Derek LeRoith

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (542)2567.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype has been associated with cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Because ethnicity/culture has been associated with both cognitive function and Hp genotype frequencies, we examined whether it modulates the association of Hp with cognitive function. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 787 cognitively normal older individuals (>65 years of age) with type 2 diabetes participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Interactions in two-way analyses of covariance compared Group (Non-Ashkenazi versus Ashkenazi Jews) on the associations of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1 versus non- Hp 1-1) with five cognitive outcome measures. The primary control variables were age, gender, and education. Results: Compared with Ashkenazi Jews, non-Ashkenazi Jews with the Hp 1-1 phenotype had significantly poorer cognitive function than non-Hp 1-1 in the domains of Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.035) and Executive Function (p = 0.023), but not in Language/Semantic Categorization (p = 0.432), Episodic Memory (p = 0.268), or Overall Cognition (p = 0.082). After controlling for additional covariates (type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, Mini-mental State Examination, and extent of depressive symptoms), Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.038) and Executive Function (p = 0.013) remained significant. Conclusions: Older individuals from specific ethnic/cultural backgrounds with the Hp 1-1 phenotype may benefit more from treatment targeted at decreasing or halting the detrimental effects of Hp 1-1 on the brain. Future studies should examine differential associations of Hp 1-1 and cognitive impairment, especially for groups with high prevalence of both, such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/gps.4354 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Common features of obesity and type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. A mammary tumor promoting effect of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia was demonstrated in the transgenic female MKR mouse model of pre-diabetes inoculated with mammary cancer cells. Interestingly, in MKR mice, as well as in other diabetic mouse models, males exhibit severe hyperglycemia, while females display insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with only a mild increase in blood glucose levels. This gender-specific protection from hyperglycemia may be attributed to estradiol, a key player in the regulation of the metabolic state, including obesity, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy (including the removal of endogenous estradiol) on the metabolic state of MKR female mice and subsequently on the growth of Mvt-1 mammary cancer cells, inoculated into the mammary fat pad of ovariectomized mice, compared with sham-operated mice. The results showed an increase in body weight, accompanied by increased fat mass, elevated blood glucose levels and hypercholesterolemia in ovariectomized MKR mice. In addition, mammary tumor growth was significantly higher in these mice. The results suggest that ovarian hormone deficiency may promote impaired metabolic homeostasis in the hyperinsulinemic MKR female mice, which in turn is associated with increased growth of mammary tumors.
    Journal of Endocrinology 09/2015; DOI:10.1530/JOE-15-0310 · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • Derek LeRoith ·

    Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 09/2015; 44(3):xiii-xv. DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2015.07.002 · 3.40 Impact Factor

  • Diabetes care 08/2015; 38(7):1177-80. DOI:10.2337/dc15-0875 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrauterine HIV/antiretroviral (ARV) and postnatal ARVs are known to perturb energy metabolism and could have permanent effects on future metabolic health. Such maladaptive effects could be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function and intermediary metabolism due to fetal and early-life ARV exposure in HIV/ARV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. To understand the relationship(s) between mitochondrial fuel utilization [assessed via acylcarnitines (ACs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)] and pre-prandial insulin in infants exposed to in utero HIV/ARV plus postnatal zidovudine (AZT) or nevirapine (NVP) compared to HIV /ARV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Prospective cohort study with 3 groups: 1) intrauterine HIV/ARV/postnatal AZT-exposed (HEU-A), 2) intrauterine HIV/ARV/postnatal NVP-exposed (HEU-N), and 3) HUU infants. Principal component analysis and linear regression modeling were performed to assess the association between in utero HIV/ARV exposure and infant insulin. Cameroonian urban antenatal centers. HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant woman/infant dyads. Pre-prandial insulin. Of 366 infants, 38 were HEU-A, 118 HEU-N. Forty intermediary metabolites were consolidated into seven principal components. In multivariate analysis, both HEU-A (β=-0.116, p=0.012) and HEU-N (β=-0.070,p=0.022) demonstrated lower insulin compared to HUU infants. However, at high levels of plasma metabolites, HEU-A (β=0.027,p=0.050) exhibited higher insulin levels than HEU-N or HUU infants. A unique array of short-chain ACs (β=0.044, p=0.001) and BCAAs (β=0.033, p=0.012) were associated with insulin. HEU-A and HEU-N infants have lower preprandial insulin levels at 6 weeks of age and appear to utilize metabolic fuel substrates differently than HUU infants. Future studies are warranted to determine whether observed differences have lasting metabolic implications, such as later insulin resistance.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2015; 100(9):JC20152198. DOI:10.1210/JC.2015-2198 · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Emily Jane Gallagher · Derek LeRoith ·
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
    Physiological Reviews 07/2015; 95(3):727-748. DOI:10.1152/physrev.00030.2014 · 27.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD24 is an anchored cell surface marker that is highly expressed in cancer cells (Lee et al., 2009) and its expression is associated with poorer outcome of cancer patients (Kristiansen et al., 2003). Phenotype comparison between two subpopulations derived from the Mvt1 cell line, CD24− cells (with no CD24 cell surface expression) and the CD24+ cells, identified high tumorigenic capacity for the CD24+ cells. In order to reveal the transcripts that support the CD24+ aggressive and invasive phenotype we compared the gene profiles of these two subpopulations. mRNA profiles of CD24− and CD24+ cells were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Here we provide a detailed description of the mRNA-seq analysis from our recent study (Rostoker et al., 2015). The mRNA-seq data have been deposited in the NCBI GEO database (accession number GSE68746).
    Genomics Data 07/2015; 5. DOI:10.1016/j.gdata.2015.06.032
  • Derek LeRoith ·

    Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 06/2015; 44(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2015.03.003 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-negative breast cancer is clinically aggressive and does not respond to conventional hormonal therapies. Strategies that lead to re-expression of ERα could sensitize ERα-negative breast cancers to selective ER modulators. FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya), a sphingosine analog, is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prodrug for treatment of multiple sclerosis that also has anticancer actions that are not yet well understood. We found that FTY720 is phosphorylated in breast cancer cells by nuclear sphingosine kinase 2 and accumulates there. Nuclear FTY720-P is a potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) that enhances histone acetylations and regulates expression of a restricted set of genes independently of its known effects on canonical signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. High-fat diet (HFD) and obesity, which is now endemic, increase breast cancer risk and have been associated with worse prognosis. HFD accelerated the onset of tumors with more advanced lesions and increased triple-negative spontaneous breast tumors and HDAC activity in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice. Oral administration of clinically relevant doses of FTY720 suppressed development, progression and aggressiveness of spontaneous breast tumors in these mice, reduced HDAC activity and strikingly reversed HFD-induced loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors in advanced carcinoma. In ERα-negative human and murine breast cancer cells, FTY720 reactivated expression of silenced ERα and sensitized them to tamoxifen. Moreover, treatment with FTY720 also re-expressed ERα and increased therapeutic sensitivity of ERα-negative syngeneic breast tumors to tamoxifen in vivo more potently than a known HDAC inhibitor. Our work suggests that a multipronged attack with FTY720 is a novel combination approach for effective treatment of both conventional hormonal therapy-resistant breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer.
    Oncogenesis 06/2015; 4(6):e156. DOI:10.1038/oncsis.2015.16 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast tumors are comprised of distinct cancer cell populations which differ in their tumorigenic and metastatic capacity. Characterization of cell surface markers enables investigators to distinguish between cancer stem cells and their counterparts. CD24 is a well-known cell surface marker for mammary epithelial cells isolation, recently it was suggested as a potential prognostic marker in a wide variety of malignancies. Here, we demonstrate that CD24(+) cells create intra-tumor heterogeneity, and display highly metastatic properties. The mammary carcinoma Mvt1 cells were sorted into CD24(-) and CD24(+) cells. Both subsets were morphologically and phenotypically characterized, and tumorigenic capacity was assessed via orthotopic inoculation of each subset into the mammary fat pad of wild-type and MKR mice. The metastatic capacity of each subset was determined with the tail vein metastasis assay. The role of CD24 in tumorigenesis was further examined with shRNA technology. GFP-labeled cells were monitored in-vivo for differentiation. The genetic profile of each subset was analyzed using RNA sequencing. CD24(+) cells displayed a more spindle-like cytoplasm. The cells formed mammospheres in high efficiency and CD24(+) tumors displayed rapid growth in both WT and MKR mice, and were more metastatic than CD24- cells. Interestingly, CD24-KD in CD24+ cells had no effect both in-vitro and in-vivo on the various parameters studied. Moreover, CD24(+) cells gave rise in-vivo into the CD24(-) that comprised the bulk of the tumor. RNA-seq analysis revealed enrichment of genes and pathways of the extracellular matrix in the CD24(+) cells. CD24(+) cells account for heterogeneity in mammary tumors. CD24 expression at early stages of the cancer process is an indication of a highly invasive tumor. However, CD24 is not a suitable therapeutic target; instead we suggest here new potential targets accounting for early differentiated cancer cells tumorigenic capacity.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2015; 17(1):78. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0589-9 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Sarit Ben-Shmuel · Ran Rostoker · Eyal J Scheinman · Derek LeRoith ·
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with multiple metabolic disorders that drive cardiovascular disease, T2D and cancer. The doubling in the number of obese adults over the past 3 decades led to the recognition of obesity as a "disease". With over 42 million children obese or overweight, this epidemic is rapidly growing worldwide. Obesity and T2D are both associated together and independently with an increased risk for cancer and a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies revealed potential factors that may explain the association between obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cancer risk. Studies based on the insulin resistance MKR mice, highlighted the roe of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling proteins in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects. Hypercholesterolemia was also shown to promote the formation of larger tumors and enhancement in metastasis. Furthermore, the conversion of cholesterol into 27-Hydroxycholesterol was found to link high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia with cancer pathophysiology. Alteration in circulating adipokines and cytokines are commonly found in obesity and T2D. Adipokines are involved in tumor growth through multiple mechanisms including mTOR, VEGF and cyclins. In addition, adipose tissues are known to recruit and alter macrophage phenotype; these macrophages can promote cancer progression by secreting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6.Better characterization on the above factors and their downstream effects is required in order to translate the current knowledge into the clinic, but more importantly is to understand which are the key factors that drive cancer in each patient. Until we reach this point, policies and activities toward healthy diets and physical activities remain the best medicine.
    Handbook of experimental pharmacology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/164_2015_12
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence from clinical trials indicates that specific targeting of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) is not efficient as an anti-breast cancer treatment. One possible reason is that the mitogenic signals from the insulin receptor (IR) can be processed independently or as compensation to inhibition of the IGF1R. In this study, we highlight the role of the IR in mediating breast tumor progression in both WT mice and a hyperinsulinemic MKR mouse model by induction of Ir (Insr) or Igf1r knockdown (KD) in the mammary carcinoma Mvt-1 cell line. By using the specific IR antagonist-S961, we demonstrated that Igf1r-KD induces elevated responses by the IR to IGF1. On the other hand, Ir-KD cells generated significantly smaller tumors in the mammary fat pads of both WT and MKR mice, as opposed to control cells, whereas the Igf1r-KD cells did not. The tumorigenic effects of insulin on the Mvt-1 cells were also demonstrated using microarray analysis, which indicates alteration of genes and signaling pathways involved in proliferation, the cell cycle, and apoptosis following insulin stimulation. In addition, the correlation between IR and the potential prognostic marker for aggressive breast cancer, CD24, was examined in the Ir-KD cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed more than 60% reduction in CD24 expression in the Ir-KD cells when compared with the control cells. Our results also indicate that CD24-expressing cells can restore, at least in part, the tumorigenic capacity of Ir-KD cells. Taken together, our results highlight the mitogenic role of the IR in mammary tumor progression with a direct link to CD24 expression. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 04/2015; 22(2):145-57. DOI:10.1530/ERC-14-0490 · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with cognitive impairment independently. However, it is unclear if their combination exacerbates poor cognitive function. We assessed whether long-term glycemic level and glycemic variability modulate the association of systemic inflammation with cognitive function, in a sample of cognitively normal older people with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA retrospective cohort study of 777 randomly selected participants from ~11,000 patients in the Maccabi Healthcare Services Diabetes Registry, as part of the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Subjects averaged 18 (±9.4) HbA1c measures in the Maccabi Healthcare Services Registry, which were used to calculate long-term glycemic level (HbA1c-mean) and glycemic variability (HbA1c-standard deviation (SD)). Linear regression models assessed the interactions of CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, with HbA1c-mean and HbA1c-SD on subjects' performance in tests of Memory, Executive Functions, Attention, and Semantic Categorization.ResultsQuadratic interactions of CRP with HbA1c-SD approached significance for executive functions and overall cognition. However, after Bonferroni adjustment, none of the interactions of CRP with HbA1c were statistically significant. In partial correlations according to HbA1c-SD tertiles, CRP was weakly correlated in the middle tertile with decreased performance in the domains of semantic categorization (r = −0.166, p = 0.011), executive functions (r = −0.136, p = 0.038), and overall cognition (r = −0.157, p = 0.016).Conclusions Glycated hemoglobin does not substantially modulate the association of CRP with cognition in a sample of cognitively normal, community dwelling older people with relatively well-managed type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2015; 30(10). DOI:10.1002/gps.4267 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association of glycaemic control with cognitive function is modulated by the haptoglobin 1-1 (Hp 1-1) genotype in cognitively normal elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 793 participants who were genotyped for Hp (80 Hp 1-1 carriers and 713 Hp 1-1 non-carriers) enrolled in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study. Glycaemic control was operationally defined by HbA1c level. The outcome measures were performance in four cognitive domains (episodic memory, attention/working memory, language/semantic categorisation, executive function) and overall cognition, a composite of the domains. Effect sizes were obtained from hierarchical linear regression analyses for each outcome measure, controlling for demographics, type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and their interactions with Hp genotype. Interaction analyses showed significantly stronger associations of HbA1c with poorer cognitive function among Hp 1-1 carriers than non-carriers; attention/working memory (p < 0.001) and overall cognition (p = 0.003). For these two cognitive domains, associations were significant for Hp 1-1 carriers despite the small sample size (p < 0.00001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but not for non-carriers. Our findings suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes and poor glycaemic control carrying the Hp 1-1 genotype may be at increased risk of cognitive impairment, particularly in the attention/working memory domain. The association of glycaemic control with this domain may indicate cerebrovascular mechanisms.
    Diabetologia 01/2015; 58(4). DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3487-2 · 6.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rational: Prior studies have shown an anticancer effect of metformin in patients with breast and colorectal cancer. It is unclear, however, whether metformin has a mortality benefit in lung cancer. Objectives: To compare overall survival of diabetic patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) taking metformin versus those not on metformin. Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 750 diabetic patients 65-80 years of age diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC between 2007 and 2009. We used propensity score methods to assess the association of metformin use with overall survival while controlling for potential confounders. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, 61% of patients were on metformin at time of lung cancer diagnosis. Median survival in the metformin group was five months, compared to three months in patients not treated with metformin (p<0.001). Propensity score analyses showed that metformin use was associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival (hazard ratio: 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.89), after controlling for sociodemographics, diabetes severity, other diabetes medications, cancer characteristics, and treatment. Conclusions: Metformin is associated with improved survival among diabetic patients with stage IV NSCLC suggesting a potential anticancer effect. Further research should evaluate plausible biological mechanisms as well as test the effect of metformin in prospective clinical trials.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2014; 191(4). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201407-1395OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
  • Derek LeRoith ·

    Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 12/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2014.12.002 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by a loss of pancreatic β-cell mass and function, which results in dramatic reductions in insulin secretion and circulating insulin levels. Patients with T1D are traditionally treated with insulin injections and insulin pumps ex-vivo or undergo transplantation. Growth hormone has been shown to be involved in β-cell function and survival in culture.Methods12 weeks old female C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin and monitored for their weight and blood glucose levels. 14 days post initial injection these mice were separated into two groups at random. One group was treated with growth hormone while the other treated with vehicle for up to three weeks. These mice were compared to mice not treated with streptozotocin.ResultsUnder our experimental conditions, we observed that mice treated with growth hormone had larger islets and higher serum insulin levels than streptozotocin-treated mice treated with saline (0.288 vs. 0.073 ng/ml p < 0.01).Conclusions Our data demonstrates that GH may rescue islets and therefore may possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of T1D, although consideration should be made regarding GH's effect on insulin resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 12/2014; 31(5). DOI:10.1002/dmrr.2631 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    Haim Werner · Derek LeRoith ·
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    ABSTRACT: The involvement of insulin, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) and their receptors in central nervous system development and function has been the focus of scientific interest for more than 30 years. The insulin-like peptides, both locally-produced proteins as well as those transported from the circulation into the brain via the blood brain barrier, are involved in a myriad of biological activities. These actions include, among others, neuronal survival, neurogenes, angiogenesis, excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, regulation of food intake, and cognition. In recent years, a linkage between brain insulin/IGF1 and certain neuropathologies has been identified. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between diabetes (mainly type 2) and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, an aberrant decline in IGF1 values was suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The present review focuses on the expression and function of insulin, IGFs and their receptors in the brain in physiological and pathological conditions.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2014; 24(12). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.01.020 · 4.37 Impact Factor
  • Derek LeRoith ·

    Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 12/2014; 43(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2014.09.002 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the relationship of adult body height with five cognitive outcomes (executive functioning, semantic categorization, attention/working memory, episodic memory, and an overall cognition measure) in 897 cognitively normal elderly with type 2 diabetes. Regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic, cardiovascular, and diabetes-related risk factors and depression demonstrated that in males, shorter stature was associated with poorer executive functioning (p = 0.001), attention/working memory (p = 0.007), and overall cognition (p = 0.016), but not with episodic memory (p = 0.715) or semantic categorization (p = 0.948). No relationship between height and cognition was found for females. In cognitively normal type 2 diabetes male subjects, shorter stature, a surrogate for early-life stress and poor nutrition, was associated with cognitive functions.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 11/2014; 44(3). DOI:10.3233/JAD-142049 · 4.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

27k Citations
2,567.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2014
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa, Israel
  • 2013
    • Rambam Medical Center
      H̱efa, Haifa, Israel
  • 2008-2012
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • Sinai Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1982-2008
    • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1991-2005
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Physiology and Biophysics
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1986-2005
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
      • • Section on Molecular and Cell Biology
      • • Section on Cellular and Synaptic Physiology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 1992-2004
    • National Eye Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Physiology and Biophysics (Chicago)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2003
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      • Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      • Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1994-1996
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
    • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
      • Division of Pediatrics
      Beersheba, Southern District, Israel
  • 1995
    • Sheba Medical Center
      Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Kimmel Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Saint Francis Hospital And Medical Center, Hartford, Ct
      Hartford, Connecticut, United States
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1989-1991
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Gothenburg
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1985
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1983
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States