C H Schröder

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (137)203.47 Total impact

  • Rian M Eijsermans · Desiree G Creemers · Paul J Helders · Cock H Schröder ·
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated. The aim of this study was to describe the motor skills, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children with ESRD. The study population consisted of ten hemodialysis patients (aged 7-16 years). In eight children motor proficiency according to Bruininks-Oseretsky was determined. In all ten children a progressive exercise test on a treadmill was performed. The results were compared with an age-matched healthy reference group. Nine children filled in the TNO-AZL Child Quality of Life (TACQOL) scoring list. One child had a markedly reduced fine motor skills capacity; another five children scored < or = -2 SD compared with healthy children in gross motor skills. Seven children showed a diminished VO(2)max (per kilogram body weight); six of these are physically inactive. Four of these seven children did not sustain the maximum workload. The self-assessed physical and mental health of children on dialysis seems comparable to the general population. We found no correlation between exercise performance or motor skills and hemoglobin levels, Kt/V, and time on dialysis. In conclusion, in this study most children had a reduced exercise tolerance and gross motor skills. There was no difference in fine motor skills. Pediatric dialysis patients report a good health-related quality of life.
    Pediatric Nephrology 11/2004; 19(11):1262-6. DOI:10.1007/s00467-004-1583-0 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced serum IgG and subclass levels have been demonstrated in children with chronic renal failure. To study possible causes of this reduction, we analysed B cell subset composition, T helper cell frequencies and immunoglobulin (Ig) production capacity in vitro in children with chronic renal failure, with or without dialysis treatment. B cell subsets were characterized by determining CD27, IgM, IgD and CD5 expression within the CD19(+) population. Intracellular expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was used to evaluate T helper frequencies. The capacity of B cells to secrete Ig in vitro was determined by measuring IgG(1), IgG(2) and IgM in culture supernatants of anti-CD2/CD28 monoclonal antibody (MoAb)- or SAC/IL-2-stimulated PBMC. Memory B cell numbers (identified as percentage or absolute number of CD19(+) IgM-IgD- or CD19(+)CD27(+) lymphocytes) were lower in children treated with haemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and children with chronic renal failure before starting dialysis treatment (CRF) compared to healthy controls (HC) (P < 0.05). Compared with HC, CD5(+) (naive) B cells were reduced in HD-treated patients but not for PD or for children with chronic renal failure before starting dialysis treatment (CRF). No significant differences in CD4(+) T helper cell subsets were found between the groups. However, CRF children had a higher percentage of IFN-gamma producing CD8(+) T lymphocytes compared to HC (P = 0.02). Finally, IgG(1), IgG(2) and IgM production in vitro was similar in the four groups. In conclusion, significantly lower numbers of memory type B cells were found in children with chronic renal failure compared to healthy controls. This reduction may contribute to the low Ig levels found in these children.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 09/2004; 137(3):589-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02571.x · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present studywas designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of renal biopsies prior to cyclophosphamide therapy. The aim of the study was to determine in how many cases histological outcome of the biopsies had subsequently changed the decision to treat or refrain from treatment. Between January 1980 and September 2001, 85 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) underwent a renal biopsy in the University Hospitals of Utrecht and Nijmegen before the start of an 8-week cyclophosphamide treatment. MCNS was suspected in all children because of the following criteria: edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, absence of macroscopic hematuria and in rare cases microscopic hematuria, no permanent hypertension, normal C3 serum level, a normal glomerular filtration rate as determined by creatinine clearance and age > 1 year. Cyclophosphamide therapy was indicated because of a frequently relapsing (FR) course of illness in 8 children, because of steroid dependence (SD) in 22 children and because of combined FR and SD in 55 children. Steroid-resistant children were excluded from this study. Histology confirmed the diagnosis MCNS in 84 out of 85 children. In addition to MCNS, IgA deposits were observed in renal specimens of 2 children. In 1 SD child, the initial diagnosis MCNS was changed 3 years later when a repeated biopsy showed progression into focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In summary, no renal biopsy is required prior to cytotoxic therapy in children with uncomplicated steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2003; 60(5):315-7. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of hemodialysis (HD) treatments incorporate a prescription for fluid removal targeted to a patients “dry” weight. Hypotension, cramps or headache often complicates fluid removal in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-invasive blood volume monitoring by hematocrit could be used for the determination of dry weight and prevention of intra-dialytic complaints in children on chronic HD. Patients and methods: 128 dialysis sessions in 16 patients, aged 3–17 years, were evaluated. Non-invasive monitoring of hematocrit (NIMH) (Crit-lineTM, HemaMetrics) was performed during the whole HD session and expressed as % Δ of blood volume (%BVΔ). Results: Changes in blood volume significantly correlated with the changes of patient's weight during hemodialysis treatments (p = 0.001). Thirty HD sessions were complicated by symptomatic hypotension in 12 patients. Conclusion: Changes in blood volume measured by Crit-line correlate with the changes of patient's weight during hemodialysis treatments. Complicated HD sessions were associated with lower halfway %BVΔ. This indicates that NIMH might be useful for the determination of dry weight and for prevention of intra-dialytic morbidity in children by remodeling of the ultrafiltration profile.
    Hemodialysis International 02/2003; 7(1). DOI:10.1046/j.1492-7535.2003.01282.x · 1.24 Impact Factor

  • Clinical nephrology 01/2003; DOI:10.5414/CNP60315 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the leading cause of acute renal failure in childhood, can be caused by different serotypes of vero cytotoxin (VT; i.e., Shiga toxin)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Recently, VT was shown to bind to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in the systemic circulation of patients with HUS. This study investigated whether VT bound to PMNL could be detected in persons in households with patients with HUS. Serum antibodies against E. coli O157 and, when available, fecal samples from patients with HUS and household members were studied for the presence of VTEC infection. The circulating PMNL of 82% of the household members were positive for VT, whereas stool and/or serum examination showed only 21% positivity. Thus, current methods underestimate the number of infected persons in households with patients with HUS.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2001; 184(4):446-50. DOI:10.1086/322782 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    E Rusthoven · N C van de Kar · L.A.H. Monnens · C H Schröder ·

    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 03/2001; 21(2):196-7. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    E Rusthoven · L.A.H. Monnens · C H Schröder ·
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of the combination of cefazolin and ceftazidime for initial treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis in pediatric patients. Retrospective nonrandomized study. Pediatric dialysis units of the University Medical Center of Utrecht and Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 40 children (median age 5.4 years) who were treated with PD during the study period of 4.5 years. All 50 episodes of peritonitis that occurred during the study period were evaluated by review of medical records. Patients were given intraperitoneal ceftazidime 500 mg/L dialysis fluid, and cefazolin 500 mg/L as a loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of ceftazidime 125 mg/L and cefazolin 100 mg/L, intraperitoneally, 4 times daily. Antibiotics were continued for 14 days. After identification of the causative microorganism, one of the antibiotics was discontinued in 34 cases, and the antibiotic schedule was adapted in 2 cases. All cases were initially cured within 3 days. In 5 cases (10%), there was a peritonitis with the same organism recurring within 2 weeks after completion of treatment. There were 4 cases of PD-related peritonitis caused by pseudomonas, all of which were cured. The antibiotic combination of cefazolin and ceftazidime is effective for the initial therapy of PD-related peritonitis in children. The toxic complications of aminoglycosides are avoided with this combination.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2001; 21(4):386-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2001; 21(1):88-90. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the adsorption of erythropoietin and growth hormone to dialysis bags and tubing. In vitro study in which radiolabeled erythropoietin and recombinant human growth hormone were added to small-volume (50- and 250-mL) dialysis bags. Recovery was measured after 15-minute dwells. Experiments were performed in triplicate. University hospital. Adsorption of erythropoietin and growth hormone was less than 7%. Adsorption of erythropoietin and recombinant human growth hormone to dialysis bags and tubing is minimal. This finding provides another argument in favor of intraperitoneal therapy in pediatric peritoneal dialysis.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2001; 21(1):90-2. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    A.H.M. Bouts · T A Out · C H Schröder · L.A.H. Monnens · J Nauta · R T Krediet · J C Davin ·
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    ABSTRACT: To explore further the mechanisms leading to immune deficiency in chronic renal failure and the role of dialysis treatment in these mechanisms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. We studied 39 children treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), 23 children treated with hemodialysis (HD), 33 children not yet dialyzed [chronic renal failure (CRF)], and 27 healthy children. Peritoneal cells were also obtained from PD children for analysis. White blood cells (WBCs) were isolated from blood and peritoneal dialysis effluent by centrifugation. The number of CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were measured by flow cytometry. The total peripheral blood lymphocyte count was lower in PD children (2.6 x 10(9)/L), HD children (2.1 x 10(9)/L), and CRF children (2.0 x 10(9)/L) compared with healthy children (3.1 x 10(9)/L, p < 0.05). The B lymphocyte count was also lower in PD children (0.34 x 10(9)/L), HD children (0.22 x 10(9)/L), and CRF children (0.33 x 10(9)/L) compared with healthy children (0.52 x 10(9)/L, p < 0.01). Numbers of CD4+ T cells were not different, but numbers of CD8+ T cells were lower in PD children (0.56 x 10(9)/L), HD children (0.63 x 10(9)/L), and CRF children (0.53 x 10(9)/L) compared with healthy children (0.77 x 10(9)/L, p < 0.05). The count of natural killer cells was lower in PD children (0.21 x 10(9)/L), HD children (0.17 x 10(9)/L), and CRF children (0.18 x 10(9)/L) compared with healthy children (0.50 x 10(9)/L, p < 0.0001). The CD4/CD8 ratio of lymphocytes in peritoneal effluent was 0.8 versus 1.9 in peripheral blood (p < 0.001). The CD2/CD19 ratio was not different. The cell subsets remained stable during the first year of PD treatment. The CD2/CD19 ratio in peritoneal effluent was higher in children with a peritonitis incidence > or = 1 per year. The reduced numbers of B lymphocytes, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells found in CRF children, dialyzed or not, may favor the frequent occurrence of infections.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2001; 20(6):748-56. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • M R Lilien · M Duran · J. M. E. Quak · J J Frankhuisen · C H Schröder ·
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    ABSTRACT: The use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has greatly facilitated the treatment of anemia in children with chronic renal failure, but is expensive. Several reports on adult patients have shown that supplementation with L-carnitine can decrease the requirement for rhEPO. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral supplementation with L-carnitine on the rhEPO requirement in children on dialysis. We investigated 16 children on dialysis (11 hemodialysis, 5 peritoneal dialysis) with a median age of 10.2 years. All children were stable on rhEPO treatment at least 3 months before study entrance. After obtaining baseline data, all children were supplemented with L-carnitine 20 mg/kg/day. Data were collected for 26 weeks. Follow-up was completed for 12 patients (8 hemodialysis, 4 peritoneal dialysis). At baseline free carnitine (32+/-18 micromol/l) and total carnitine levels (54+/-37 micromol/l) were normal. At the end of the study free carnitine levels had increased to 97+/-56 micromol/l (P<0.05) and total carnitine levels to 163+/-90 micromol/l (P<0.05). There was no significant change in rhEPO requirement. Hemoglobin level or hematocrit did not change significantly during the study. In conclusion we could not demonstrate a beneficial effect of supplementation with L-carnitine on rhEPO requirement in children on dialysis.
    Pediatric Nephrology 12/2000; 15(1-2):17-20. DOI:10.1007/s004670000423 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • A.W. de Boer · C H Schröder · R van Vliet · J L Willems · L. A. H. Monnens ·
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    ABSTRACT: Icodextrin use in adults provides sustained ultrafiltration (UF) in long-term dwells. No information is available on UF and metabolism in children. In 11 children, a volume of 1,049+/-138 ml/m2 of the study fluid (1.36% glucose, 7.5% icodextrin, 3.86% glucose) was administered for 12 h. Net UF with icodextrin (339+/-147 ml/1.73 m2) did not differ from UF with 3.86% glucose (450+/-306 ml/1.73 m2, P=0.53) and was higher than UF with 1.36% glucose (-87+/-239 ml/1.73 m2, P=0.003). Icodextrin added 0.52+/-0.07 to the weekly Kt/V. Over 6 weeks, icodextrin was used for 12-h daytime dwell. Total icodextrin reached a steady-state level of 2.91+/-1.22 g/l at 2 weeks. The main icodextrin metabolites were maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose. After 2 weeks, steady state levels were 2.02+/-0.66 mmol/l, 1.46+/-0.35 mmol/l, and 0.45+/-0.12 mmol/l. No icodextrin or metabolites were detectable 4 weeks after the study. We conclude that 7.5% icodextrin is capable of maintaining UF during 12-h dwell in children and is comparable to UF obtained with 3.86% glucose. Steady-state levels of icodextrin and metabolites were reached at 2 weeks and disappeared after the study.
    Pediatric Nephrology 12/2000; 15(1-2):21-4. DOI:10.1007/s004670000406 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • K.J.M. Van Hoeck · M R Lilien · D C Brinkman · C H Schroeder ·
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    ABSTRACT: The use of the online urea monitor has not been validated in children on hemodialysis. We compared online measured Kt/V(urea) and protein catabolic rate (PCR) with single- and double-pool Daugirdas formula (DF and eDF) based Kt/V(urea) and with protein intake derived from dietary records (DPI). In 8 children aged 8-18 years, 26 measurements were performed with the online urea monitor (UM 1000) with double-needle access. In 7 children, aged 4-14 years, 12 additional measurements were performed using single-needle dialysis. Pre-dialysis serum urea was determined by the monitor in equilibrated ultrafiltrate, obtained with ultrafiltration rates (UF) of 0.5 or 1.0 l/h, in 10 and 23 experiments respectively, and compared with the laboratory results. Urea determination in ultrafiltrate correlated well with blood sample urea: r=0.945 and 0.88 for UF rates of 0.5 l/h and 1.0 l/h, respectively. The correlation of online Kt/V with DF and eDF was 0.79 for double-needle and 0.21 for single-needle access. Bland-Altmann analysis showed a mean bias of 0.02 and 0.001, but levels of agreement of +0.3 and -0.3 for double-needle and +0.77 and -0.77 for single-needle dialysis respectively with DF. Maximum percentage error for double-needle access was 18% and 59% for single-needle access. The correlation of DPI with PCR was 0.5. A Bland-Altmann plot showed a mean bias of =0.22 with upper and lower limits of agreement of +0.55 and -0.1, respectively. Online urea kinetic modelling is feasible in children with double-needle hemodialysis only. Even with small dialyzers, an accurate serum urea measurement is obtained. PCR underestimates dietary protein intake.
