D Brown

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)36.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The major sporozoite surface antigen of Theileria annulata (SPAG-1) is a candidate for inclusion in a subunit vaccine. In this paper we summarize the results of 4 vaccination experiments using recombinant SPAG-1 expressed in different systems and presented in different adjuvants. The antigen has been presented as either a C terminal 108 amino acid peptide (called SR1) expressed as both beta-galactosidase and hepatitis B core antigen fusions or as a full-length form expressed as a GST fusion with an N terminal His6 tag. We used different adjuvants, namely Freund's, saponin, ISCOMs and a proprietary adjuvant supplied by SmithKline Beecham, which we call SKBA. The data point to the conclusion that SPAG-1 can elicit partial protection and is therefore suitable for inclusion in an eventual multicomponent subunit vaccine.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/1999; 4(9):A71-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3156.1999.00453.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the studies previously reported, the tick-borne protozoan parasites Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata were shown to differ in their capacity to infect sheep and cattle. In the studies presented here, these findings were further supported. In vitro infectivity of T. lestoquardi and T. annulata sporozoites for peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sheep and cattle were determined by analysis of cell cultures for cell proliferation, the detection of parasites in Giemsa-stained cytospin smears and the establishment of continuously growing schizont-infected cell lines. In the same way, the development of schizont-infected cells into continuously growing cell lines was studied with material isolated ex vivo from the sheep and cattle undergoing primary infections described elsewhere. Comparisons were also made between development of ex vivo cell lines from animals undergoing primary infections with those of the animals undergoing challenge infection with the other parasite species. Theileria species specific primers were used in a PCR to determine the identity of the parasites in the cell lines. These in vitro studies confirmed earlier observations that T. lestoquardi was unable to infect cattle, whereas infection of all sheep with T. annulata was proven. Moreover, earlier indications of the development of partial cross-immunity in sheep of T. annulata to T. lestoquardi and vice versa were strengthened. These findings may thus have consequences for the understanding of the epidemiology of T. lestoquardi infections of sheep. On the other hand. since piroplasms were not demonstrated in sheep infected with T. annulata, such sheep will not be infective to ticks and will consequently be unlikely to play a role in the maintenance and transmission of T. annulata to cattle.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/1999; 82(3):193-204. DOI:10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00014-X · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a series of experiments, sporozoite stabilates of a Theileria lestoquardi (Lahr) and a T. annulata (Ankara) stock prepared from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks, were used to examine the infectivity of both parasite species for sheep and cattle and to study the development of cross-immunity between these parasite species. In the first experiment sheep and cattle were inoculated with T. lestoquardi sporozoites. Surviving animals and naive sheep and cattle were, in the second experiment, inoculated with T. annulata. In the third experiment, naive sheep and sheep previously infected with T. annulata, were inoculated with T. lestoquardi. The following responses to inoculations were monitored: clinical and haematological signs of infection, appearance of parasitic stages of the parasites in lymph node biopsies and in peripheral blood and serological response to T. lestoquardi and T. annulata schizont antigens. While T. lestoquardi readily infected sheep and caused severe disease, it did not infect cattle. On the other hand, T. annulata infected both cattle and sheep. However, whereas cattle became severely affected, infected sheep showed mild clinical symptoms only and piroplasms did not develop. Despite their different behaviour in the host species examined, cross-immunity studies suggested that the parasite species are very closely related. Experiments in sheep indicated that T. lestoquardi infection protected against subsequent T. annulata infection. On the other hand, recovery from T. annulata infection did not prevent infection by sporozoites of T. lestoquardi, resulting in the establishment of schizonts and their subsequent development into piroplasms, although it protected against the major clinical effects of T. lestoquardi infection.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/1999; 82(3):179-92. DOI:10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00013-8 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Parasitology International 08/1998; 47:42-42. DOI:10.1016/S1383-5769(98)80063-9 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theileria lestoquardi (= T. hirci) is a protozoan parasite of sheep and goats that is morphologically and biologically similar to T. annulata, the causative agent of bovine tropical theileriosis. Both parasites are transmitted by ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. However, because of their morphological similarity, they cannot be distinguished in the salivary glands of infected ticks by traditional staining methods such as Feulgen or Methyl green-pyronin. Thus a need has arisen for sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that will distinguish between the two species in the vector tick, allowing the epidemiology of both diseases to be clearly defined. A contribution to this has been the development of a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers which amplify, only in T. lestoquardi-infected ticks, a 785 bp fragment of the gene that codes for a 30 kD merozoite surface protein. The sensitivity of this test and its application to the detection of T. lestoquardi in infected H. anatolicum anatolicum ticks, in the blood of three species of domestic ruminants and in cell cultures established in mononuclear cells of sheep and goats is also discussed.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/1998; 849:52-62. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    The Veterinary record 06/1997; 140(22):581-3. DOI:10.1136/vr.140.22.581 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPAG-1 is a surface antigen on Theileria annulata sporozoites that is a candidate both for inclusion in a subunit vaccine and as a ligand for host cell recognition. We have pinpointed major neutralizing epitopes to the C terminus. To facilitate this we expressed SPAG-1 as a series of defined fragments in the pGEX system. These constructs were validated by sequencing and by their spectrum of reactivity with monoclonal antibody (MoAb) BA4. This MoAb recognizes the elastin motif VGVAPG, that is predicted to occur three times in the N terminal half of SPAG-1. The recombinant proteins were then tested by Western blotting with a neutralizing MoAb (1A7) and two neutralizing bovine sera (10T and 34A). The results demonstrate that 1A7 and the bovine sera react with determinants unique to the C terminus. We mapped the neutralizing determinant recognized by MoAb 1A7 to a 16 residue sequence (residues 807-822) using synthetic peptides. Interestingly the bovine sera do not recognize the 1A7 epitope. The potential role of the C terminus as a ligand for host cell recognition and the implications for sub-unit vaccine production are discussed.
    Parasite Immunology 03/1994; 16(2):97-104. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multinucleated macroschizont stage of the protozoon Theileria annulata is an intracellular parasite of bovine leukocytes. The parasite induces the host cell to proliferate, and divides in synchrony with the immortalised host cell. Differentiation to the next stage occurs within the host cell culminating in the release of merozoites and destruction of the leukocyte. In this study clones of Theileria annulata macroschizont-infected cell lines were isolated by limiting dilution and tested for differentiation to the merozoite stage (merogony). Two cloned cell lines underwent differentiation with enhanced efficiency, while two others were of lower efficiency. Quantification was carried out using monoclonal antibodies, which showed that over 90% of the cells in an enhanced cloned cell line could be induced to differentiate. By carrying out induction at 41 degrees C for limited periods of time followed by culture at 37 degrees C evidence was obtained that differentiation to the merozoite is a two-step process: a preliminary reversible phase, followed by a second irreversible phase of differentiation. Analysis of the nuclear number of the macroschizont and the growth rate of the cloned cell lines showed that the ability to differentiate was associated with an increase in nuclear number (size) of the macroschizont, generated by a disruption in the synchrony between parasite growth and host cell division. We believe that these results reveal a relationship between a reduction in parasite division and differentiation, and that there are similarities between stage differentiation in parasites and cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/1992; 101 ( Pt 1):99-107. · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Culture of a lymphoblastoid cell line infected with the macroschizont stage of the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata at 41 degrees C induces differentiation to the next stage, the merozoite. We have demonstrated that this development results in the loss of monoclonal antibody epitopes associated with the macroschizont stage, and the appearance of epitopes associated with the piroplasm (the intra-erythrocytic stages). One of the monoclonals (5E1) was shown by immunoelectron microscopy to bind to the surface of heat-induced culture forms which had size and structural characteristics of the merozoite. The monoclonal was found to detect two polypeptides of 30 kDa and 25 kDa in extracts of piroplasms. The 30-kDa polypeptide was also detected in a merozoite extract, but was not detected in an extract derived from macroschizont-infected lymphoblastoid cells. We conclude that the heat-induced differentiation of T. annulata in vitro results in the expression of a 30-kDa molecule which is located at the surface of the merozoite, and discuss the potential of this molecule as a component in a subunit vaccine.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 05/1990; 40(1):105-12. DOI:10.1016/0166-6851(90)90084-Y · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theileria annulata is an economically important protozoan parasite that threatens an estimated 250 million cattle with the disease tropical theileriosis. Development of a defined subunit vaccine is one means of trying to develop control measures against the disease. To this end we have characterized a surface antigen complex of the infective stage (sporozoite), by using a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes sporozoite infectivity in vitro. We have cloned the gene coding for this complex and have demonstrated that a fusion protein expressed from a fragment of this gene elicits strong neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore we provide data on the structure and expression of this gene. In particular we show that the region of the gene, expressed in one clone, codes for a protein segment relatively rich in proline residues. Also we demonstrate that expression of this gene appears to be stage specific, transcripts being present only in the sporoblast and sporozoite stages. The relevance of these findings to the production of a defined subunit vaccine is discussed.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1989; 86(12):4639-43. DOI:10.1073/pnas.86.12.4639 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the characterisation of polypeptides located on the surface of Theileria annulata sporozoites, macroschizonts, piroplasms and infected lymphoblastoid cells using surface iodination techniques. The sporozoite stage exhibited a complex profile of surface polypeptides. However, using data from experiments with defined monoclonal antibodies, the sporozoite surface appeared to be composed of several distinct groups of related polypeptides. Analysis of the macroschizont detected seven surface polypeptides, while eight polypeptides were identified for the piroplasm stage. On the basis of molecular weight comparisons, one of the surface polypeptides appeared to be common to the sporozoite, macroschizont and piroplasm. Stage cross-reactive monoclonals failed to immunoprecipitate a surface-radiolabelled polypeptide, and this prohibited the characterisation of a stage common surface antigen. From the surface labelling studies of Theileria-infected and uninfected lymphoblastoid cell lines, we concluded that infection results in major changes at the surface of the host cell, including both the appearance and loss of specific polypeptides. By employing monoclonal antibodies which detect infection-associated determinants, and a polyclonal antiserum raised against a glycoprotein fraction of an infected cell lysate, surface-labelled polypeptides were specifically immunoprecipitated from extracts of infected cells. The polypeptide detected by monoclonal antibody 4H5 was characterised as an infection-associated glycoprotein which varies in molecular mass when immunoprecipitated from different infected cell lines. The identification of infection-associated glycoproteins on the surface of the lymphoblastoid cell suggests that these molecules may be recognised by the cytotoxic T cells of immune animals.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 06/1989; 34(3):209-20. DOI:10.1016/0166-6851(89)90049-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor