D. C. Hines

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (360)1085.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the first color and polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken during two measurement campaigns of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 April 10 and May 8, when the phase angle of Comet ISON was α ≈ 13.7 º and 12.2º, respectively. We model the particles in the coma using highly irregular agglomerated debris particles. Even though the observations were made over a small range of phase angle, the data still place significant constraints on the material properties of the cometary coma. The different photo-polarimetric responses are indicative of spatial chemical heterogeneity of coma in Comet ISON. For instance, at small projected distances to the nucleus (<500 km), our modeling suggests the cometary particles are composed predominantly of small, highly absorbing particles, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics material heavily irradiated with UV radiation; whereas, at longer projected distances (>1000 km), the refractive index of the particles is consistent with organic matter slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and/or Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. The modeling suggests low relative abundances of particles with low material absorption in the visible, i.e., Im(m) <= 0.02. Such particles were detected unambiguously in other comets in the vicinity of nucleus through very strong negative polarization near backscattering (P ≈ –6%) and very low positive polarization (P ≈ 3–5%) at side scattering. These materials were previously attributed to Mg-rich silicates forming a refractory surface layer on the surface of cometary nuclei (Zubko et al., 2012). The absence of such particles in Comet ISON could imply an absence of such a layer on its nucleus.
    Planetary and Space Science 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2015.08.002 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging channel on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is equipped with four coronagraphs that provide high contrast imaging capabilities for studying faint point sources and extended emission that would otherwise be overwhelmed by a bright point-source in its vicinity. Such bright sources might include stars that are orbited by exoplanets and circumstellar material, mass-loss envelopes around post-main-sequence stars, the near-nuclear environments in active galaxies, and the host galaxies of distant quasars. This paper describes the coronagraphic observing modes of MIRI, as well as performance estimates based on measurements of the MIRI flight model during cryo-vacuum testing. A brief outline of coronagraphic operations is also provided. Finally, simulated MIRI coronagraphic observations of a few astronomical targets are presented for illustration.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the operations concept and data reduction plan for the Mid- Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The overall JWST operations concept is to use Observation Templates (OTs) to provide a straightforward and intuitive way for users to specify observations. MIRI has four OTs that correspond to the four observing modes: 1.) Imaging, 2.) Coronagraphy, 3.) Low Resolution Spectroscopy, and 4.) Medium Resolution Spectroscopy. We outline the user choices and expansion of these choices into detailed instrument operations. The data reduction plans for MIRI are split into three stages, where the specificity of the reduction steps to the observation type increases with stage. The reduction starts with integration ramps: stage 1 yields uncalibrated slope images; stage 2 calibrates the slope images; and then stage 3 combines multiple calibrated slope images into high level data products (e.g. mosaics, spectral cubes, and extracted source information). Finally, we give examples of the data and data products that will be derived from each of the four different OTs.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the presence of scattered light from dust grains located in the giant planet formation region of the circumbinary disk orbiting the ~20-Myr-old close (~0.045 AU separation) binary system V4046 Sgr AB based on observations with the new Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) instrument. These GPI images probe to within ~7 AU of the central binary with linear spatial resolution of ~3 AU, and are thereby capable of revealing dust disk structure within a region corresponding to the giant planets in our solar system. The GPI imaging reveals a relatively narrow (FWHM ~10 AU) ring of polarized near-infrared flux whose brightness peaks at ~14 AU. This ~14 AU radius ring is surrounded by a fainter outer halo of scattered light extending to ~45 AU, which coincides with previously detected mm-wave thermal dust emission. The presence of small grains that efficiently scatter starlight well inside the mm-wavelength disk cavity supports current models of planet formation that suggest planet-disk interactions can generate pressure traps that impose strong radial variations in the particle size distribution throughout the disk.
    03/2015; 803(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/803/1/L10
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 12/2014; 126(946):1134-1173. DOI:10.1086/679566 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes a workshop held on March, 2014, on the potential of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to revolutionize our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets through transit observations. JWST's unique combination of high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage will enable the accurate measurement of transits with high signal-to-noise. Most importantly, JWST spectroscopy will investigate planetary atmospheres to determine atomic and molecular compositions, to probe vertical and horizontal structure, and to follow dynamical evolution, i.e. exoplanet weather. JWST will sample a diverse population of planets of varying masses and densities in a wide variety of environments characterized by a range of host star masses and metallicities, orbital semi-major axes and eccentricities. A broad program of exoplanet science could use a substantial fraction of the overall JWST mission.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of ongoing coronagraphic simulations aimed at designing strategies for optimizing oper- ations of the coronagraphs in the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) on-board the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). In particular, the adverse effects on the point spread function caused by the phase mask coronagraphs and the observatory slew accuracy are known to limit our ability to position stars at the center of the coron- agraph. Here, we investigate these two effects on our ability to perform target acquisition (TA) and consider different scenarios involving single and multiple acquisitions to mitigate them. We assess the performance of the coronagraphs under various slew accuracy models as well as noise sources. In general, we find that scenarios that require fewer acquisitions yield final positions with smaller dispersions but larger offsets. Our Single TA scenario yields the best repeatability for all three slew accuracy models that we considered although a dual Twin TA strategy generally yields more accurate centering. We also investigate the use of the contamination control cover (CCC) inside MIRI during TA of bright objects, and ways to mitigate the resulting latent images when the CCC is not used. Our results are expressed in terms of achieved contrast with simple, single reference star subtraction. Given our preliminary prescription for latency, our simulations suggest that the CCC need not be used except for very bright sources; detailed guidelines will require additional information on the latent image decay time scale. Furthermore, we find that contrast is dependent on the observatory slew accuracy at any wavelength. The highest contrast is achieved with the highest slew accuracy model, although the background photon noise limits the contrast at longer wavelengths.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Coronagraphic Target Acquisition (TA) is an important factor that contributes to the contrast performance and typically depends on the coronagraph design. In the case of JWST, coronagraphic TAs rely on measuring the centroid of the star's point spread function away from the focal plane mask, and performing a small angle ma- neuver (SAM), to place the star behind the coronagraphic mask. Therefore, the accuracy of the TA is directly limited by the SAM accuracy. Typically JWST coronagraphic observations will include the subtraction of a reference (either a reference star, or a self-reference after a telescope roll). With such differential measurement, the reproducibility of the TA is a very important factor. We propose a novel coronagraphic observation concept whereby the reference PSF is first acquired using a standard TA, followed by coronagraphic observations of a reference star on a small grid of dithered positions. Sub-pixel dithers (5-10 mas each) provide a small reference PSF library that samples the variations in the PSF as a function of position relative to the mask, thus compen- sating for errors in the TA process. This library can be used for PSF subtraction with a variety of algorithms (e.g; LOCI or KLIP algorithms, Lafrenière et al. 2007; Soummer, Pueyo and Larkin 2012). These sub-pixel dithers are executed under closed-loop fine guidance, unlike a standard SAM that executes the maneuver in coarse point mode, which can result in a temporary target offset of 1 arcsecond and would bring the star out from behind the coronagraphic mask. We discuss and evaluate the performance gains from this observation scenario compared to the standard TA both for MIRI coronagraphs.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond \about 100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just \about 12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at $Y$ band (0.95-1.14 \microns). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point-source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by \about a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2014; 791(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/791/2/L37 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data interchange and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-infrared spectral observations Uranus acquired with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope are used to determine the abundances of C2H2, C2H6, CH3C2H, C4H2, CO2, and tentatively CH3 on Uranus at the time of the 2007 equinox. For vertically uniform eddy diffusion coefficients in the range 2200-2600 cm2 s-1, photochemical models that reproduce the observed methane emission also predict C2H6 profiles that compare well with emission in the 11.6-12.5 micron wavelength region, where the nu9 band of C2H6 is prominent. Our nominal model with a uniform eddy diffusion coefficient Kzz = 2430 cm2 sec-1 and a CH4 tropopause mole fraction of 1.6x10-5 provides a good fit to other hydrocarbon emission features, such as those of C2H2 and C4H2, but the model profile for CH3C2H must be scaled by a factor of 0.43, suggesting that improvements are needed in the chemical reaction mechanism for C3Hx species. The nominal model is consistent with a CH3D/CH4 ratio of 3.0+-0.2x10-4. From the best-fit scaling of these photochemical-model profiles, we derive column abundances above the 10-mbar level of 4.5+01.1/-0.8 x 10+19 molecule-cm-2 for CH4, 6.2 +- 1.0 x 10+16 molecule-cm-2 for C2H2 (with a value 24% higher from a different longitudinal sampling), 3.1 +- 0.3 x 10+16 molecule-cm-2 for C2H6, 8.6 +- 2.6 x 10+13 molecule-cm-2 for CH3C2H, 1.8 +- 0.3 x 10+13 molecule-cm-2 for C4H2, and 1.7 +- 0.4 x 10+13 molecule-cm-2 for CO2 on Uranus. Our results have implications with respect to the influx rate of exogenic oxygen species and the production rate of stratospheric hazes on Uranus, as well as the C4H2 vapor pressure over C4H2 ice at low temperatures.
    Icarus 07/2014; 243. DOI:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.012 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On 2007 December 16-17, spectra were acquired of the disk of Uranus by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) when its equator was close to the sub-earth point. This spectrum provides the highest-resolution broad-band spectrum ever obtained for Uranus from space, allowing a determination of the disk-averaged temperature and molecule composition to a greater degree of accuracy than ever before. The temperature profiles derived from the Voyager radio occultation experiments that match these data best are those that assume a high abundance of methane in the deep atmosphere, but none of these models provides a satisfactory fit over the full spectral range. This be the result of spatial differences between global and low-latitudinal regions, changes in time, missing continuum opacity sources such as stratospheric hazes or unknown tropospheric constituents, or undiagnosed systematic problems with either the radio-occultation or the Spitzer IRS data sets. The spectrum is compatible with the stratospheric temperatures derived from the Voyager ultraviolet occultations measurements. Thermospheric temperatures determined from the analysis of the observed H2 quadrupole emission features are colder than those derived by Herbert et al. at pressures less than ~1 microbar. Extrapolation of the nominal model spectrum to far-infrared through millimeter wavelengths shows that the spectrum arising solely from H2 collision-induced absorption is too warm to reproduce observations between wavelengths of 0.8 and 3.3 mm. Adding an additional absorber such as H2S provides a reasonable match to the spectrum, although a unique identification of the responsible absorber is not yet possible with available data. An immediate practical use for the spectrum resulting from this model is to establish a high-precision continuum flux model for use as an absolute radiometric standard for future astronomical observations.
    Icarus 07/2014; 243. DOI:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.010 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent re-processing of archival HST-NICMOS coronagraphic surveys using advanced PSF subtraction methods, entitled the Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments program (ALICE, HST/AR 12652). This virtual campaign of about 400 targets has already produced numerous new detections of previously unidentified point sources and circumstellar structures. We present five newly spatially resolved debris disks revealed in scattered light by our analysis of the archival data. These images provide new views of material around young solar-type stars at ages corresponding to the period of terrestrial planet formation in our solar system. We have also detected several new candidate substellar companions, for which there are ongoing followup campaigns (HST/WFC3 and VLT/SINFONI in ADI mode). Since the methods developed as part of ALICE are directly applicable to future missions (JWST, AFTA coronagraph) we emphasize the importance of devising optimal PSF subtraction methods for upcoming coronagraphic imaging missions. We describe efforts in defining direct imaging high-level science products (HLSP) standards that can be applicable to other coronagraphic campaigns, including ground-based (e.g., Gemini Planet Imager), and future space instruments (e.g., JWST). ALICE will deliver a first release of HLSPs to the community through the MAST archive at STScI in 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: Spatially resolved scattered-light images of circumstellar (CS) debris in exoplanetary systems constrain the physical properties and orbits of the dust particles in these systems. They also inform on co-orbiting (but unseen) planets, systemic architectures, and forces perturbing starlight-scattering CS material. Using HST/STIS optical coronagraphy, we have completed the observational phase of a program to study the spatial distribution of dust in ten CS debris systems, and one "mature" protoplanetrary disk all with HST pedigree, using PSF-subtracted multi-roll coronagraphy. These observations probe stellocentric distances > 5 AU for the nearest stars, and simultaneously resolve disk substructures well beyond, corresponding to the giant planet and Kuiper belt regions in our Solar System. They also disclose diffuse very low-surface brightness dust at larger stellocentric distances. We present new results inclusive of fainter disks such as HD92945 confirming, and better revealing, the existence of a narrow inner debris ring within a larger diffuse dust disk. Other disks with ring-like sub-structures, significant asymmetries and complex morphologies include: HD181327 with a posited spray of ejecta from a recent massive collision in an exo-Kuiper belt; HD61005 suggested interacting with the local ISM; HD15115 & HD32297, discussed also in the context of environmental interactions. These disks, and HD15745, suggest debris system evolution cannot be treated in isolation. For AU Mic's edge-on disk, out-of-plane surface brightness asymmetries at > 5 AU may implicate one or more planetary perturbers. Time resolved images of the MP Mus proto-planetary disk provide spatially resolved temporal variability in the disk illumination. These and other new images from our program enable direct inter-comparison of the architectures of these exoplanetary debris systems in the context of our own Solar System.
    The Astronomical Journal 06/2014; 148(4). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/59 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE) project (AR-12652) is currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent reprocessing of HST-NICMOS coronagraphic survey data to search for point sources and disks using advanced PSF subtraction. The KLIP algorithm (Karhunen-Loève Image Projection) was developed for this project, and has proven very effective at processing the hundreds of selected archival images. This project has already been very successful with numerous detections of previously unseen point sources and several resolved debris disks that we are currently following up by multiple avenues. We give an overview of the project including preliminary scientific results with companion candidates and improved images of known disks
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; 8(S299):30-31. DOI:10.1017/S1743921313007722
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    ABSTRACT: By reprocessing the NICMOS coronagraphic archive using improved PSF subtraction methods, we have obtained new images of 5 debris disks, all previously unseen using classical PSF subtractions. Three of the disks are edge on and two appear to be ring like, one of which is extremely asymmetric. Their stellar hosts are nearby, young F and G type stars (40-90 pc, 12-30 Myr), including one that is a close analog to the young sun at roughly the age at which terrestrial planets were assembling. This is a 25% increase in the sample of debris disks seen in scattered light. Analysis and modeling of the disk geometries is in process. Given these systems' youth, proximity, and brightness (V = 7.2 to 8.5), these will be superb targets for investigating planet formation, and are perfect targets for studies with GPI, SPHERE and JWST.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1743921313008922
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    ABSTRACT: We have spatially resolved five debris disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, HD 141943, HD 191089, and HD 202917) for the first time in near-infrared scattered light by reanalyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS coronagraphic images obtained between 1999 and 2006. One of these disks (HD 202917) was previously resolved at visible wavelengths using HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys. To obtain these new disk images, we performed advanced point-spread function subtraction based on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm on recently reprocessed NICMOS data with improved detector artifact removal (Legacy Archive PSF Library And Circumstellar Environments Legacy program). Three of the disks (HD 30447, HD 35841, and HD 141943) appear edge-on, while the other two (HD 191089 and HD 202917) appear inclined. The inclined disks have been sculpted into rings; in particular, the disk around HD 202917 exhibits strong asymmetries. All five host stars are young (8-40 Myr), nearby (40-100 pc) F and G stars, and one (HD 141943) is a close analog to the young sun during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Our discoveries increase the number of debris disks resolved in scattered light from 19 to 23 (a 21% increase). Given their youth, proximity, and brightness (V = 7.2 to 8.5), these targets are excellent candidates for follow-up investigations of planet formation at visible wavelengths using the HST/STIS coronagraph, at near-infrared wavelengths with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SPHERE, and at thermal infrared wavelengths with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2014; 786(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L23 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.
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    ABSTRACT: We present high contrast visible light imaging of the highly unusual circumstellar debris disk around HD 15745 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The combination of two coronagraphic wedges and three separate spacecraft orientations provides unprecedented signal-to-noise and inner working angle for this disk. We detect the disk to as close as ~0.4" (26 AU) and as far as 6" (380 AU). We confirm the presence of disk emission that extends further to the west as well as evidence for a second, inner disk. Additionally, HD 15745's motion on the sky is parallel to the extended nebulosity observed, raising the possibility that ISM interactions could play a part in its unusual structure. We investigate the plausibility of this scenario. We acknowledge support from STScI for program (GO12228) and its observations.
  • Rachel E. Anderson · C. Chen · D. C. Hines · IPAC
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out a study to examine the spatial structure and composition of dust in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium, using Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lockman Hole and Taurus. Models of the infrared background include three components: scattered light and thermal emission from zodiacal dust, diffuse emission from dust in the Milky Way, and the Cosmic Infrared Background. The Background Model Generator (BMG) developed by IPAC to model the Spitzer background includes all three components (Reach 2000), and it assumes that: 1) the spatial distribution of the diffuse interstellar dust is well-traced out by the emission observed in the COBE DIRBE + IRAS 100 micron all sky map; 2) that the Spectral Energy Distribution of the dust is well-described using the Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (1998) template. We compare the Spitzer data for these regions to this background model to determine how fine scale structure that is not spatially resolved by COBE and the observed, relative contribution from various emission features from dust, impact our understanding of the diffuse interstellar emission. This in turn enables us to evaluate the efficacy of models based only on the averaged SEDs and low spatial resolution data.

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,085.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • New Mexico State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Concepción
      • Departamento de Astronomía
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
  • 2006–2011
    • The Space Science Institute
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2010
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1991–2009
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • California State University, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2003
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States