Chi Yang

Shanghai University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (148)192.45 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can initiate osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-articular injection of exogenous VEGF in the TMJ in mice on the early stage. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley mice were equally divided into 3 groups. In the vegf group, the mice received an injection of VEGF solution (50 1/4L) in the TMJ once a week over a period of 4 weeks. In the sham group, the mice received an injection of saline (50 /4L). The control group did not receive any injection. Four mice from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Gradual prominent cartilage degeneration was observed in the vegf group. Additionally, this group showed higher expressions of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-13, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and a higher number of apoptotic chondrocytes and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-positive chondrocytes. Micro-computed tomography (CT) revealed prominent subchondral bone resorption in the vegf group, with a high number of osteoclasts in the subchondral bone. In vitro study demonstrated that VEGF can promote osteoclast differentiation. In conclusion, our study found that VEGF can initiate TMJ OA by destroying cartilage and subchondral bone.
    Scientific Reports 11/2015; 5:16244. DOI:10.1038/srep16244 · 5.58 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 11/2015; 26(8):e695-e696. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000002158 · 0.68 Impact Factor

  • British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bjoms.2015.10.005 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction.The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus.We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar.The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials.We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise.A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75-5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups.The number of included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data.Our meta-analysis indicates that although patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time, they had less postoperative swelling, indicating that piezosurgery is a promising alternative technique for extraction of impacted third molars.
    Medicine 10/2015; 94(41):e1685. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000001685 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Ying Kai Hu · Guang Zhou Xu · Chi Yang ·

    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 10/2015; 26(7):e673-e674. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000002057 · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Shaoyi Wang · Zhiyuan Zhang · Chi Yang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Oral ranulas are caused by extravasation of mucus from the sublingual glands, and the preferred treatment varies. We have developed a two-incision fistula operation for their treatment, and in this clinical study we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of this approach. Twelve patients with oral ranulas confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology were enrolled and gave their consent to be treated by our new technique. The clinical outcomes and complications were evaluated during a period that ranged from 8-24 months. Nine ranulas became smaller and gradually disappeared, and there were no complications or injury to Wharton's duct. Three ranulas recurred, but disappeared after a second operation. The two-incision fistula operation can be effective and safe as an initial treatment for oral ranulas, and the method may become the preferred management for retention cysts.
    British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bjoms.2015.08.270 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synovial chondrosarcoma (SCS) is a very rare malignant cartilaginous tumor. To the best of our knowledge, only three reported studies presented the involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Hereby, we present a case of surgical management of a SCS of the TMJ, arising from SC and involving the skull base. The surgical procedure includes digital design, resection guided by digital templates, as well as immediate reconstruction with free iliac bone graft (IBG) and pedicled sternoclavicular joint (SCJ). At 1-year follow-up, the TMJ function and form were improved with no sign of local recurrence or metastasis to bone or other joints. However, its distant metastasis to lung was observed.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 09/2015; 8(7):11589-93. · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Pei Shen · Qi Sun · Weifeng Xu · Jinze Zhen · Shanyong Zhang · Chi Yang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Autologous fat grafts in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has achieved positive clinical effects in preventing adhesion after surgery. However it still remains indeterminate about the survival rate of grafted fat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival rate of free fat grafts in the TMJ using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods 89 patients (117 joints) with free fat grafts placed into TMJs following modified TMJ disc anchor were included in our study. They were divided into the following groups according to the time lapse between TMJ surgery and the latest MRI investigation: 1-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months, and >24 months. The signal intensity changes and volume retention were evaluated by MRI. Results The volume retention rate of grafted free fat showed that the size was hovering right around 50% although it reduced very slowly with a long-term follow-up. Nearly half joints showed lower signal intensity of the grafted fat on MRI within 6 months and it recovered to normal compared with that of the day after surgery 6 months later. Conclusions Free fat grafted into TMJ cavity could be alive for a long time with the survival rate about 48.44%. However the survival mechanism has still been unknown, which need us to explore and study in the future.
    Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 09/2015; 43(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2015.08.024 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Yiwen Wang · Lingzhi Li · Minjie Chen · Chi Yang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis is rare in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), so we retrospectively reviewed 210 such patients who presented to our hospital from 2001-2013. The final sample included 3 patients with secondary synovial chondromatosis (mean (SD) age 40 (??) years), all of whom had symptoms of disorders of the TMJ. Condylar neoplasms and loose bodies were found during operation. Histopathological examination showed a bony growth capped with hyaline cartilage and clustering chondrocytes, with partial calcification and ossification of the loose bodies, and primary osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis was diagnosed There were no recurrences during a follow-up that ranged from 3 months to 5 years. The presence of loose calcified bodies in osteochondroma is a possible sign of secondary synovial chondromatosis. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bjoms.2015.07.014 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a new glenoid fossa bone graft technique, and to evaluate its effect on the stability of stock fossa prosthesis implantation in total alloplastic joint replacement surgery. Eight patients who underwent total joint replacement surgery with a Biomet stock prosthesis (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) from November 2013 to April 2014 were included in this study. ProPlan CMF 1.4 software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) was used to choose the prosthesis size and place it in the right position. The depth of the fossa was measured, and the osteotomy line was designed to cut the bone which overlapped the fossa prosthesis. A bone graft, taken from the bottom of the articular eminence or the condylar neck, was used to fill in the fossa and make a flat plane in combination with the residual eminence for the positioning of the fossa prosthesis. The stability of the fossa prosthesis was evaluated both intra-operatively and postoperatively with computed tomography (CT) scanning after at least 6 months of follow-up. The bone contact area of the fossa prosthesis and the volume of the grafted bone were measured. Fossa prostheses were intra-operatively stable after bone grafting. All patients had stable occlusion after surgery and at follow-up. Postoperative measurement showed that the bone contact area with the fossa prosthesis increased from 52.8% to 88.5% after bone grafting. Postoperative CT measurements (at an average of 9 months after surgery) showed that the bone graft volume decreased by 11.1%. Bone grafts in the glenoid fossa help to improve the stability of Biomet stock fossa prosthesis implantation. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 07/2015; 43(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2015.06.048 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To introduce grafting fixed with the periosteum (dumpling technique) as an alternative surgical technique for augmented corticotomy-assisted orthodontics in the lower anterior region and evaluate the preliminary outcomes. Eleven patients (9 women, 2 men; mean age, 21.4 yr) with a thin alveolus or alveolar defect in the lower anterior region by clinical and radiographic examination underwent an augmented corticotomy using the new dumpling technique. Cone-beam computerized tomography was used to evaluate morphologic changes of the lower anterior ridge before treatment (T0) and 1 week (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the bone-augmentation procedure. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple-comparison test was used to compare variables at each time point. No severe postsurgical complications occurred in any patient. The mean alveolar bone thickness of the labial plate increased from T0 to T1 (P < .001) and decreased from T1 to T2 (P < .001). However, compared with T0, there was still a significant increase in horizontal bone thickness at T2 (P < .05). The vertical alveolar bone level increased from T0 to T1 (P < .001) and was maintained from T1 to T2 (P > .05). No significant differences were found in root length of the lower anterior teeth at these 3 time points (P > .05). In this preliminary study, the dumpling technique for augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics showed alveolar bone augmentation by increasing the vertical alveolar height and the horizontal bone thickness in the labial aspect of the anterior mandibular area. However, long-term follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2015.06.147 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The soft tissue healing patterns of mandibular intracapsular condylar fracture (ICF) after closed treatment have not been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to classify the injury and healing patterns in adult patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation. The present study represents a retrospective review of MRI examinations performed on patients treated with closed reduction of an ICF from 2010 to 2013. The MRI scans used for comparison were taken at 1 week and at least 3 months after the injury. These studies were used to identify the common patterns of hard and soft tissue derangements. The predictor variable was the type of soft tissue injuries, categorized as anteromedial displacement of both the disc and the fractured bony fragment, anteromedial displacement of the bony fragment with the disc remaining over the residual ramus, tear of the retrodiscal tissue or capsule, and joint effusion. The outcome variables were the MRI comparisons of the disc position, healing status of the retrodiscal tissue and capsule, and resolution of joint effusions. Twelve patients, all with ICFs, were included in the present study. Immediately after injury, all 17 fractures (100%) showed anteromedial displacement of both the disc and the fractured condylar fragment, and 10 fractures (58.8%) showed anteromedial displacement of the condylar fragment with the disc remaining over the residual condyle. Also, 11 (64.7%) showed evidence of perforation of the retrodiscal tissue, and 7 (41.2%) showed tears in the capsule. Finally, all 17 (100%) exhibited joint effusions. At 3 months after injury, all 17 fractures (100%) continued to exhibit displacement of both the disc and the condylar segments. Also, 15 fractures (88.2%) showed elongation of the disc and thickening of the retrodiscal tissue, 2 fractures (11.8%) had developed osteoid hyperplasia and meniscal perforation, and 6 fractures (35.3%) showed resolution of previous joint effusions. Finally, 17 fractures (100%) showed reactive bone formation at the condylar head. ICFs treated with closed reduction consistently result in a specific pattern of temporomandibular joint pathologic features. These pathologic features are characterized by anteromedial displacement of the articular disc, elongation and thickening of the retrodiscal tissue, and reactive bone formation at the condylar head. The presence of a portion of the disc between the residual condyle and the fossa prevented the development of osteoarthritis and ankylosis. Perforation of the bilaminar tissue and contact between the residual condyle and the fossa promoted osteoarthritic changes and ankylosis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 05/2015; 73(11). DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2015.05.030 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a digital template in the preservation of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during osteotomy for benign lesions of the mandible in 6 patients who were treated with mandibular osteotomies during 2013. Computed tomographic (CT) data were imported into ProPlan CMF 1.4 software. The borders of the lesion and the inferior alveolar canal were marked, and a digital template designed to mark the borders, outline the canal, and guide the osteotomy. A mirror image of the unaffected mandible was used to make a stereolithographic model by a rapid prototyping technique to prefabricate the reconstruction plate for the bone graft. The accuracy of the designs and the templates was evaluated during operation and postoperatively by CT. The sensation of the skin was tested using a Neurometer® CPT (current perception threshold) sensory detector (Neurotron Inc, Baltimore USA) to evaluate the function of the preserved inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during follow up. With the digital template it was possible to guide removal of the bony lesion while accurately protecting the neurovascular bundle. Follow up for a mean of 8 months (range 5 -12) showed good facial symmetry, a stable occlusion, and recovery of sensation in the lower lip on the affected side. We conclude that a digital template can successfully help the resection of benign lesions of the mandible while preserving the function of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 05/2015; 53(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bjoms.2015.04.013 · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Qin Zhou · Chi Yang · Min-Jie Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondroma represents the largest group of benign tumors of bone, which usually develops in long bones and relatively uncommon in the craniofacial region. The condyle and coronoid tip are the most common sites of occurrence in the mandible, but both sides of condyle involved has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of osteochondroma arising from the bilateral mandibular condyle.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 05/2015; 8(2):2989-92. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze primary intra- and juxta-articular vascular malformations of the temporomandibular joint. This study retrospectively reviewed eight patients (seven venous malformations and one lymphatico-venous malformation) who were treated for intra- or juxta-articular vascular malformations of the temporomandibular joint from November 2005 to January 2011. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively. According to MRI findings, vascular malformations involving TMJ could be divided into 3 types; homogenous, lacunar and mixed types. All patients underwent surgical resection, and the final clinical diagnoses were confirmed by postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemical examinations. All treated patients had no clinical or radiographic signs of recurrence. Owing to the lower incidence and nonspecific clinical presentations, preoperative diagnosis of vascular malformations involving the TMJ region is very difficult. The classification based on MRI manifestations is proposed first, then it may greatly help in the initial diagnosis. Surgical resection is considered the first option for these TMJ lesions with excellent results.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 05/2015; 8(2):2247-53. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone height and bone density were performed using CBCT software. The group 1 presented a statistically lesser bone density and bone height when compared to group 2 before treatment. There was a significant loss of bone density for both groups after orthodontic treatment, but bone density loss was significantly greater in the group 1. There was no statistically significant bone height change in two groups after treatment. This study demonstrated that orthodontic treatment can preserve bone height but not capable of maintaining bone density, especially for patients with periodontitis. It is indicated that the change of bone density may be more susceptible than that of bone height when radiographically evaluating bone status under this combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 05/2015; 8(2):2385-91. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the changes of temporomandibularjoint (TMJ) space in the treatment of disk displacement with reduction (DDWR) for class II cases. Forty-two adolescent patients with unilateral DDWR, who were successfully treated by functional appliance, were selected in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used before treatment (T1), at the start of treatment (T2), and after functional treatment (T3). Compared with the normal joint, the change of joint space index was calculated. The anterior, posterior, and superior joint spaces were analyzed on the largest sagittal plane among T1, T2, and T3. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. The mean treatment period was 10 months (6-16 mo). Functional appliance was effective in eliminating pain and clicking. During the phase of T1, the value of the joint space index of DDWR was significantly higher than that of the control (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the anterior space and an increase in the postsuperior space at T2 (P < 0.01), and then the contrary changes occurred at T3. However, there was a significant increase in the postsuperior space and no significant decrease in the anterior space when T1 and T3 were compared. This study indicates that the TMJ space is well distributed after disk repositioning with functional treatment of DDWR. It is also suggested that the adaptive remodeling in TMJ occurs via functional treatment.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 03/2015; 26(2):e78-81. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001392 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to present a functional surgery for retrieval of displaced root fragments from the maxillary sinus while preserving the alveolar bone. Twenty-one patients with associated root fragments displaced into the maxillary sinus after tooth extraction were collected and reviewed retrospectively. All patients included in the study were subjected to surgical removal of the displaced root by the use of piezosurgery. In case the root fragment was barely detectable, endoscopy would be helpful. Eleven roots were removed via small windows and 10 roots via large windows. Endoscopy was used in 2 patients. Granulomatous tissues were found around 6 root fragments, and cyst formation was found in 1 patient. Only 1 patient had sinusitis temporarily. No patients developed complications such as facial paresthesia, facial asymmetry, or infection. The functional surgery for the retrieval of a displaced root from the maxillary sinus is recommended owing to quick recovery, preservation of alveolar bone, and minimal complications.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 02/2015; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001286 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dentigerous cyst (DC) in the maxillary sinus is rarely seen. Several complications are observed after the Caldwell-Luc operation, which is combined with endoscopy. Still, a more perfect treatment method is yet to be discovered. The purpose of this study was to explore and assess a new functional surgical treatment with fewer complications, which not only insured normal maxillary sinus cilia restoration and bony integrity but also did little damage to maxillary sinus natural ostium. Dentigerous cyst in the maxillary sinuses of 20 patients had conditions diagnosed through radiographic imaging and the locating of bone windows' positions according to preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) (3D CT). All the patients underwent a functional surgery in which a bony lid was created anteriolaterally of maxillary sinus with piezosurgery and reimplanted by titanium plates after enucleating the cyst, leaving the maxillary sinus mucosa in place with or without endoscope's assistance. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by clinical examination and radiographic imaging at regular intervals; the longest follow-up was 24 months. All the patients recovered except for one, who underwent plate removal and radical maxillary sinusotomy owing to infection. Patients were asymptomatic, and CT images showed integrated maxillary bone. Extrusion deformation of the sinus was improved to different extents after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. Functional surgery for the treatment of DC in the maxillary sinus is a new approach and has the advantages of less surgical trauma, restoration of mucosa and bony wall, and more satisfactory results.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 02/2015; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001287 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pigmented villonodular synovitis is an uncommon benign tumor-like proliferative lesion with an undetermined origin. Involvement of the temporomandibular joint is uncommon. Although pigmented villonodular synovitis is a benign lesion, it can grow with an aggressive pattern, and it extends extra-articularly in most of the reported cases, about one-third of them exhibiting intracranial involvement. The authors reported an additional case of a 47-year-old woman with intracranial extension, who had a history of joint pain and trismus. The preoperative diagnosis was made with arthroscopy. The lesion was completely excised via preauricular approach and condylotomy. The bone defect was covered by the pedicled temporalis myofascial fat flap. The patient has been symptom-free for 40 months postoperatively.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 02/2015; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001341 · 0.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

586 Citations
192.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2009-2015
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      • • School of Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Binzhou Medical University
      Pei-chen, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2014
    • Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012-2014
    • Renji Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011-2012
    • Shanghai Putuo District People's Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2008
    • Center For Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
      Georgia, United States
  • 2001-2007
    • Second Military Medical University, Shanghai
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China