titers >2(5) log2 would provide 100% protection from morbidity and mortality and require a minimum protective dose of 1000 HAU per bird. These are the first studies to examine establishing both a minimum protective HAU content for inactivated ND vaccines and a minimum serologic response necessary to ensure potency.
    Avian Diseases 06/2008; 52(2):260-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak (CA exotic Newcastle disease [END] virus) was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old racing pigeons, and the clinicopathologic features of disease were compared. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanized sequentially with collection of tissues. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry to detect viral nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA. Clinically, infected chickens and SPF turkeys showed severe depression, and all died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs by day 5 postinoculation. In these birds, histologic lesions were widespread and virus was detected in multiple organs. All infected commercial turkeys showed mild depression, and incoordination was observed in some birds. Histologic lesions were mild, and viral distribution was limited. In pigeons, only 1 bird showed overt clinical disease, and histologic lesions and viral distribution were present in limited organs. Consequently, susceptibility to highly virulent NDV was shown to vary among chickens, SPF turkeys, commercial turkeys, and pigeons. Additionally, we have evidence of CA END virus subclinical infections that suggest pigeons could be subclinical carriers of other virulent NDV.
    Veterinary Pathology 12/2006; 43(6):925-33. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of five different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates representing all pathotypes was examined in commercial and specific pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. Experimentally-infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized, with subsequent tissue collection, for examination by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry for the presence of NDV nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization for the presence of replicating virus. Clinically, the lentogenic pathotype did not cause overt clinical signs in either commercial or SPF turkeys. Mesogenic viruses caused depression in some birds. Turkeys infected with velogenic neurotropic and velogenic viscerotropic isolates showed severe depression, and neurologic signs. Histologic appearances for all strains had many similarities to lesions observed in chickens inoculated with the various isolates; that is, lesions were present predominantly in lymphoid, intestinal, and central nervous tissues. However, in general, disease among turkeys was less severe than in chickens, and turkeys could be considered a subclinical carrier for some of the isolates.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2006; 43(2):168-78. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination for Newcastle disease (ND) is routinely practised in countries where virulent strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are endemic and in countries where virulent strains do not exist but ill-timed infection by a low virulent field strain may have significant economic consequences for the producer. The types of vaccines and vaccination schedules used vary depending on the potential threat, virulence of the field challenge virus, type of production, and production schedules. A combination of live and inactivated ND vaccine, administered simultaneously, is shown to provide better protection against virulent NDV and has been successfully used in control programmes in areas of intense poultry production. A potential limiting factor in the use of live vaccines to control virulent ND is that live virus can interfere with surveillance and laboratory diagnosis. However, a new assay, the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), differentiates low virulent from virulent NDV, thus minimizing the disadvantage of live virus vaccines in the face of an outbreak and may facilitate the use of such vaccines to control outbreaks of virulent ND in the future.
    Developments in biologicals 02/2004; 119:165-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Current vaccines to prevent avian influenza rely upon labor-intensive parenteral injection. A more advantageous vaccine would be capable of administration by mass immunization methods such as spray or water vaccination. A recombinant vaccine (rNDV-AIV-H7) was constructed by using a lentogenic paramyxovirus type 1 vector (Newcastle disease virus [NDV] B1 strain) with insertion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from avian influenza virus (AIV) A/chicken/NY/13142-5/94 (H7N2). The recombinant virus had stable insertion and expression of the H7 AIV HA gene as evident by detection of HA expression via immunofluorescence in infected Vero cells. The rNDV-AIV-H7 replicated in 9-10 day embryonating chicken eggs and exhibited hemagglutinating activity from both NDV and AI proteins that was inhibited by antisera against both NDV and AIV H7. Groups of 2-week-old white Leghorn chickens were vaccinated with transfectant NDV vector (tNDV), rNDV-AIV-H7, or sterile allantoic fluid and were challenged 2 weeks later with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) or highly pathogenic (HP) AIV. The sham-vaccinated birds were not protected from vvNDV or HP AIV challenge. The transfectant NDV vaccine provided 70% protection for NDV challenge but did not protect against AIV challenge. The rNDV-AIV-H7 vaccine provided partial protection (40%) from vvNDV and HP AIV challenge. The serologic response was examined in chickens that received one or two immunizations of the rNDV-AIV-H7 vaccine. Based on hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, chickens that received a vaccine boost seroconverted to AIV H7, but the serologic response was weak in birds that received only one vaccination. This demonstrates the potential for NDV for use as a vaccine vector in expressing AIV proteins.
    Avian Diseases 02/2003; 47(3 Suppl):1047-50. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Avian Diseases - AVIAN DIS. 01/2003; 47:1047-1050.
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of six pigeon-origin isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated in chickens. Four isolates were previously defined as the variant pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1), and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1). Birds inoculated with PPMV-1 isolates were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at 2, 5, and 10 days postinoculation (DPI). Birds inoculated with APMV-1 isolates died or were euthanatized, and tissue samples were collected at 2, 4, and 5 DPI. Tissues were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the presence of NDV nucleoprotein, and in situ hybridization (ISH) for the presence of viral mRNA for the matrix gene. Spleen sections were stained by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and by IHC using an anti-active caspase-3 antibody (IHC-Casp) to detect apoptotic cells. Brain sections of PPMV-1-infected birds were examined by IHC to detect T and B lymphocytes and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Histologically, birds inoculated with PPMV-1 isolates had marked lesions in the heart and brain. Presence of viral nucleoprotein and viral mRNA in the affected tissues was confirmed by IHC and ISH, respectively. Numerous reactive astrocytes were observed in brain sections stained for GFAP Among all the isolates, the IHC-Casp demonstrated that apoptosis was very prominent in the ellipsoid-associated cells of the spleen at 2 DPI. Results of the TUNEL assay indicated that apoptotic cells were prominent at 5 DPI and were more randomly distributed. The clinical signs and gross and histopathologic changes observed in the APMV-1-infected birds were characteristic of an extensive infection with highly virulent NDV evident by IHC.
    Veterinary Pathology 06/2002; 39(3):353-62. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system.
    Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 10/2001; 21(3):549-91. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The virulence of six pigeon-origin isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated before and after passage in white leghorn chickens. Four isolates were defined as pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) and two isolates were classified as avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) with NDV monoclonal antibodies. The four PPMV-1 isolates were passaged four times in chickens, and the APMV-1 isolates were passaged only once. Infected birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized. Tissues were collected for histopathology, in situ hybridization with a NDV matrix gene digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe, and immunohistochemistry with an anti-peptide antibody to the nucleoprotein. Mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index tests performed before and after passage in chickens demonstrated increased virulence of the passaged PPMV-1 isolates and high virulence of the original isolates of APMV-1. Sequence analysis of the fusion protein cleavage site of all six isolates demonstrated a sequence typical of the virulent pathotype. Although the pathotyping results indicated a virulence increase of all passaged PPMV-1 isolates, clinical disease was limited to depression and some nervous signs in only some of the 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorns inoculated intraconjunctivally. However, an increased frequency of clinical signs and some mortality occurred in 2 wk olds inoculated intraconjunctivally with passaged virus. Histologically, prominent lesions in heart and brain were observed in birds among all four groups inoculated with the PPMV-1 isolates. The behavior of the two pigeon-origin APMV-1 isolates when inoculated into chickens was characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDVs and included necro-hemorrhagic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Avian Diseases 01/2001; 45(4):906-21. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide sequence was determined for the phosphoprotein (P) gene from 23 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates representing all defined pathotypes with different chronological and geographic origins. Sequence variation, with synonymous substitutions dominating, occurred throughout the P gene. An exception was a conserved central region containing the transcriptional editing site. Four G nucleotide additions were detected in NDV P gene mRNA potentially creating alternative open reading frames. However, only one in-frame stop codon exists with a single G addition among all isolates that would allow for a potential V protein. A second potential stop codon does not exist in the P gene consensus sequence among all isolates with more than one G nucleotide addition at the editing site. This precludes a possible W protein in these isolates. A second potential alternative in-frame start site exists among all isolates that could encode a predicted X protein for NDV. Comparison of the P gene editing sites among the Paramyxovirinae and predicted P gene usage demonstrates that NDV more closely resembles the respiroviruses and morbilliviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of P gene sequences among NDV isolates demonstrates there are two clades of these viruses. One group includes viruses isolated in the US prior to 1970, while a second cluster includes virulent viruses circulating worldwide.
    Virus Research 09/2000; 69(1):55-68. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix (M) gene sequences for recent field isolates and older reference Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) were examined to determine phylogenetic relationships and population trends among these viruses. Overall, the M gene has a majority of synonymous nucleotide sequence substitutions occurring among NDV isolates. However, several predicted amino acid changes in the M protein of specific NDV isolates have occurred that correlate to phylogenetic relationships. Nucleotide substitutions in these codons have a greater number of nonsynonymous base changes. The NDV isolates arising since the 1970s belong to a population of viruses that expanded worldwide at an exponential rate. These viruses may have their origins in free-living birds, are present worldwide, and continue to circulate causing disease in poultry. A specific NDV lineage composed of virulent isolates obtained in the US prior to 1970 appears to no longer exists among free-living birds or commercial poultry. However, "vaccine-like" viruses are common in the US and continue to circulate among commercial poultry. Based on M protein amino acid sequences, NDV separates as a clade most closely related to morbilliviruses and not with their current designated category, the rubulaviruses among the Paramyxoviridae. Consequently, avian paramyxoviruses should have their own taxonomic subfamily among the Paramyxovirinae.
    Virus Research 02/2000; 66(1):1-11. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • B S Seal, D J King, H S Sellers
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is classified as a member of the superfamily Mononegavirales in the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus family is divided into two subfamilies, the Paramyxovirinae and the Pneumovirinae. In 1993 the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses rearranged the order of the Paramyxovirus genus and placed NDV within the Rubulavirus genus among the Paramyxovirinae. The enveloped virus has a negative sense single-stranded RNA genome of 15,186 kb which codes for an RNA directed RNA polymerase, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, fusion protein, matrix protein, phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein in the 5' to 3' direction. The virus has a wide host range with most orders of birds reported to have been infected by NDV. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and are categorized into three main pathotypes depending on severity of disease. Lentogenic isolates are of low virulence while viruses of intermediate virulence are termed mesogenic. Highly virulent viruses that cause high mortality in birds are termed neurotropic or viscerotropic velogenic. Velogenic NDV are List A pathogens that require reporting to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks result in strict trade embargoes. The primary molecular determinant for NDV pathogenicity is the fusion protein cleavage site amino acid sequence. Vaccination for NDV is primarily by mass application of live-virus vaccines among commercial poultry. Although protection is measured by presence of antibodies to NDV, vaccinated B-cell depleted chickens are resistant to disease. Consequently, immune protection involves responses that are presently incompletely defined.
    Developmental & Comparative Immunology 01/2000; 24(2-3):257-68. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • C C Brown, D J King, B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Two pathology-based techniques, immunohistochemistry and riboprobe in-situ hybridization, were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from chickens infected with three different isolates of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV). With the immunohistochemical method, viral protein was consistently detectable in the spleen and caecum at the terminal phase of the infection. With in-situ hybridization, viral nucleic acid was consistently detected in the eyelid, spleen and caecum in both the acute and terminal phases. Hybridization with anti-sense probe to detect viral mRNA was often more intense than hybridization with sense probe to detect viral genomic RNA.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 06/1999; 120(4):383-9. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    C Brown, D J King, B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/1999; 36(2):125-32. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus [NDV (avian paramyxovirus type 1 [APMV1])] isolates were recovered from imported exotic birds confiscated following importation into the United States, from waterbirds in the United States, and from poultry. The exotic birds probably originated from Central and South America, Asia, and Africa. The NDV isolates were initially characterized as highly virulent because of a short mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs. The isolates were typed as neurotropic or viscerotropic velogenic by intracloacal inoculation of adult chickens. Intracerebral pathogenicity index values for the virulent NDV isolates ranged from 1.54 to 1.90, compared to a possible maximum value of 2.0. These isolates had a dibasic amino acid motif in the fusion protein cleavage site sequence required for host systemic replication. Sequence differences were detected surrounding the fusion protein cleavage site and the matrix protein nuclear localization signal, indicating evolution of highly virulent NDV. Phylogenetically, these isolates were categorized with other highly virulent NDV strains that caused outbreaks in southern California poultry during 1972 and in cormorants in the north central United States and southern Canada during 1990 and 1992. These isolates are related to NDV that may have the APMV1 strain chicken/Australia/AV/32 or a related virus as a possible progenitor. Recent virulent NDV isolates and those recovered during disease outbreaks since the 1970s are phylogenetically distinct from current vaccine viruses and standard challenge strains.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1998; 36(4):1141-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • B S Seal, D J King, J D Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: Six commercially available monovalent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) live-vaccines were examined for their biological and genomic stability in comparison to their stated parent virus. Thermostability of the hemagglutinin at 56 degrees C for 5 min was consistently observed among the majority of the vaccine viruses. One exception was a recently developed NDV vaccine isolated from turkeys that had a thermostability of 15 min. Neuraminidase activity, as measured by elution rate of agglutinated red blood cells, varied among vaccine viruses and correlated with that of the parent isolate. Virulence as measured by intracerebral pathogenicity index ranged from 0 to 0.39 among NDV vaccine-type viruses, well within the range of avirulent lentogens. Sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site from all the NDV vaccine isolates examined was consistent with that for lentogens. The entire hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene sequence was 98% similar among all the NDV vaccine viruses examined and phylogenetic classification of commercial vaccine types correlated with their respective parent virus. Consequently, the commercially produced NDV vaccines reported here appear relatively stable when mass produced in avian embryonated eggs.
    Vaccine 07/1996; 14(8):761-6. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    B S Seal, D J King, J D Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized to amplify nucleotide sequences from portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genomic RNA that could be used diagnostically. These primers were used in a single-tube reverse transcription PCR of NDV genomic RNA coupled to direct nucleotide sequencing of the amplified product to characterize more than 30 NDV isolates. In agreement with previous reports, differences in the fusion protein cleavage sequence that correlated genotypically with virulence among various NDV pathotypes were detected. By using sequences generated from the matrix protein gene coding for the nuclear localization signal, lentogenic viruses were again grouped phylogenetically separate from other pathotypes. These techniques were applied to compare neurotropic velogenic viruses isolated from an outbreak of Newcastle disease in cormorants and turkeys. Cormorant NDV isolates and an NDV isolate from an infected turkey flock in North Dakota had the fusion protein cleavage sequence 109SRGRRQKRFVG119. The R-for-G substitution at position 110 may be unique for the cormorant-type isolates. Although the amino acid sequences from the fusion protein cleavage site were identical, nucleotide sequence data correlate the outbreak in turkeys to a cormorant virus isolate from Minnesota and not to a cormorant virus isolate from Michigan. On the basis of sequence information, the cormorant isolates are virulent viruses related to isolates of psittacine origin, possibly genotypically distinct from other velogenic NDV isolates. These techniques can be used reliably for Newcastle disease epidemiology and for prediction of pathotypes of NDV isolates without traditional live-bird inoculations.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/1995; 33(10):2624-30. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • D J King, B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is frequently recovered from surveillance samples collected by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service personnel in live bird markets. Six NDV isolates, five from chickens and one from a pheasant, were characterized for comparison with reference NDV isolates from poultry and other birds. All isolates tested were of low virulence for chickens. Four of the six isolates were similar to reference lentogens B1 and La Sota, but two isolates, one from a chicken and one from a pheasant, were different. The aberrant chicken isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile like an unusual Canadian pigeon isolate. Sequence analysis of the matrix gene of this isolate demonstrated that it differed from all isolates included in the comparison and therefore may represent a third phylogenetic NDV group. The pheasant isolate had a monoclonal antibody-binding profile typical of other U.S. NDV lentogens but had a matrix gene sequence and hemagglutinin thermostability similar to strains Ulster and Queensland V4 (QV4), viruses originally isolated in Northern Ireland and Australia, respectively. The pheasant virus is the first lentogen isolated in the United States known to be closely related phylogenetically to Ulster and QV4. The unusual chicken and pheasant isolates were readily shed from the intestinal tract during chicken passage, whereas the other isolates were shed from the respiratory tract with little or no intestinal shedding. The frequency in live bird markets of viruses similar to those previously thought to be exotic to the United States in unknown.
