D Brown

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (6)24.98 Total impact

  • Parasitology International 08/1998; 47:42-42. DOI:10.1016/S1383-5769(98)80063-9 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    E Kirvar · T Ilhan · F Katzer · G Wilkie · P Hooshmand-Rad · D Brown ·
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    ABSTRACT: Theileria lestoquardi (= T. hirci) is a protozoan parasite of sheep and goats that is morphologically and biologically similar to T. annulata, the causative agent of bovine tropical theileriosis. Both parasites are transmitted by ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. However, because of their morphological similarity, they cannot be distinguished in the salivary glands of infected ticks by traditional staining methods such as Feulgen or Methyl green-pyronin. Thus a need has arisen for sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that will distinguish between the two species in the vector tick, allowing the epidemiology of both diseases to be clearly defined. A contribution to this has been the development of a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers which amplify, only in T. lestoquardi-infected ticks, a 785 bp fragment of the gene that codes for a 30 kD merozoite surface protein. The sensitivity of this test and its application to the detection of T. lestoquardi in infected H. anatolicum anatolicum ticks, in the blood of three species of domestic ruminants and in cell cultures established in mononuclear cells of sheep and goats is also discussed.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/1998; 849:52-62. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    L Ceci · E Kirvar · G Carelli · D Brown · M Sasanelli · O Sparagano ·

    The Veterinary record 06/1997; 140(22):581-3. DOI:10.1136/vr.140.22.581 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPAG-1 is a surface antigen on Theileria annulata sporozoites that is a candidate both for inclusion in a subunit vaccine and as a ligand for host cell recognition. We have pinpointed major neutralizing epitopes to the C terminus. To facilitate this we expressed SPAG-1 as a series of defined fragments in the pGEX system. These constructs were validated by sequencing and by their spectrum of reactivity with monoclonal antibody (MoAb) BA4. This MoAb recognizes the elastin motif VGVAPG, that is predicted to occur three times in the N terminal half of SPAG-1. The recombinant proteins were then tested by Western blotting with a neutralizing MoAb (1A7) and two neutralizing bovine sera (10T and 34A). The results demonstrate that 1A7 and the bovine sera react with determinants unique to the C terminus. We mapped the neutralizing determinant recognized by MoAb 1A7 to a 16 residue sequence (residues 807-822) using synthetic peptides. Interestingly the bovine sera do not recognize the 1A7 epitope. The potential role of the C terminus as a ligand for host cell recognition and the implications for sub-unit vaccine production are discussed.
    Parasite Immunology 03/1994; 16(2):97-104. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multinucleated macroschizont stage of the protozoon Theileria annulata is an intracellular parasite of bovine leukocytes. The parasite induces the host cell to proliferate, and divides in synchrony with the immortalised host cell. Differentiation to the next stage occurs within the host cell culminating in the release of merozoites and destruction of the leukocyte. In this study clones of Theileria annulata macroschizont-infected cell lines were isolated by limiting dilution and tested for differentiation to the merozoite stage (merogony). Two cloned cell lines underwent differentiation with enhanced efficiency, while two others were of lower efficiency. Quantification was carried out using monoclonal antibodies, which showed that over 90% of the cells in an enhanced cloned cell line could be induced to differentiate. By carrying out induction at 41 degrees C for limited periods of time followed by culture at 37 degrees C evidence was obtained that differentiation to the merozoite is a two-step process: a preliminary reversible phase, followed by a second irreversible phase of differentiation. Analysis of the nuclear number of the macroschizont and the growth rate of the cloned cell lines showed that the ability to differentiate was associated with an increase in nuclear number (size) of the macroschizont, generated by a disruption in the synchrony between parasite growth and host cell division. We believe that these results reveal a relationship between a reduction in parasite division and differentiation, and that there are similarities between stage differentiation in parasites and cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/1992; 101 ( Pt 1)(Pt 1):99-107. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    S Williamson · A Tait · D Brown · A Walker · P Beck · B Shiels · J Fletcher · R Hall ·
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    ABSTRACT: Theileria annulata is an economically important protozoan parasite that threatens an estimated 250 million cattle with the disease tropical theileriosis. Development of a defined subunit vaccine is one means of trying to develop control measures against the disease. To this end we have characterized a surface antigen complex of the infective stage (sporozoite), by using a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes sporozoite infectivity in vitro. We have cloned the gene coding for this complex and have demonstrated that a fusion protein expressed from a fragment of this gene elicits strong neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore we provide data on the structure and expression of this gene. In particular we show that the region of the gene, expressed in one clone, codes for a protein segment relatively rich in proline residues. Also we demonstrate that expression of this gene appears to be stage specific, transcripts being present only in the sporoblast and sporozoite stages. The relevance of these findings to the production of a defined subunit vaccine is discussed.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1989; 86(12):4639-43. DOI:10.1073/pnas.86.12.4639 · 9.67 Impact Factor