Christoph Schmid

Klinikum Augsburg, Augsberg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (65)387.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplants are increasingly used, but it is unknown whether they have a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. We analyzed 10 679 acute leukemia patients who underwent HSCT from an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD, n=9815) or a haploidentical donor (⩾ 2 HLA-antigen disparity, n=864) between 2007 and 2012, reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. In a Cox regression model, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were added as time-dependent variables. There was no difference in probability of relapse between recipients of haploidentical and MSD grafts. Factors of importance for relapse after T-cell replete grafts included remission status at HSCT, Karnofsky score ⩽80, acute GVHD of grade II or higher, and chronic GVHD (P<10(-5)). Patients with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (n=194) had similar outcome as other T-cell replete haploidentical transplants (n=369). Non-relapse mortality was significantly higher in the haploidentical group than in MSD patients (P<10(-5)). Leukemia-free survival was superior in the MSD patients receiving T-cell replete (P<10(-5)) or T-cell depleted grafts (P=0.0006). The risk of relapse was the same in acute leukemia patients who received haploidentical donor grafts as in those given MSD transplants, suggesting a similar GVL effect.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 21 August 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.232.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/leu.2015.232 · 9.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially curative for acute leukemia (AL), but carries considerable risk. Machine learning algorithms, which are part of the data mining (DM) approach, may serve for transplantation-related mortality risk prediction. This work is a retrospective DM study on a cohort of 28,236 adult HSCT recipients from the AL registry of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The primary objective was prediction of overall mortality (OM) at 100 days after HSCT. Secondary objectives were estimation of nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years. Donor, recipient, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. The alternating decision tree machine learning algorithm was applied for model development on 70% of the data set and validated on the remaining data. OM prevalence at day 100 was 13.9% (n = 3,936). Of the 20 variables considered, 10 were selected by the model for OM prediction, and several interactions were discovered. By using a logistic transformation function, the crude score was transformed into individual probabilities for 100-day OM (range, 3% to 68%). The model's discrimination for the primary objective performed better than the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.701 v 0.646; P < .001). Calibration was excellent. Scores assigned were also predictive of secondary objectives. The alternating decision tree model provides a robust tool for risk evaluation of patients with AL before HSCT, and is available online (∼bondi/web1.html). It is presented as a continuous probabilistic score for the prediction of day 100 OM, extending prediction to 2 years. The DM method has proved useful for clinical prediction in HSCT. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2015; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.59.1339 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively compared the incidence of virus infections and outcome in the context of immune reconstitution in two different HLA-haploidentical transplantation (haplo-HSCT) settings. The first was a combined T-cell-replete and T-cell-deplete approach using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) prior to transplantation in patients with hematological diseases (cTCR/TCD group, 28 patients; median age 31 years). The second was a T-cell-replete (TCR) approach using high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (TCR/PTCY group, 27 patients; median age 43 years). The incidence of herpesvirus infection was markedly lower in the TCR/PTCY (22 %) than in the cTCR/TCD group (93 %). Recovery of CD4+ T cells on day +100 was faster in the TCR/PTCY group. CMV reactivation was 30 % in the TCR/PTCY compared to 57 % in the cTCR/TCD group, and control with antiviral treatment was superior after TCR/PTCY transplantation (100 vs 50 % cTCR/TCD). Twenty-five percent of the patients in the cTCR/TCD group but no patient in the TCR/PTCY group developed PTLD. While 1-year OS was not different (TCR/PTCY 59 % vs cTCR/TCD 39 %; p = 0.28), virus infection-related mortality (VIRM) was significantly lower after TCR/PTCY transplantation (1-year VIRM, 0 % TCR/PTCY vs 29 % cTCR/TCD; p = 0.009). On day +100, predictors of better OS were lymphocytes >300/μl, CD3+ T cells >200/μl, and CD4+ T cells >150/μl, whereas the application of steroids >1 mg/kg was correlated with worse outcome. Our results suggest that by presumably preserving antiviral immunity and allowing fast immune recovery of CD4+ T cells, the TCR approach using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide is well suited to handle the important issue of herpesvirus infection after haplo-HSCT.
    Annals of Hematology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00277-015-2423-y · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with AML in CR1, reduced intensity (RIC) conditioning regimens are usually given to older patients and myeloablative regimens (MAC) to younger patients. We analyzed whether in middle-aged patients aged 40-60 years, MAC was superior to RIC in cytogenetically higher risk AML. Among 2974 patients, 1638 had MAC and 1336 RIC transplants. Cytogenetics were high risk in 508, intermediate risk in 2297 and low risk in 169. Overall survival (OS) was higher in patients with RIC with low-risk cytogenetics but not in the intermediate- or poor-risk AML. Relapse incidence was lower with MAC in poor- and intermediate-risk AML. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was higher in MAC in all cytogenetic risk groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant leukemia-free survival and OS advantage for RIC in low risk but no advantage of MAC in intermediate- and poor-risk leukemia. In patients aged 40-60 years, MAC has no advantage over RIC. We confirm lower relapse but higher NRM risks with MAC. MAC is not superior in patients with higher risk cytogenetics, but is inferior to RIC in the small cohort of AML patients with low-risk cytogenetics.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 1 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.121.
    Bone marrow transplantation 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.121 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2015; 21(2):S310-S311. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.11.495 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. Its efficacy and toxicity may depend on many methodological aspects. The goal of the current study was to explore current clinical practice in this field.METHODSA questionnaire was sent to all centers collaborating in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and included 19 questions regarding various aspects of TBI. A total of 56 centers from 23 countries responded.RESULTSAll centers differed with regard to at least 1 answer. The total maximum dose of TBI used for myeloablative transplantation ranged from 8 grays (Gy) to 14.4 Gy, whereas the dose per fraction was 1.65 Gy to 8 Gy. A total of 16 dose/fractionation modalities were identified. The dose rate ranged from 2.25 centigrays to 37.5 centigrays per minute. The treatment unit was linear accelerator (LINAC) (91%) or cobalt unit (9%). Beams (photons) used for LINAC were reported to range from 6 to 25 megavolts. The most frequent technique used for irradiation was “patient in 1 field,” in which 2 fields and 2 patient positions per fraction are used (64%). In 41% of centers, patients were immobilized during TBI. Approximately 93% of centers used in vivo dosimetry with accepted discrepancies between the planned and measured doses of 1.5% to 10%. In 84% of centers, the lungs were shielded during irradiation. The maximum accepted dose for the lungs was 6 Gy to 14.4 Gy.CONCLUSIONSTBI is an extremely heterogeneous treatment modality. The findings of the current study should warrant caution in the interpretation of clinical studies involving TBI. Further investigation is needed to evaluate how methodological differences influence outcome. Efforts to standardize the method should be considered. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2014; 120(17). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28768 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM), a fatal hematopoietic malignancy characterized by drug resistance, has no standard therapy. The effectiveness of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHCT) in SM remains unknown. Patients and Methods In a global effort to define the value of HCT in SM, 57 patients with the following subtypes of SM were evaluated: SM associated with clonal hematologic non-mast cell disorders (SM-AHNMD; n = 38), mast cell leukemia (MCL; n = 12), and aggressive SM (ASM; n = 7). Median age of patients was 46 years (range, 11 to 67 years). Donors were HLA-identical (n = 34), unrelated (n = 17), umbilical cord blood (n = 2), HLA-haploidentical (n = 1), or unknown (n = 3). Thirty-six patients received myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and 21 patients received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Results Responses in SM were observed in 40 patients (70%), with complete remission in 16 patients (28%). Twelve patients (21%) had stable disease, and five patients (9%) had primary refractory disease. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 57% for all patients, 74% for patients with SM-AHNMD, 43% for those with ASM, and 17% for those with MCL. The strongest risk factor for poor OS was MCL. Survival was also lower in patients receiving RIC compared with MAC and in patients having progression compared with patients having stable disease or response. Conclusion AlloHCT was associated with long-term survival in patients with advanced SM. Although alloHCT may be considered as a viable and potentially curative therapeutic option for advanced SM in the meantime, given that this is a retrospective analysis with no control group, the definitive role of alloHCT will need to be determined by a prospective trial. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; 32(29). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.55.2018 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haploidentical haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) using T-cell-replete grafts and post-transplant high-dose CY has found increasing acceptance. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of this strategy as second HSCT incorporating donor change for acute leukaemia relapse after a first allogeneic transplantation. The courses of 20 consecutive adults (median age 37 years, 12 male) with AML (n=14), ALL (n=5) and acute bi-phenotypic leukaemia (n=1) were analysed retrospectively. Conditioning consisted of fludarabine, CY and either melphalan or TBI or tresosulfan+/-etoposide. Engraftment was achieved in 17 (85%), and a second remission was induced in 15 patients (75%) on day +30. The rate of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 35%, while chronic GvHD occurred in five patients. Most commonly observed grade III-IV toxicities were mucositis (30%), hyperbilirubinemia (20%), elevation of transaminases (20%) and creatinine (20%), while invasive fungal infection affected 30%. One-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 36%. At a median follow-up of 17 months, estimated 1-year OS was 45%, and 1-year relapse-free survival was 33%. This strategy was feasible and allowed for successful engraftment with a moderate rate of toxicity. Early outcome and NRM are at least comparable with results after a second HSCT from HLA-matched donors without donor change at HSCT2.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.83.
