Y Isaka

Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (11)28.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The NS5B encoded by the hepatitis C virus genome is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase essential to viral replication. The entire NS5B protein contains a catalytic domain followed by a regulatory motif and a membrane-anchor domain at its C-terminus. Reported here is the molecular cloning and expression of the full-length NS5B polymerase (NS5B-FL) in bacterial cells as a non-fusion protein. The non-tagged NS5B-FL was purified to homogeneity using sequential chromatographic columns and its identity was confirmed using anti-NS5B peptide antibodies and amino acid sequencing. Purified NS5B-FL demonstrated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and was able to replicate a HCV RNA genome fragment through both copy-back and de novo mechanisms. Its biochemical properties were further characterized in comparison with a truncated form of NS5B polymerase with a deletion of 51 residues from its C-terminus.
    Protein Expression and Purification 07/2004; 35(2):304-12. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are selective for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and generally not effective on HIV-2 or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Only SIVagm was found to be sensitive to NNRTIs. When the amino acid differences in RT between SIVmac and SIVagm were compared with the known amino acid substitutions of NNRTI-resistance variants of HIV-1, we came to consider that the amino acid residue Leu-188 of HIV-2 and SIVmac might be related to their resistance to NNRTIs. To test this hypothesis, we substituted Leu-188 to Cys or Tyr in HIV-2 and SIVmac, and examined sensitivity of the mutant molecular clones to NNRTIs. The L188Y mutant of HIV-2 became completely sensitive to delavirdine and efavirenz, while that of SIVmac was also significantly sensitive to these NNRTIs. We further isolated NNRTI-resistant variants from these mutant viruses and determined amino acid substitutions in RT. The roles of the observed substitutions in NNRTI-resistance were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Our study reveals the crucial role of L188 in the natural resistance of HIV-2 and SIVmac to NNRTIs. Furthermore, the observed substitutions in RT of HIV-2 and SIVmac support the common mechanism of action of NNRTIs against HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV.
    Archives of Virology 02/2001; 146(4):743-55. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) act quite specifically on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In general, they are not effective on human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Only SIV strains from African green monkeys are sensitive to several NNRTIs. Here we isolated NNRTI- and 3TC-resistant SIVagm variants. Viruses resistant to delavirdine contained V112I and M231I substitutions, while those resistant to 3TC contained a M 185I substitution. These amino acids are highly conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, SIVmac and SIVagm, and the M184I (M185I in SIVagm) substitution was observed in 3TC-resistant HIV-1 and SIVmac. The roles of the observed mutations in NNRTI-resistance of SIVagm and HIV-1 were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. The present results have provided a new insight into the common mechanism of sensitivity of HIV- 1 and SIVagm to NNRTIs.
    Archives of Virology 02/2000; 145(12):2481-92. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-2 GH-1 is a molecular clone derived from an AIDS patient from Ghana. In contrast to the prototypic molecular clone ROD, GH-1 exhibits a narrow range of target cell specificity. By an infectious assay using HeLa-CD4 cells stably transfected with an HIV-1 LTR-beta-galactosidase reporter gene and transiently expressing various cloned chemokine receptors, we have examined the coreceptor usage of GH-1. In contrast to ROD, which uses principally CXCR4, GH-1 was found to use mainly if not exclusively CCR5 but not CXCR4. The distinct coreceptor usage of these two molecular clones allowed us to further map the region of gp120 that is important for the coreceptor specificity. By constructing a series of chimeric viruses between GH-1 and ROD, we have demonstrated that the C-terminal half of the V3 loop region of gp120 determines the differential coreceptor usage between GH-1 and ROD, and only a few amino acid differences in this region appear to be able to shift the specificity between CCR5 and CXCR4. Notably, the shift in the coreceptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with an increase in the net positive charge in the V3 region.
    Virology 12/1999; 264(1):237-43. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Certain types of chemokine receptors have been identified as coreceptors for HIV-1 infection. The process of viral entry is initiated by the interaction between an envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1, CD4, and one of the relevant coreceptors. To understand the precise mechanism of the Env-mediated fusion and entry of HIV-1, we examined whether the V3 region of gp120 of T-cell line tropic (T-tropic) virus directly interacts with the coreceptor, CXCR-4, by using five synthetic V3 peptides: two cyclized V3 peptides (V3-BH10 and V3-ELI) which correspond to the V3 regions of the T-tropic HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 ELI strains, respectively, a linear V3 peptide (CTR36) corresponding to that of HIV-1 IIIB strain; and cyclized V3 peptides corresponding to that of the macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 ADA strain (V3-ADA) or the dualtropic HIV-1 89.6 strain (V3-89. 6). FACScan analysis with a CXCR-4(+) human B-cell line, JY, showed that V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6 but not CTR36 or V3-ADA blocked the binding of IVR7, an anti-CXCR-4 monoclonal antibody (MAb), to CXCR-4 with different magnitudes in a dose-dependent manner, while none of the V3 peptides influenced binding of an anti-CD19 MAb at all. Next, the effects of the V3 peptides on SDF-1beta-induced transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ were investigated. Three V3 peptides (V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6) prevented Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, the three peptides inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by an MTT assay and a reverse transcriptase assay, while the other peptides had no effects. These results present direct evidence that the V3 loop of gp120 of T-tropic HIV-1 can interact with its coreceptor CXCR-4 independently of the V1/V2 regions of gp120 or cellular CD4.
    Journal of Virology 01/1999; 72(12):9763-70. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-1153 is a new imidazole compound that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) replication by acting as a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). This compound inhibits replication of HIV-1 strains that are resistant to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. S-1153 has a 50% effective concentration in the range of 0.3 to 7 ng/ml for strains with single amino acid substitutions that cause NNRTI resistance, including the Y181C mutant, and also has potent activity against clinical isolates. The emergence of S-1153-resistant variants is slower than that for nevirapine, and S-1153-resistant variants contained at least two amino acid substitutions, including F227L or L234I. S-1153-resistant variants are still sensitive to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine. In a mouse and MT-4 (human T-cell line) in vivo HIV replication model, S-1153 and AZT administered orally showed a marked synergy for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. S-1153 shows a significant accumulation in lymph nodes, where most HIV-1 infection is thought to occur. S-1153 may be an appropriate candidate for two-to three-drug combination therapy for HIV infection.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/1998; 42(6):1340-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of structurally diverse compounds have been shown to be potent inhibitors of the DNA polymerase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). The compounds can be grouped into two broad classes; nucleoside analogs and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. The nonnucleoside RT inhibitors are quite specific for HIV-1 RT but not human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RT. We have investigated the property of SIV/HIV-1 chimeric viruses in which portions of SIV(MAC) RT were exchanged with the corresponding domain of HIV-1 RT; amino acids 176-190, 176-383 and 176-495 of HIV-1 RT. The chimeric virus, which was substituted amino acids 176-190 of RT, had detectable RT activity, and this chimeric RT was sensitive to three nonnucleoside RT inhibitors [nevirapine, HEPT derivative (E-EBU-dM) and TIBO derivative (R82913)]. To further study this chimeric virus, we purified the chimeric RT enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli and determined its kinetic properties; the Km, and Vmax values, and the Ki value of HEPT derivative calculated for the DNA polymerase activity. This study reveals that amino acids 176-190 of SIV(MAC) RT were important for the enzymatic activity and the SIV/HIV-1 chimeric RT, which had amino acids 176-190 of HIV-1, was sensitive to the nonnucleoside RT inhibitor.
    Microbiology and Immunology 02/1998; 42(3):195-202. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vpr is one of the auxiliary proteins of HIV-1 and is selectively incorporated into the virion by a process involving the C-terminal p6 portion of the Gag precursor Pr55. Vpr and the matrix protein p17 are the components of the viral preintegration complex and appear to play important roles in the nuclear transport of proviral DNA in nondividing cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation experiments that Vpr associates with matrix protein p17 but not with capsid protein p24 within the HIV-1 virion. Experiments employing the yeast two-hybrid GAL4 assay for protein-protein interactions also demonstrated a direct association between Vpr and the C-terminal region of matrix protein p17. Association of Vpr and the matrix protein p17 within the mature virion is consistent with their collaborative role in the nuclear transportation of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells such as macrophages.
    Virology 07/1996; 220(1):208-12. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vpr and Vpx are the auxiliary proteins of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) selectively incorporated into mature viral particles. We showed that the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fused to the N-terminus of HIV-1 Vpr, HIV-2 Vpr, or HIV-2 Vpx was incorporated into mature virions in a type-selective manner. By using chimeric proteins between HIV-1 Vpr and HIV-2 Vpx, we found that the N-terminal side of these proteins was mainly important for type-selective virion incorporation. The C-terminal arginine-rich region of HIV-1 Vpr was also found to transport CAT fusion proteins into virions but without any type selectivity. Furthermore, the corresponding regions of HIV-2 Vpr and HIV-2 Vpx had no such activity. This region of HIV-1 Vpr may interact nonspecifically with viral genomic RNA. Collectively, Vpr and Vpx may provide a means to introduce foreign proteins and other molecules into HIV virions for therapeutic purposes.
    Microbiology and Immunology 02/1995; 39(12):1015-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine of 100 sera from patients recently infected with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were found to cross-react with human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antigen in the particle agglutination (PA) assay using HTLV-1 antigen-coated gelatin particles. Anti-VZV IgM antibodies were shown to be responsible for this cross-reactivity. Western blot analysis revealed that PA-positive anti-VZV sera reacted with the HTLV-1 gag p19 protein in HTLV-1-infected cells and recombinant p19 protein produced in Escherichia coli. By using a truncated p19, the cross-reactive region was located to the C-terminal 17 amino acids of p19. One oligopeptide derived from the C terminus, PQIPPPYVEPT (amino acids 115 to 125), was capable of inhibiting PA, suggesting that this peptide carries the cross-reactive epitope. A homologous sequence was found in the VZV gene 22 protein by database analysis, and the oligopeptide TNIPPPLALLR (amino acids 1330 to 1340) had the ability to inhibit PA. These findings suggest that some IgM antibodies against the VZV gene 22 protein produced in the early phase of VZV infection are cross-reactive with the HTLV-1 gag p19 protein because they recognize an antigenic determinant containing an IPPP tetrapeptide.
    Journal of General Virology 12/1992; 73 ( Pt 11):2969-73. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Journal of General Virology - J GEN VIROL. 01/1992; 73(11):2969-2973.