[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aneurysms and dissections affecting the ascending aorta are associated primarily with degeneration of the aortic media, called medial necrosis. Families identified with dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAA/dissections) indicate that single gene mutations can cause medial necrosis in the absence of an associated syndrome.
Fifteen families were identified with multiple members with TAAs/dissections. DNA from affected members from 2 of the families was used for a genome-wide search for the location of the defective gene by use of random polymorphic markers. The data were analyzed by the affected-pedigree-member method of linkage analysis. This analysis revealed 3 chromosomal loci with multiple markers demonstrating evidence of linkage to the phenotype. Linkage analysis using further markers in these regions and DNA from 15 families confirmed linkage of some of the families to 5q13-14. Genetic heterogeneity for the condition was confirmed by a heterogeneity test. Data from 9 families with the highest conditional probability of being linked to 5q were used to calculate the pairwise and multipoint logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores, with a maximum LOD of 4.74, with no recombination being obtained for the marker D5S2029. In 6 families, the phenotype was not linked to the 5q locus.
A major locus for familial TAAs and dissections maps to 5q13-14, with the majority (9 of 15) of the families identified demonstrating evidence of linkage to this locus. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, with 6 families not demonstrating evidence of linkage to any loci previously associated with aneurysm formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in the presence of additional chromosomal material on the short arm of one X chromosome, which was detected by conventional G-banding studies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Chromoprobe Multiprobe-M protocol confirmed that the additional chromosomal material originated from chromosome 5. The karyotype of this patient is now established to be 46,X,der(X) t(X;5)(p22.3;q33), with a deletion of Xp22.3-pter and partial trisomy of 5q33-qter. The distal 5q trisomy genotype has been associated with clinical signs that include growth and mental retardation, eczema, craniofacial anomalies, and malformations of heart, lungs, abdomen, limbs, and genitalia. Our patient also has short stature, a prominent nasal bridge, a flat philtrum, a thin upper lip, dental caries, and limb and cardiac malformations, but she appears to be mildly affected compared with previously reported cases. This is the first case of distal 5q trisomy arising from a translocation with the X chromosome. Replication studies on this patient show that the derivative t(X;5) chromosome is late replicating in almost all cells examined, which indicates that this chromosome is preferentially inactivated. However, the translocated segment of chromosome 5 appears to be early replicating, which implies that the trisomic 5q segment is transcriptionally active. We cannot determine from these studies whether all or only some genes in this segment are expressed, but this patient's relatively mild clinical signs suggest that the critical region(s) that contribute to the distal 5q trisomy phenotype are at least partly suppressed. A review of other patients with X-chromosome translocations indicates that many but not all of them also have attenuated phenotypes. The mechanism of inactivation of autosomal material attached to the X chromosome is complex, with varying effects on the phenotype of the patients that depend on the nature of the autosomal chromatin. Replication studies are of limited utility in predicting expression of autosomal genes involved in X-chromosome translocations.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2000; 94(5):392-9. DOI:10.1097/00125817-199901000-00097 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections can occur in families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene on chromosome 15 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS), a known cause of familial aortic aneurysms and dissections. Affected individuals have phenotypic stigmata involving the skeletal, ophthalmologic and other systems. Mutations in the type III procollagen gene cause the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS IV), which can include aneurysms that involve the aorta and other arteries, but account for a small minority of aortic aneurysms. Affected individuals have characteristic skin and joint findings. Families with no external phenotypic stigmata of connective tissue disorders have been reported as cases of Erdheim disease or annuloaortic ectasia. The causative gene(s) have not yet been identified.
Genetics in Medicine 01/2000; 2(1). DOI:10.1097/00125817-200001000-00083 · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations have been found in craniosynostosis syndromes with and without limb and/or dermatologic anomalies. Ocular manifestations of FGFR2 syndromes are reported to include shallow orbits, proptosis, strabismus, and hypertelorism, but no ocular anterior chamber, structural abnormalities have been reported until now. We evaluated three unrelated patients with severe Crouzon or Pfeiffer syndrome. Two of them had ocular findings consistent with Peters anomaly, and the third patient had opaque corneae, thickened irides and ciliary bodies, and shallow anterior chambers with occluded angles. Craniosynostosis with and without cloverleaf skull deformity, large anterior fontanelle, hydrocephalus, proptosis, depressed nasal bridge, choanal stenosis/ atresia, midface hypoplasia, and elbow contractures were also present. These patients had airway compromise, seizures, and two died by age 15 months. All three cases were found to have the same FGFR2 Ser351Cys (1231C to G) mutation predicted to form an aberrant disulfide bond(s) and affect ligand binding. Seven patients with isolated Peters anomaly, two patients with Peters plus syndrome, and three cases with typical Antley-Bixler syndrome were screened for this mutation, but none was found. These phenotype/genotype data demonstrate that FGFR2 is involved in the development of the anterior chamber of the eye and that the Ser351Cys mutation is associated with a severe phenotype and clinical course.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 08/1999; 85(2):160-70. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a family with severe X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and progressive, severe central nervous system deterioration. Three of the five affected males died of secondary complications before the age of 10 years and none have survived past the age of 10. These complications included swallowing dysfunction and gastroesophageal reflux with secondary recurrent respiratory infections. In addition, hypotonia and a mild myopathy were also present. All had a characteristic facies, including downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, and a short nose with a low nasal bridge. The two older boys showed cerebral atrophy by CT. No metabolic abnormalities were identified. Three obligate carriers had an IQ less than 80. The causal gene has been localized distal to DXS8103 in Xq28, a region spanning 5cM. No other XLMR disorder with these manifestations have been localized to this region and this appears to be a new disorder.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 08/1999; 85(3):243-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor