D J Riley

Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States

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Publications (4)21.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ability of cholesterol esterase to catalyze the synthesis of cholesterol esters has been considered to be of limited physiological significance because of its bile salt requirements for activity, though detailed kinetic studies have not been reported. This study was performed to determine the taurocholate, pH, and substrate requirements for optimal cholesterol ester synthesis catalyzed by various pancreatic lipolytic enzymes, including the bovine 67- and 72-kDa cholesterol esterases, human 100-kDa cholesterol esterase, and human 52-kDa triglyceride lipase. In contrast to current beliefs, cholesterol esterase exhibits a bile salt independent as well as a bile salt dependent synthetic pathway. For the bovine pancreatic 67- and 72-kDa cholesterol esterases, the bile salt independent pathway is optimal at pH 6.0-6.5 and is stimulated by micromolar concentrations of taurocholate. For the bile salt dependent synthetic reaction for the 67-kDa enzyme, increasing the taurocholate concentration from 0 to 1.0 mM results in a progressive shift in the pH optimum from pH 6.0-6.5 to pH 4.5 or lower. In contrast, cholesterol ester hydrolysis by the 67-, 72-, and 100-kDa enzymes was characterized by pH optima from 5.5 to 6.5 at all taurocholate concentrations. Optimum hydrolytic activity for these three enzyme forms occurred with 10 mM taurocholate. Since hydrolysis is minimal at low taurocholate concentrations, the rate of synthesis actually exceeds hydrolysis when the taurocholate concentration is less than 1.0 mM. The 52-kDa enzyme exhibits very low cholesterol ester synthetic and hydrolytic activities, and for this enzyme both activities are bile salt independent. Thus, our data show that cholesterol esterase has both bile salt independent and bile salt dependent cholesterol ester synthetic activities and that it may catalyze the net synthesis of cholesterol esters under physiological conditions.
    Biochemistry 05/1990; 29(16):3853-8. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human pancreatic fatty acid ethyl ester synthase has been isolated and purified 1200-fold to homogeneity, and its activities, binding properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence indicate that it is a member of the lipase family. This 52-kDa monomeric protein is present at 0.6-1.2 mg/g of pancreas, and it catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of ethyl oleate at rates of 2400 nmol mg-1 h-1 and 30 nmol mg-1 h-1, respectively. Kinetic analyses reveal a pronounced substrate specificity for unsaturated octadecanoic fatty acids, with ethyl ester synthetic rates of 2400 nmol mg-1 h-1 (linoleic), 2400 nmol mg-1 h-1 (oleic), 400 nmol mg-1 h-1 (arachidonic), 300 nmol mg-1 h-1 (palmitic), and 100 nmol mg-1 h-1 (stearic). Like cholesterol esterase, the enzyme binds to immobilized heparin, and this property was critical for its purification to homogeneity. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence is virtually identical with that reported for human triglyceride lipase, NH2-X-Glu-Val-Cys-5Tyr-Glu-Arg-Leu-Gly-10Cys-Phe-Ser-Asp- Asp-15Ser-Pro-Trp-Ser-Gly-20Ile, and it differs by only four residues from that reported for porcine pancreatic lipase. The synthase purified here also cleaves triglycerides, hydrolyzing triolein at a rate of 30 nmol mg-1 h-1, and this activity is stimulated by colipase and inhibited by sodium chloride. Conversely, commercially available porcine triglyceride lipase exhibits fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity (1530 nmol mg-1 h-1) and hydrolyzes triolein at a rate of 23 nmol mg-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biochemistry 05/1990; 29(16):3848-52. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Utilizing small intestine membranes that contain heparin (50 micrograms/mg protein), binding of triglyceride lipase (homogeneous 52 kDa, specific activity, 70 nmol/mg.h) to membranes was shown to be concentration dependent and saturable, and it was characterized by a single dissociation constant (KD = 86 +/- 16 nM) with a maximal binding capacity of 54 +/- 8 pmol/mg of vesicle protein. Specific binding was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of exogenous heparin, and binding was virtually eliminated (less than 6% control values) by pretreatment of membranes with bacterial heparinase. Cultured intestinal epithelial cells (CaCo-2), shown to possess membrane-associated heparin, also bound pancreatic triglyceride lipase in a specific and saturable manner, with KD = 77 +/- 12 nM and Bmax = 13.7 +/- 6 pmol/10(6) cells. Soluble heparin not only decreased binding, but it also diminished the enzyme-mediated cellular uptake of [14C]oleate from [14C]triolein by over 75%. Therefore, intestinal heparin, a component of the brush border membrane, localizes pancreatic triglyceride lipase in a receptor-like manner to the plasma membrane to promote the subsequent absorption of fatty acids derived from hydrolyzed triglycerides.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1990; 264(34):20261-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms regulating the binding, amphipathic stabilization, and metabolism of the major neutral lipids (e.g., cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and fatty acids) are well studied, but the details of their movement from a binding compartment to a metabolic compartment deserve further attention. Since all neutral lipids must cross hydrophilic segments of plasma membranes during such movement, we postulate that a critical receptor-like site exists on the plasma membrane to mediate a step between binding and metabolism and that membrane-associated heparin is a key part of this mediator. For example, intestinal brush border membranes containing heparin bind homogeneous human pancreatic 125I-labeled cholesterol esterase (100 kDa) and 125I-labeled triglyceride lipase (52 kDa). This interaction is enzyme concentration-dependent, specific, and saturable and is reversed upon addition of soluble heparin. Scatchard analysis demonstrates a single class of receptors with a Kd of 100 nM and a Bmax of approximately 50-60 pmol per mg of vesicle protein. In contrast, enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of hydrophilic compounds such as amylase, phospholipase A2, and deoxyribonuclease do not bind to intestinal membranes in this manner. Human pancreatic cholesterol esterase also binds specifically and saturably to cultured intestinal epithelial cells (CaCo-2), and soluble heparin significantly diminishes the cellular uptake of the resultant hydrophobic reaction products (cholesterol and free fatty acids). We conclude that a physiological role for intestinal heparin is that of a mediator to bind neutral lipolytic enzymes at the brush border and thus promote absorption of the subsequent hydrolyzed nutrients in the intestine. This mechanism may be a generalizable pathway for transport of neutral lipids into endothelial and other cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1988; 85(20):7438-42. · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

77 Citations
21.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–1990
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Medicine
      Saint Louis, MO, United States