    Pediatric Nephrology 05/2000; 14(4):280-3. DOI:10.1007/s004670050759 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • C H Schröder · E Rusthoven · L A Monnens ·

    Pediatric Nephrology 02/2000; 14(1):84-5. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • A.H.M. Bouts · JC Davin · R T Krediet · L.A.H. Monnens · C H Schröder · J Nauta · T A Out ·

  • E. Rusthoven · J L Willems · L.A.H. Monnens · C H Schröder ·

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    ABSTRACT: To study longitudinal changes in transcapillary ultrafiltration (TCUF) and marker clearance (MC), as a reflection of lymphatic absorption, in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). To present data on fluid kinetics in infants younger than 2.5 years, using an intraperitoneal volume of 1200 mL/m2 body surface area (BSA). The study involved a 4-hour dwell of 1200 mL/m2 BSA of dialysis fluid containing 3.86% glucose with Dextran 70 as volume marker. Cumulative TCUF and cumulative MC were measured. A tertiary-care university hospital. A follow-up period of 33 months of serial (1 - 4) peritoneal equilibration tests (PETs) was studied in 20 children with a median age of 6.4 years (range 2.1 - 15.4 years). Fluid kinetics in 5 additional infants with a median age of 1.4 years (range 0.5 - 2.5 years) was measured. Cumulative TCUF was 1041 mL/1.73 m2 at 1 - 3 months after start of PD, 1026 mL/1.73 m2 at 7 - 9 months, 1021 mL/1.73 m2 at 11 - 13 months, and 756 mL/1.73 m2 at 26 - 33 months (NS). Cumulative MC was 235 mL/1.73 m2 at 1 - 3 months after start of PD, 311 mL/1.73 m2 at 7 - 9 months, 395 mL/1.73 m2 at 11 - 13 months, and 509 mL/1.73 m2 at 26 - 33 months (NS). In infants, cumulative TCUF was 755 +/- 237 mL/1.73 m2; cumulative MC was 400 +/- 214 mL/1.73 m2. Transcapillary ultrafiltration and marker clearance do not change in children > 2.5 years during the period studied. Fluid kinetics does not differ between infants < 2.5 years and older children when intraperitoneal volumes of 1200 mL/m2 BSA are used.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 11/1999; 19(6):572-7. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult patients with renal failure have a high total homocysteine concentration in plasma. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Folic acid lowers the homocysteine concentrations in plasma in hyperhomocysteinemia. Whether this results in a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases remains to be proven by intervention studies. In the present study we investigated: (1) if homocysteine concentrations are elevated in the plasma of children with renal failure and (2) the influence of folic acid administration on the plasma homocysteine concentration. The plasma homocysteine concentration was measured in 21 children, 9 on hemodialysis and 12 on peritoneal dialysis, before and 4 weeks after treatment with 2.5 mg folic acid daily. Healthy children (234) constituted the control group. In controls the median homocysteine concentration was 9.1 micromol/l (range 4.3-20.0 micromol/l). The median plasma homocysteine concentration in patients before folic acid treatment was 20.0 micromol/l (Q1-Q3 13.7-26.0; Q, quartile). After 4 weeks of folic acid treatment the median plasma homocysteine concentration was 12.0 micromol/l [Q1-Q3 9.8-14.3 (P<0.0001 Wilcoxon signed rank test)]. There was no significant difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Children with renal failure treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis have elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations, but this is significantly reduced after administration of 2.5 mg folic acid daily for 4 weeks. It is suggested that folic acid be added to the treatment of children with renal failure, although a beneficial effect still has to be proven. The required dose needs further study.
    Pediatric Nephrology 09/1999; 13(7):583-5. DOI:10.1007/s004670050748 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased rate of obstruction of peritoneal dialysis catheters is observed during peritonitis. Hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis may explain this increased occurrence. We studied plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen (PAI-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA), D-dimer (DD), plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (PAP), and thrombin-antithrombin III complexes (TAT) in 7 children with peritonitis (group A) and 12 children during stable peritoneal dialysis (group B). Albumin, beta2-microglobulin, IgG, and alpha2-macroglobulin were measured for baseline transperitoneal protein transport. After a dwell of 6 h with 1.36% Dianeal, dialysate and serum samples were collected. Dialysate to plasma ratios of all proteins were calculated. During peritonitis (group A) TAT was higher: 34.7 versus 22.0 (P=0.01). PAI-1 was increased in group A: 76.5 versus 22.9 (P=0.004). PAP was decreased during peritonitis (group A): 24.9 versus 39.3 (P=0.01). In group A, DD were decreased. 10.8 versus 26.7 (P=0.002). t-PA was similar in both groups (23.7 in group A vs. 27.7 in group B; P=0.26). In both groups TAT, PAI-1, t-PA, PAP, and DD were significantly higher than in baseline transperitoneal transport, suggesting intraperitoneal production. Hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis were present during peritonitis compared with the control situation.
    Pediatric Nephrology 06/1999; 13(4):284-7. DOI:10.1007/s004670050609 · 2.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
203.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2004
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1986-1997
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands