[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period. Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13. The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults.
Medicine 01/2015; 94(1):e334. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000334 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many of the treatment strategies for sigmoid diverticulitis are actually focusing on nonoperative and minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the actual role of damage control surgery (DCS) in the treatment of generalized peritonitis caused by perforated sigmoid diverticulitis.A literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1960 to July 2013. Comparative and noncomparative studies that included patients who underwent DCS for complicated diverticulitis were considered.Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, duration of open abdomen, intensive care unit length of stay, reoperation, bowel resection performed at first operation, fecal diversion, method, and timing of closure of abdominal wall were the main outcomes of interest.According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm for the literature search and review, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. DCS was exclusively performed in diverticulitis patients with septic shock or requiring vasopressors intraoperatively. Two surgical different approaches were highlighted: limited resection of the diseased colonic segment with or without stoma or reconstruction in situ, and laparoscopic washing and drainage without colonic resection.Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, clinical settings, and interventions included in this review, DCS appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of Hinchey III and IV diverticulitis, complicated by septic shock. A tailored approach to each patient seems to be appropriate.
Medicine 11/2014; 93(25):e184. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000184 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Today, we do not have a universally accepted evidence on how to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) in international guidelines.
The present study is a review of the literature investigating current strategies to treat CRC PC.
Despite the progresses of systemic chemotherapy, the presence of PC among patients with metastatic CRC reduces the overall survival to 30 %, and only 4 % of patients with PC from CRC treated are alive for 5 years. Many trials evaluate the combined treatment of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for CRC PC, suggesting a survival benefit in highly selected patients. Only one trial is randomized and presents some biases. The two main prognostic factors are Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction score (CC score). There is no universal agreement on how to approach the synchronous presence of PC and liver metastasis with a curative intent during the same procedure. A growing interest among the scientific community has arisen about systematic second-look surgery and HIPEC treatment in high-risk patients.
Current evidences suggest that CRS and HIPEC might be beneficial in highly selected patients affected with PC from CRC. Anyway, today, there is a shortage of well-designed phase 3 trials.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 06/2014; 29(8). DOI:10.1007/s00384-014-1907-x · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Angiogenesis is a complex process involved in both growth and progression of several human and animal tumours. Tryptase is a serin protease stored in mast cells granules, which plays a role in tumour angiogenesis. Mast cells (MCs) can release tryptase following c-Kit receptor (c-KitR) activation.
Method. In a series of 25 gastric cancer patients with stage T3N2-3M0 (by AJCC for Gastric Cancer 7th Edition), immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods were employed to evaluate in the tumour tissue the correlation between the number of mast cells positive to tryptase (MCPT), c-KitR expressing cells (c-KitR-EC), and microvascular density (MVD). Results. Data demonstrated a positive correlation between MCPT, c-KitR-EC, and MVD to each other. In tumour tissue the mean number of MCPT was 15, the mean number of c-KitR-EC was 20, and the mean number of MVD was 20. The Pearson test correlating MCPT and MVD, c-KitR-EC and MVD was significantly (r = 0.64, P = 0.001; r = 0.66, P = 0.041, resp.). Conclusion. In this pilot study, we suggest that MCPT and c-KitR-EC play a role in gastric cancer angiogenesis, so we think that several c-KitR or tryptase inhibitors such as gabexate mesilate and nafamostat mesilate might be evaluated in clinical trials as a new antiangiogenetic approach.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 11/2013; 2013(6):703163. DOI:10.1155/2013/703163 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The stomach is the most common site for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) development. Surgical treatment consists of excision of the entire neoplastic mass, with sufficient surgical margins within healthy tissue. This can be achieved with different techniques ranging from wedge resections, typical gastric resections, right up to total gastrectomy. There aren't clear guidelines for the use of minimally invasive approach.
Materials and methods:
From January 2011 to April 2012, 5 patients with presumed preoperative diagnosis of GIST were treated by robotic surgery at the Unit of Surgery and Advanced Oncologic Therapies, Forlì Hospital, Forlì, Italy. We report operative techniques, perioperative outcomes and follow-up.
Lesions were localized at anterior wall of gastric antrum (N = 2) and near pyloric area (N = 3). Mean tumor size was 5 cm (range 4-7 cm). Surgical procedures were 5 distal gastrectomy. None intervention was converted to open surgery and there weren't major intraoperative complications. Median operative time was 240 min (range 210-300 min) and mean intraoperative blood loss was 96 ml (80-120 ml). All lesions had microscopically negative resection margins. Median follow-up was 13.5 months (range 12-15 months) with a disease-free survival rate of 100%.
Surgical robotic approach for large GISTs is feasibility and new evidences are needed to clarify the effective role of different surgical strategies.
International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 01/2013; 11(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.01.002 · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Treating hepatocellular carcinoma involves many different specialists and requires multidisciplinary management. In light of the current discussion on the role of ablative therapy, the aim of this study is to compare patients who undergo hepatic resection to those treated with radiofrequency ablation.
The procedures have been conducted in two institutes following the same methodologies. Ninety-six patients with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis, single or multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a diameter less than or equal to 3 cm, have been included in this retrospective study: 52 patients have been treated by surgical resection and 44 by radiofrequency ablation. Patient characteristics, survival and disease-free survival have all been analysed.
Disease-free survival was longer in the resection group in comparison to the radiofrequency group with a median disease-free time of 48 versus 34 months, respectively (P = 0.04, hazard ratio = 1.5, 95 % confidence interval = 0.9-2.5). In the resection group, median survival was 54 months with a survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years of 100, 98 and 46.2 %. In the radiofrequency group, median survival was 40 months with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate of 95.5, 68.2 and 36.4 %.
The current study shows that for small HCC in the presence of compensated cirrhosis, surgical resection gives better results than radiofrequency, both in terms of overall survival, as well as disease-free survival. Further evidence is required to clarify the role of ablative therapy as a curative treatment and whether it can replace surgery.
Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 12/2012; 398(1). DOI:10.1007/s00423-012-1029-2 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumour and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in USA. For advanced CRC, the liver is the first site of metastatic disease; approximately 50 % of patients with CRC will develop liver metastases either synchronously or metachronously within 2 years after primary diagnosis. Hepatic resection (HR) is the only curative option, but only 15-20% of patients with liver metastases from CRC (CRLMs) are suitable for surgical standard treatment. In patients with unresectable CRLMs downsizing chemotherapy can improve resectability (16%). Modern systemic chemotherapy represents the only significant treatment for unresectable CRLMs. However several loco-regional treatments have been developed: hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), cryosurgical ablation (CSA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation and selective internal radion treatment (SIRT). During the past decade RFA has superseded other ablative therapies, due to its low morbidity, mortality, safety and patient acceptability.
The objective of this study was to systematically review the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of CRLMs.
We performed electronic searches in the following databases:CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Current trials were identified through the Internet using the Clinical-Trials.gov site (to January 2, 2012) and ASCO Proceedings. The reference lists of identified trials were reviewed for additional studies.
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing RFA to any other therapy for CRLMs were included. Observational study designs including comparative cohort studies comparing RFA to another intervention, single arm cohort studies or case control studies have been included if they have: prospectively collected data, ten or more patients; and have a mean or median follow-up time of 24 months. Patients with CRLMs who have no contraindications for RFA. Patients with unresectable extra-hepatic disease were also included.Trials have been considered regardless of language of origin.
A total of 1144 records were identified through the above electronic searching. We included 18 studies: 10 observational studies, 7 Clinical Controlled Trials (CCTs) and an additional 1 Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) (abstract) identified by hand searching in the 2010 ASCO Annual Meeting. The most appropriate way of summarizing time-to-event data is to use methods of survival analysis and express the intervention effect as a hazard ratio. In the included studies these outcome are mostly reported as dichotomous data so we should have asked authors research data for each participant and perform Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis. Given the study design and low quality of included studies we decided to give up and not to summarize these data.
Seventeen studies were not randomised and this increases the potential for selection bias. In addition, there was imbalance in the baseline characteristics of the participants included in all studies. All studies were classified as having a elevate risk of bias. The assessment of methodological quality of all non-randomized studies included in meta-analysis performed by the STROBE checklist has allowed us to identify several methodological limits in most of the analysed studies. At present, the information from the single RCT included (Ruers 2010) comes from an abstract of 2010 ASCO Annual Meeting where the allocation concealment was not reported; however in original protocol allocation concealment was adequately reported (EORTC 40004 protocol). The heterogeneity regarding interventions, comparisons and outcomes rendered the data not suitable.
This systematic review gathers information from several controlled clinical trials and observational studies which are vulnerable to different types of bias. The imbalance between characteristics of patients in the allocated groups appears to be the main concern. Only one randomised clinical trial (published as an abstract), comparing 60 patients receiving RFA plus CT versus 59 patients receiving CT alone, was identified. This study showed that PFS was significantly higher in the group that received RFA. However, it was not able to provide information on overall survival. In conclusion, evidence from the included studies are insufficient to recommend RFA for a radical oncological treatment of CRLMs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although standard treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) consists of surgical debulking and intravenous platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy, favorable oncological outcomes have been recently reported with the use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The aim of the study was to analyze feasibility and results of CRS and HIPEC in patients with advanced EOC.
This is an open, prospective phase 2 study including patients with primary or recurrent peritoneal carcinomatosis due to EOC. Thirty-nine patients with a mean (SD) age of 57.3 (9.7) years (range, 34-74 years) were included between September 2005 and December 2009. Thirty patients (77%) had recurrent EOC and 9 (23%) had primary EOC.
For HIPEC, cisplatin and paclitaxel were used for 11 patients (28%), cisplatin and doxorubicin for 26 patients (66%), paclitaxel and doxorubicin for 1 patient (3%), and doxorubicin alone for 1 patient (3%). The median intra-abdominal outflow temperature was 41.5°C. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 11.1 (range, 1-28); and according to the intraoperative tumor extent, the tumor volume was classified as low (PCI <15) or high (PCI ≥15) in 27 patients (69%) and 12 patients (31%), respectively. Microscopically complete cytoreduction was achieved for 35 patients (90%), macroscopic cytoreduction was achieved for 3 patients (7%), and a gross tumor debulking was performed for 1 patient (3%). Mean hospital stay was 23.8 days. Postoperative complications occurred in 7 patients (18%), and reoperations in 3 patients (8%). There was one postoperative death. Recurrence was seen in 23 patients (59%) with a mean recurrence time of 14.4 months (range, 1-49 months).
Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy after extensive CRS for advanced EOC is feasible with acceptable morbidity and mortality. Complete cytoreduction may improve survival in highly selected patients. Additional follow-up and further studies are needed to determine the effects of HIPEC on survival.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 05/2012; 22(5):778-85. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0b013e31824d836c · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic and open rectal resection for cancer were compared by analysing a total of 26 end points which included intraoperative and postoperative recovery, short-term morbidity and mortality, late morbidity and long-term oncological outcomes.
We searched for published randomized clinical trials, presenting a comparison between laparoscopic and open rectal resection for cancer using the following electronic databases: PubMed, OVID, Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews, CINAHL and EMBASE.
Nine randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis incorporating a total of 1544 patients, having laparoscopic (N = 841) and open rectal resection (N = 703) for cancer. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer was associated with a statistically significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss and in the number of blood transfusions, earlier resuming solid diet, return of bowel function and a shorter duration of hospital stay. We also found a significant advantage for laparoscopy in the reduction of post-operative abdominal bleeding, late intestinal adhesion obstruction and late morbidity. No differences were found in terms of intra-operative and late oncological outcomes.
The meta-analysis indicates that laparoscopy benefits patients with shorter hospital stay, earlier return of bowel function, reduced blood loss and number of blood transfusions and lower rates of abdominal postoperative bleeding, late intestinal adhesion obstruction and other late morbidities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adhesiolysis has been demonstrated to be technically feasible in small bowel obstruction and carries advantages in terms of post-surgical course. The increasing dissemination of laparoscopic surgery in the emergency setting and the lack of concrete evidence in the literature have called for a consensus conference to draw recommendations for clinical practice.
A literature search was used to outline the evidence, and a consensus conference was held between experts in the field. A survey of international experts added expertise to the debate. A public jury of surgeons discussed and validated the statements, and the entire process was reviewed by three external experts.
Recommendations concern the diagnostic evaluation, the timing of the operation, the selection of patients, the induction of the pneumoperitoneum, the removal of the cause of obstructions, the criteria for conversion, the use of adhesion-preventing agents, the need for high-technology dissection instruments and behaviour in the case of misdiagnosed hernia or the need for bowel resection.
Evidence of this kind of surgery is scanty because of the absence of randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless laparoscopic skills in emergency are widespread. The recommendations given with the consensus process might be a useful tool in the hands of surgeons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adhesiolysis has been demonstrated technically feasible in small bowel obstruction, and carries advantages in terms of post-surgical course. The increasing dissemination of laparoscopic surgery in the emergency setting, and the lack of concrete evidence in the literature, have called for a consensus conference to draw recommendations for the clinical practice. Method: A literature research was used to outline the evidence, and a consensus conference was held between experts in the field. A survey between international experts added expertise to the debate. A public jury of surgeons discussed and validated the statements, and the entire process was reviewed by three external experts. Results: Recommendations concern the diagnostic work-up, the timing of the operation, the patients' selection, the induction of the pneumoperitoneum, the removal of the cause of obstruction, the criteria for conversion, the use of adhesion preventing agents, the need for high-technology dissection instruments, the behavior in case of misdiagnosed hernia, or in case of need for bowel resection. Conclusion: Evidence on this kind of surgery is scanty because of the absence of randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless laparoscopic skills in emergency is widespread. The recommendations given with the consensus process might be a useful tool in the hands of surgeons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to compare robotic rectal resection with laparoscopic rectal resection for cancer. Robotic surgery has been used successfully in many branches of surgery but there is little evidence in the literature on its use in rectal cancer.
We performed a systematic review of the available literature in order to evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of robotic versus laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. We compared robotic and laparoscopic surgery with respect to twelve end-points including operative and recovery outcomes, early postoperative mortality and morbidity, and oncological parameters. A subgroup analysis of patients undergoing full-robotic or robot-assisted rectal resection and robotic total mesorectal excision was carried out. All aspects of Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Metanalysis (PRISMA) statement were followed to conduct this systematic review. Comprehensive electronic search strategies were developed using the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM reviews and CINAHL. Randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials comparing robotic and laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer were included. No language or publication status restrictions were imposed. A data-extraction sheet was developed based on the data extraction template of the Cochrane Group. The statistical analysis was performed using the odd ratio (OR) for categorical variables and the weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables.
Eight non randomized studies were identified that included 854 patients in total, 344 (40.2%) in the robotic group and 510 (59.7%) in the laparoscopic group. Meta-analysis suggested that the conversion rate to open surgery in the robotic group was significantly lower than that with laparoscopic surgery (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12-0.57, P = 0.0007). There were no significant differences in operation time, length of hospital stay, time to resume regular diet, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and the oncological accuracy of resection.
Robotic surgery for rectal cancer has a lower conversion rate and a similar operative time compared with laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in recovery, oncological and postoperative outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primitive Gastrointestinal Lymphomas (PGIL) are uncommon tumours, although time-trend analyses have demonstrated an increase. The role of surgery in the management of lymphoproliferative diseases has changed over the past 40 years. Nowadays their management is centred on systemic treatments as chemo-/radio- therapy. Surgery is restricted to very selected indications, always discussed in a multidisciplinary setting. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the actual role of surgery in the treatment of PGIL.
A systematic review of literature was conducted according to the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration. Main outcomes analysed were overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS).
There are currently 1 RCT and 4 non-randomised prospective controlled studies comparing surgical versus medical treatment for PGIL. Seven hundred and one patients were analysed, divided into two groups: 318 who underwent to surgery alone or associated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (surgical group) versus 383 who were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (medical group).
Despite the OS at 10 years between surgical and medical groups did not show relevant differences, the DFS was significantly better in the medical group (P = 0.00001). Accordingly a trend was noticed in the recurrence rate, which was lower in the medical group (6.06 vs. 8.57%); and an higher mortality was revealed in the surgical group (4.51% vs. 1.50%).
The chemotherapy confirms its primary role in the management of PGIL as part of systemic treatment in the medical group. Surgery remains the treatment of choice in case of PGIL acutely complicated, although there is no evidence in literature regarding the utility of preventive surgery.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/2011; 9(1):145. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-9-145 · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility and the eventual advantages of ghost ileostomy (GI) versus covering stoma (CS) in terms of complications, hospital stay and quality of life of patients and their caregivers after anterior resection for rectal cancer.
In this prospective study, we included patients who had rectal cancer treated with laparotomic anterior resection and confectioning a stoma (GI or CS), in the period comprised between January 2008 and January 2009. Short-term and long-term surgery-related mortality and morbidity after primary surgery (including that stoma-related and colorectal anastomosis-related) and consequent to the intervention of intestinal recanalization (CS group) and GI closure were evaluated. We evaluated hospital stay and quality of life of patients and their caregivers.
