Costantino O Costantini

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (71)306.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of myocardial perfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on gender-based mortality rates. Research has demonstrated a gender-specific response of cardiomyocytes to ischemia and a potential increase in myocardial salvage in women compared with men. Myocardial blush grade (MBG), an angiographic surrogate of myocardial perfusion, is an independent predictor of early and late survival after AMI. Whether the incidence and prognosis of myocardial perfusion differs according to gender among patients with AMI undergoing PCI is unknown. MBG and short- and long-term mortality were evaluated in 1,301 patients (male = 935; female = 366) with AMI randomized to primary angioplasty ± abciximab versus stent ± abciximab. Following PCI, >96% of patients achieved final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow, of which MBG 2/3 was present in 58.3% of women versus 51.1% of men (p = 0.02). Worse MBG was an independent predictor of mortality in women at 30 days (7.4% for MBG 0/1 vs 2.4% for MBG 2/3, p = 0.04) and at 1-year (11.0% for MBG 0/1 vs 3.4% for MBG 2/3, p = 0.01); however, MBG was not associated with differences in mortality for men. In conclusion, impaired myocardial perfusion following PCI for AMI, indicated by worse MBG, is an independent predictor of early and late mortality in women but not in men. These findings imply an enhanced survival benefit from restoring myocardial perfusion for women compared with men during primary angioplasty and may have clinical implications for interventional strategies in women.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) dilation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important determinant of prognosis. The ratio of early mitral inflow velocity (E) and peak early diastolic annular velocity (e') provides the best single index for noninvasive detection of acute elevation of LV filling pressure. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether E/e' ratio predicts LV remodeling after properly treated AMI compared with traditional clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data. METHODS: Comprehensive echocardiograms were performed in a series of consecutive patients with first AMI successfully treated with primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA), both 48 hours after intervention and 60 days later. Mean E/e' was determined from four sites of the mitral annulus. LV remodeling was defined as more than 15% increase in end-systolic volume estimated by Simpson method. Statistical analysis included Student's t test, receiver-operator curves (ROC) and multivariate logistic regression (all significant with p < 0.05). RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were included, with mean age 58 ± 11 years, 43 men. The group of patients who underwent LV remodeling (n = 13) had higher baseline E/e' than those without (13 ± 4 versus 8.5 ± 2, p < 0.001). The ROC curve showed E/e' > 15 as a predictor of remodeling (AUC = 0.81, p = 0.001). In addition, regression analysis (comprising clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic variables along with AMI site) confirmed the independent value of E/e' in the prediction of LV remodeling (odds ratio 1.42, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The E/e' ratio is a useful predictor of LV remodeling after AMI, indicating patients with increased cardiovascular risk.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 05/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In individuals with concurrent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the association between left atrial volume (LAV) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) is shown. OBJECTIVE: Verify the presence of associations between systemic inflammation and LA dilation in patients on hemodialysis (HD) without clinically evident CVD. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study of a population on HD (> 3 months), which excluded patients with acute or chronic inflammatory diseases (infections, malignancies, autoimmune diseases) hemodynamic instability, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, hyperparathyroidism, arrhythmias, mitral valve disease and prior cardiovascular (CV) events. CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) measurements as well as Doppler echocardiography were obtained. Correlation coefficients were determined to evaluate the associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included (28 men, aged 55 ± 15 years), on HD for 24 ± 16 months, 45% were hypertensive, 26% diabetic, with median CRP of 5.1 mg/dL and IL-6 of 6.1 pg/dL. CRP significantly correlated with LAV (p = 0.040), LAV index (LAVi, p = 0.02) and mitral inflow E wave (p = 0.014). IL-6, despite the strong association with CRP levels (r = 0.75, p < 0.001), did not correlate with echocardiographic indices. Individuals in the top quartile of CRP had significantly higher LAVi than the others (42 ± 17 versus 32 ± 11 mL/m², p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects on HD with no prior CV event, there was an association between elevated CRP levels and LA enlargement. The findings suggest an association between physiopathological processes related to left atrial dilation and systemic inflammatory state of patients on HD.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 02/2013; 100(2):141-146. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare models of the postoperative hospital treatment phase after myocardial revascularization. Design: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Hospital patients in a hospital setting. Subjects: Thirty-two patients with indications for myocardial revascularization were included between January 2008 and December 2009, with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%, 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) ≥60 and forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥60% of predicted value. Interventions: Patients were randomly placed into two groups: one performed prescribed exercises according to the model proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the other according to a periodized model. Main measures: Partial pressure of O(2) (P o (2)) and arterial O(2) saturation (Sao (2)), percentage of predicted FVC and total distance on the six-minute walking test (6MWT). Results: Twenty-seven patients were re-evaluated upon release from the hospital (ACSM = 14 and PP = 13). Five patients extubated for more than 6 hours in the postoperative period were excluded from the sample. In the preoperative period the variables P o (2), Sao (2), % FVC and 6MWT were similar. In the postoperative period, a reduction was observed for all parameters in both groups. Upon comparison of the groups, a difference was observed in P o (2) (ACSM = 68.0 ± 4.3 vs. PP = 75.9 ± 4.8 mmHg; P < 0.001), Sao (2) (ACSM = 93.5 ± 1.4 vs. PP = 94.8 ± 1.2%; P = 0.018) and 6MWT (ACSM = 339.3 ± 41.7 vs. PP = 393.8 ± 25.7 m; P < 0.001). There was no difference in % FVC. Conclusion: Patients after myocardial revascularization following a periodized model of exercise presented a better intra-hospital evolution when compared to those using the ACSM model.
    Clinical Rehabilitation 03/2012; 26(11):982-9. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Drug eluting stents (DES) have improved the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). New DES have been developed with the purpose of overcoming the current limitations of the older generation DES. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings of the Firebird TM sirolimus eluting stent. METHODS: From December 2007 to March 2008, 15 patients with de novo lesions underwent PCI using the FirebirdTM stent. Angiography and IVUS were performed in all patients at 24 months of follow-up. The primary objective was to assess the late luminal loss by quantitative coronary angiography and in-stent percent volume obstruction by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). RESULTS: Mean age was 57 ± 7.1 years, 87% were male and 27% were diabetics. The left anterior descending artery was the most frequently treated vessel (36%) and most of the lesions were B2/C type lesions (82%). At 24 months, late luminal loss was 0.17 ± 0.36 mm and target vessel revascularization was 6.6%. In-stent percent volume obstruction was 9.6 ± 4.6%. There were no cases of death, myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this single center study in Brazil, the FirebirdTM stent showed good late outcomes. These findings, together with the available literature, provide further evidence for the use of the FirebirdTM stent in the daily clinical practice.
    Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva. 09/2011; 19(3):286-291.
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudoaneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (PMAF) is a rare disease, usually secondary to aortic valve endocarditis, particularly in prosthetic valves. Its clinical course is variable and may potentially cause serious complications, such as rupture into the pericardium, aorta or left atrium, systolic compression of the coronary arteries or systolic compression of the mitral valve, leading to severe mitral regurgitation, for which surgical treatment is recommended. This is a case report of a 69 year-old asymptomatic patient, with a prior history of two coronary artery bypass graft surgeries, the latter associated with aortic valve replacement. The PMAF was incidentally diagnosed in the late follow-up, and a decision was made to perform percutaneous therapy with the AmplatzerTM Muscular VSD Occluder.
    Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva. 09/2011; 19(3):327-331.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac rehabilitation protocols applied during the in-hospital phase (phase I) are subjective and their results are contested when evaluated considering what should be the three basic principles of exercise prescription: specificity, overload and reversibility. In this review, we focus on the problems associated with the models of exercise prescription applied at this early stage in-hospital and adopted today, especially the lack of clinical studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Moreover, we present the concept of "periodization" as a useful tool in the search for better results.
    World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 07/2011; 3(7):248-55. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) has proven to be a feasible option in selected patients with unprotected left main (LM) disease. This study was aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of PCI with DES in LM lesions in the daily practice, analyzing the long-term occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: A total of 142 consecutive patients were treated with a mean follow-up of 917 ± 743 days. The decision to use one or two stents or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors was left to the operator's discretion. Coronary angiography was not performed routinely in the follow-up. RESULTS: Mean age was 67.5 ± 16 years, 75% of the patients were male, 29% had diabetes and 39% had unstable angina. A total of 2.75 ± 1.25 stents were implanted per patient. Bifurcation lesions were identified in 90.1% and the most frequent techniques were the provisional stent in 36% and small crush in 29% of the patients. Intravascular ultrasound was performed in 92.3% of the patients and reinterventions in 21.3% of the stents due to incomplete apposition of the struts after implantation. In the late follow-up, MACE was observed in 15.4% of the patients, cardiac death in 3.6%, target-vessel revascularization in 11.2% and definitive/probably stent thrombosis in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, PCI with DES proved to be safe and effective in the late follow-up of LM lesions, with low cardiac death and stent thrombosis rates.
    Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva. 06/2011; 19(2):153-159.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delay to angioplasty in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Background There is a paucity of data on the impact of delays to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) undergoing an invasive management strategy. Methods Patients undergoing PCI in the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) trial were stratified according to timing of PCI after clinical presentation for outcome analysis. Results Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 7,749 patients (median age 63 years; 73% male) with NSTE-ACS at a median of 19.5 h after presentation (<8 h [n = 2,197], 8 to 24 h [n = 2,740], and >24 h [n = 2,812]). Delay to PCI >24 h after clinical presentation was significantly associated with increased 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and composite ischemia (death, MI, and unplanned revascularization). By multivariable analysis, delay to PCI of >24 h was a significant independent predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality. The incremental risk of death attributable to PCI delay >24 h was greatest in those patients presenting with high-risk features. Conclusions In this large-scale study, delaying revascularization with PCI >24 h in patients with NSTE-ACS was an independent predictor of early and late mortality and adverse ischemic outcomes. These findings suggest that urgent angiography and triage to revascularization should be a priority in NSTE-ACS patients.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2010; 55(14):1416–1424. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 03/2010; 48(3):419-22. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), but its impact on the clinical evolution is yet to be established. To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic impact of left ventricular (LV) advanced diastolic dysfunction (ADD) in patients on hemodialysis. The echocardiograms were performed during the first year of HD therapy, in patients with sinus rhythm, with no evidence of cardiovascular disease, excluding those with significant valvopathy or pericardial effusion. The combined assessment of the Doppler echocardiographic data classified the diastolic dysfunction as: 1) normal diastolic function; 2) mild DD (relaxation alteration) and 3) ADD (pseudonormalization and restrictive flow pattern). The assessed outcomes were general mortality and cardiovascular events. A total of 129 patients (78 males), aged 52 +/- 16 years, with a DD prevalence of 73% (50% with mild DD and 23% with ADD) were included in the study. The group with ADD was older (p < 0.01) and presented higher systolic (p < 0.01) and diastolic BP (p = 0.043), LV mass (p < 0.01), left atrial volume index (p < 0.01) and number of diabetic patients (p = 0.019), as well as lower ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01). After 17 +/- 7 months, the general mortality was significantly higher in individuals with ADD, when compared to those with normal function and mild DD (p = 0.012, log rank test). At Cox multivariate analysis, ADD was predictive of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 2.2; confidence interval: 1.1-4.3; p = 0.021) after adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, LV mass and EF. The subclinical ADD was identified in approximately 25% of the patients undergoing hemodialysis and had a prognostic impact, regardless of other clinical and echocardiographic data.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2010; 94(4):457-62. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluated predictors of target lesion revascularization (TLR) after Paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) implantation in three hundred twenty nine lesions of 250 patients with coronary artery disease. All pre- and post-procedural images was analyzed using a CMS-GFT system (MEDIS, The Netherlands). The incidence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the TLR group than in the non-TLR group (15.9% vs 4.17%, p=0.03). The lesion length was longer and the reference diameter was smaller in the TLR group than in the non-TLR group (19.8±11.3mm vs 15.3±8.1mm, p= 0.03, 2.48±0.47mm vs 2.88±0.6mm, p= 0.01, respectively). The incidence of severe calcification was higher in the TLR group than in the non-TLR group (33.3% vs 8.3%, p=0.027). In the multivariate analysis, stent length and calcification were two big predictors of TLR after PES implantation in this study; stent length was associated with a 1.3- to 14.4-fold higher relative risk of TLR, while patients with calcification were associated with a 2.0- to 26.5-fold higher risk of TLR relative to those without calcification.
    Medical bullet of Fukuoka University. 01/2010; 37(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen Fundamento: Disfunción diastólica es frecuente en pacientes de hemodiálisis, pero su impacto en la evolución clínica es incierto. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia y el impacto pronóstico de la disfunción diastólica (DD) avanzada (DDA) del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) en pacientes de hemodiálisis. Métodos: Se realizaron ecocardiogramas en pacientes en el primer año de hemodiálisis, en ritmo sinusal, sin enfermedad cardiovascular manifestada, excluyéndose aquellos con valvulopatía significativa o derrame pericárdico. Por la evaluación integrada de los datos del ecocardiograma Doppler, la función diastólica fue clasificada como: 1) normal, 2) DD discreta (alteración de la relajación) y 3) DDA (seudonormalización y flujo restrictivo). Los desenlaces investigados fueron mortalidad general y eventos cardiovasculares. Resultados: Fueron incluidos 129 pacientes (78 hombres), con edad 52 ± 16 años y prevalencia de DD del 73% (50% con DD discreta y 23% con DDA). En el grupo con DDA, se presentó mayor edad (p < 0,01), presión arterial sistólica (p < 0,01) y diastólica (p = 0,043), masa del VI (p < 0,01), índice del volumen del atrio izquierdo (p < 0,01) y proporción de diabéticos (p = 0,019), además de menor fracción de eyección (p < 0,01). Después de 17 ± 7 meses, la mortalidad general fue significativamente mayor en aquellos con DDa, en comparación a los normales y con DD discreta (p = 0,012, log rank test). En el análisis multivariado de Cox, la DDA fue predictiva de eventos cardiovasculares (hazard ratio 2,2, intervalo de confianza 1,1-4,3, p = 0,021) después del ajuste para edad, sexo, diabetes, masa del VI y fracción de eyección.
    01/2010;
  • Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia - ARQ BRAS CARDIOL. 01/2010; 94(4).
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The superiority of primary angioplasty compared to fibrinolytic agents has been broadly demonstrated in different studies, but due to logistic issues we have observed a delay in the implementation of the recommendations in real world scenarios. We compared primary angioplasty results at three different timepoints in the SOLACI Registry. METHOD: The SOLACI Registry included data of 43,725 primary angioplasties carried out from 1995-97 (n = 6,793), 2000-03 (n = 23,007) and 2007-08 (n = 13,925). RESULTS: An increasing complexity of treated patients was observed, with an increment in the percentage of women, diabetics, patients with prior myocardial infarction and patients with moderate to severe ventricular dysfunction. Procedural success remained high (> 91%) at all timepoints, regardless of the device used. In addition, we observed a significant decrease of door-to-balloon time, increased use of stents and a 45% decrease in the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Regarding in-hospital outcomes, a decreased mortality (9.1% vs. 5.3% vs. 4.5%), reinfarction (4.1% vs. 2.6% vs. 2.7%) and target vessel revascularization procedures (3.5% vs. 0.7% vs. 0.7%) was observed. CONCLUSION: Despite the more complex risk profile, the incorporation of technological advances and the reduction of door-to-balloon time led to improved inhospital cardiac outcomes after primary angioplasty in Latin America.
    Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva. 09/2009; 17(3):335-339.
  • Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 06/2009; 403(1-2):261. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia - ARQ BRAS CARDIOL. 01/2009; 92(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of pharmacological stents in decreasing the incidence of cardiac events is not homogeneous for all lesions or patient subgroups. 1) To evaluate the late clinical evolution of patients submitted to pharmacological stent implantation in atherosclerotic lesions of the left anterior descending artery; 2) to identify, among the clinical, angiographic and intravascular ultrasonographic characteristics, the ones predictive of cardiac event risk. From May 2002 to August 2005, 205 patients were treated with 236 pharmacological stent implants, guided by the intravascular US (IVUS). After a mean follow-up period of 711 days, the rate of stent thrombosis was 0.48%, the same observed for acute myocardial infarction or revascularization surgery. The revascularization rate of the treated lesion was 7.31% and the general event rate was 10.24%. The event indicators, according to the multivariate analysis were the implant of more than one stent in the same artery, concentric lesions and the minimal intra-stent area measured by IVUS < 3.88 mm(2). Based on the data obtained, we conclude that the revascularization of the left anterior descending artery with pharmacological stent implant, chosen and optimized by IVUS, presents a low incidence of late events. The implant of two pharmacological stents for the treatment of long lesions was the main independent factor for the occurrence of late events. The final luminal area > 3.88 mm(2) obtained in the small reference-diameter segments is an independent indicator of event-free evolution.
    Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 01/2009; 92(1):2-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: O principal mecanismo de reestenose intrastent é a hiperplasia neointimal 1 . O ultrassom permite reconhecer outros mecanismos relacionados a esse processo, como fratura ou hipoexpansão do stent 2 . A hipoexpansão pode ser consequência de escolha inadequada do diâmetro do stent em relação à refe-rência do vaso, de expansão insuficiente do stent, apesar da seleção apropriada de seu tamanho ou de falta de conhecimento de certas características da placa (por exemplo, placas fibróticas e/ou calcificadas), que podem não permitir a expansão adequada do stent, apesar da escolha correta de seu diâmetro e de insu-flações a alta pressão. O objetivo deste caso foi de-monstrar a importância do ultrassom intravascular no reconhecimento do mecanismo da reestenose, assim como apresentar uma alternativa para o tratamento da hipoexpansão de stents refratária à dilatação com balões de alta pressão.
    Rev Bras Cardiol Invas. 01/2009; 1717:545-8545.
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    01/2009; 17:335-9.

Publication Stats

699 Citations
306.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR)
      Curityba, Paraná, Brazil
    • New York Medical College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Costantini Cardiac Hospital
      Curityba, Paraná, Brazil
  • 2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Cardiovascular Diseases
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Lenox Hill Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Cardiovascular Research Foundation
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1997–1998
    • El Camino Hospital
      Mountain View, California, United States