    Avian Diseases 41(3):683-9. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) continue to cause financial losses to the turkey industry. Clinically, PEMS is defined by mortality profiles, diarrhea, flock unevenness, and immunosuppression. PEMS is a very difficult disease to control and prevent. Depopulation of PEMS-affected flocks and thorough cleaning of the contaminated housing have failed to prevent infection (disease) in subsequent flock placements. The relationship of PEMS to other enteric disease complexes of young turkeys is unknown, partly because the causative agent of PEMS remains unknown. Recently, we isolated a unique astrovirus strain from the thymus and intestines of PEMS-infected poults. This strain is molecularly and serologically distinct from the astrovirus that circulated in turkeys in the 1980s. Mammalian astroviruses are very resistant to inactivation. In these studies, we examined the stability of partially purified PEMS-associated astrovirus to inactivation with heat, laboratory disinfectants, and commercial disinfectants used in commercial turkey houses in an embryonated egg model system. Similar to mammalian astroviruses, the PEMS-associated astrovirus is resistant to inactivation by heat, acidification, detergent treatment, and treatment with phenolic, quaternary ammonium, or benzalkonium chloride-based products. Only treatment with formaldehyde, beta-propriolactone, or the peroxymonosulfate-based product Virkon S completely inactivated the astrovirus in the embryo model. These studies provide an alternate means to potentially control at least one virus associated with PEMS through the use of specific disinfectants.
    Avian Diseases 45(1):76-82. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • D J King, B S Seal
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-seven Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from chickens, turkeys, a rhea, a parrot, and an anhinga were pathotyped and characterized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibition profile, elution rate, and hemagglutinin thermostability. Nucleotide sequence analysis of portions of the fusion protein and matrix protein genes of the parrot isolate was done for comparison with prior sequence analysis of the anhinga isolate and NDV reference strains. Seven of the 43 chicken isolates were recovered from flocks in Canada. The remaining isolates, including 11 from turkeys, were isolated in the United States. All isolates except that of the anhinga were of low virulence by mean death time in embryos, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and/or intravenous pathogenicity index procedures and were classified as lentogens. The anhinga isolate was more virulent than the other strains and was pathotyped as a mesogen. However, nucleotide sequence analysis of the anhinga isolate had revealed a homology with the virulent cormorant isolates of 1992 rather than the classical U.S. mesogens characterized by the Roakin strain. Variability was evident among the lentogenic isolates. Two isolates from turkeys had mAb profiles that differed from B1 and La Sota reference and vaccine strains, and 38% (21/56) of the isolates had more thermostable hemagglutinins than those reference strains. There was no evidence that any of the isolates from poultry were more virulent than the lentogenic pathotype.
    Avian Diseases 42(3):507-16. · 1.73 Impact Factor