Stoma-related morbidity rate was higher in the CS group than in GI group (37% vs. 5.5%, respectively, P = 0.04). Morbidity rate after intestinal recanalization in the CS group was 25.9% and 0% after GI closure (P = 0.08). Overall stoma morbidity rate was significantly lower in the GI group with respect to CS group (5.5% vs. 40.7%, respectively, P = 0.03). CS group was characterized by a significantly longer recovery time (P = 0.0002). Caregivers and stoma-related quality of life were better in the GI group than in CS group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005, respectively).
GI is feasible, characterized by shorter recovery, lesser degree of total, as well as anastomosis-related morbidity and higher quality of life of patients and the caregivers in respect to CS. We suggest that GI (should be evaluated as an alternative to conventional ileostomy) could be indicated in selected patients that do not present risk factors, but require caution for anastomotic leakage for the low level of colorectal anastomosis.
Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 04/2011; 396(7):997-1007. DOI:10.1007/s00423-011-0793-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors, surgery remains the elective treatment. Nowadays, imatinib therapy has been standardized in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors, showing continuous improvements in progression-free and overall survival. A combination of imatinib therapy and surgery may also be effective in a subset of patients with metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In this review, the authors analyzed the role of imatinib mesylate associated to surgery in unresectable and/or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
We searched for all published and unpublished randomized controlled clinical trials and controlled clinical trials. We conducted the review according to the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration. We used Review Manager 5 software for the statistical analysis.
There are currently no randomized controlled clinical trials or controlled clinical trials on this issue. We performed a subgroup analysis in the patients preoperatively treated with imatinib mesylate. This subgroup revealed a minor incidence of recurrent or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors and a greater incidence of locally unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the responsive disease group (P = 0.001). In this patient group, more complete resections were observed (P = 0.00001). Furthermore, in the same patient group we observed a more significant 12 and 24-month disease-free survival after imatinib treatment and complete resection (respectively P= 0.06 and P= 0.003) and also a better 24-month overall survival (P = 0.004).
There is actually only one ongoing European randomized study evaluating surgery of residual disease in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors responding to imatinib mesylate. Imatinib mesylate represents the standard treatment as preoperative supplement for locally unresectable and/or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and a trial to compare the approach versus surgery alone is not necessary. For patients responding to imatinib or patients with prolonged stable disease, resection of residual disease should be considered. A phase III randomized study evaluating surgery of residual disease in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor responding to imatinib mesylate, EORTC 62063, has been opened. Moreover, surgery should be considered for patients at higher risk of complications during pharmacological debulking. In advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors, the advantages of the integrated treatment are significant in the complete or partial response disease group in terms of more complete resections and better disease-free and overall survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims. Gastric cancer in 5.8-35.4% appears as clinical T4. There is controversy about the best therapeutic approach. Combined multi-organ gastrectomy is reported in 5-22.3% of cases. Methods. From 1990 to 2004, 945 patients were opereted on for gastric cancer. Forty-eight patients (5%), M 28, F 20, mean 68 yrs, were submitted to combined total (32) or sub-total (16) gastrectomy and extended nodal dissection. Adjacent organs involved were one (60.4% of cases), two (33.3%) or three (6.25%). Post-operative mortality and morbidity, pathologic features, number and site of involved organs and actuarial survival (Kaplan-Meier) were retrospectively analyzed; uni- and multi-variated analysis was performed. Results: The infiltration of adjacent organs has been confirmed by pathologist in 43.7% of cases. Post-operative mortality and major morbidity were 2% and 27%. Median OS was 10.3 mos; 1-yr, 2-yrs and 3-yrs OS 47%, 12% and 7% respectively. No significant differences in survival for “T” factor (pT3 vs pT4), “N” factor (pN0-N1 vs N2-N3) and number of involved organs were observed. Total gastrectomy was an independent prognostic factor at multivariated Cox analysis (p<0.005). Conclusions: The correct approach to T4 gastric cancer is still unclear. Survival is poor. Experiences reported in scientific papers are unhomogeneous, and it’s difficult to find prognostic indicators. Curative R0 resection is the strongest indicator of survival. Multimodal approach with neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated, in selected cases, with loco-regional therapies seems to be a new perspective for this kind of patients for increasing R0 rate and decreasing regional recurrence