    Bone marrow transplantation 05/2014; 49(7). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2014.83 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • 03/2014; 2(Suppl 2):P10. DOI:10.1186/2051-1426-2-S2-P10
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    ABSTRACT: Autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) is considered a standard treatment for non-frail patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but little is known about outcome of MCL patients relapsing after autoSCT. We therefore sought to analyse the outcome after autoSCT failure and the efficacy of a rescue SCT in this setting. Patients with MCL were eligible if they had relapsed after autoSCT performed between 2000 and 2009. 1054 patients could be identified in the EBMT registry. By contacting the transplant centres a full data set could be retrieved for 360 patients. Median overall survival (OS) after relapse of the whole study group was 19 months. A long (>12 months) interval between autoSCT and relapse (p<0.001; HR 0.62), primary refractory disease (p<0.02, HR 1.92), prior high-dose ARA-C treatment (0.04, HR 1.43) and the year of relapse (0.02 HR 0.92) significantly influenced OS from relapse in multivariate analysis.Eighty patients (22%) received a rescue allogeneic SCT (alloSCT). Relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, and OS 2 years after alloSCT was 33% (CI 21-45%), 30% (CI 19-42%) and 46% (CI 33-59%), respectively. Remission duration after autoSCT was the only variable significantly affecting the outcome of salvage alloSCT. In contrast, rescue autoSCT was not associated with long-term disease control. However, individual patients survived long-term even without salvage transplantation. MCL recurrence within one year after autoSCT has an extremely dismal outcome, whilst the prognosis of patients with longer remission durations after autoSCT is significantly better. AlloSCT may offer the possibility of durable survival when performed for patients with a remission duration of more then 12 months after first autoSCT, but the favourable effect of a salvage alloSCT in this setting needs further validation.
    Annals of Oncology 02/2014; 25(5). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu097 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) from related or unrelated donors may cure patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders. We analysed 384 elderly patients (55-69 years) with advanced MDS who received either ASCT (n=247) and were reported to The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or a non -transplant approach (n=137) reported to the Düsseldorf registry. Besides an attempt to answer the question of "comparison", the purpose of this work is to explain the difficulties in comparing a non-transplant with a transplant cohort, when death before transplant is likely but unknown and the selection of patients for transplant is based on assumptions. It shows which methods are almost always biased and that even the most sophisticated approaches crucially rely on clinical assumptions. Using the most appropriate model for our data, we derive an overall univariate non-significant survival disadvantage for the transplant cohort (HR: 1.29, p = 0.11). We show that such an "average" hazard ratio is however misleading due to non-proportionality of the hazards reflecting early treatment related mortality, the occurring of which is logically correlated with the interval between diagnosis and transplant creating a disproportional drop in the (reconstructed) survival curve of the transplanted patients. Also in multivariate analysis (correcting for age > 60 (HR: 1.4, p = 0.02) and abnormal cytogenetics (HR: 1.46, p = 0.01)), transplantation seems to be worse (HR: 1.39, p = 0.05) but only in the (incorrect but commonly applied) model without time varying covariates. The long term (time depending) hazard ratio is shown to be virtually 1 and overall survival is virtually identical in both groups. Nonetheless no conclusion can be reached from a clinical point of view without assumptions which are by their very nature untestable unless all patients would be followed from diagnosis.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e74368. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074368 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the 2(nd) NCI Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, the Scientific/Educational Session on the Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantation highlighted progress in developing new therapeutic approaches since the 1(st) Relapse Workshop. Recent insights that might provide a basis for the development of novel, practical clinical trials were emphasized, including utilization of newer agents, optimization of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and investigation of novel cellular therapies. Dr. de Lima discussed preemptive and maintenance strategies to prevent relapse after transplantation, e.g., recent promising results suggestive of enhanced graft-versus-tumor activity with hypomethylating agents. Dr. Schmid provided an overview of adjunctive strategies to improve cell therapy for relapse, including cytoreduction prior to DLI, combination of targeted agents with DLI, and considerations in use of second transplants. Dr. Porter addressed strategies to enhance T-cell function, including ex-vivo activated T cells and T-cell engineering, and immunomodulatory approaches to enhance T-cell function in vivo, including exogenous cytokines and modulation of costimulatory pathways.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 09/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.08.012 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo evaluate the role of a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT2) given for relapsed acute leukemia (AL) after related or unrelated first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT1) and to analyze the role of donor change for HSCT2 in both settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective registry study on 179 HSCT2s given for relapse after HSCT1 from matched related donors (n = 75) or unrelated donors (n = 104), using identical or alternative donors for HSCT2. Separate analyses were performed according to donor at HSCT1. hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% CI, 1.61 to 3.46; P < .001; stage at HSCT2: HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.83; P = .006). Outcome of HSCT2 was better after related HSCT1 than after unrelated HSCT1 (2-year OS: 37% ± 6% v 16% ± 4%, respectively; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.98; P = .042, multivariate Cox regression). After both related and unrelated HSCT1, selecting a new donor for HSCT2 did not result in a relevant improvement in OS compared with HSCT2 from the original donor; however, donor change was not detrimental either. CONCLUSION After relapse from allogeneic HSCT1, HSCT2 can induce 2-year OS in approximately 25% of patients. Unrelated HSCT2 is feasible after related and unrelated HSCT1. Donor change for HSCT2 is a valid option. However, a clear advantage in terms of OS could not be demonstrated.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2013; 31(26). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.44.7961 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recommendations for classification in AML have been published by the European Leukemia Network (ELN). We evaluated these recommendations within an independent cohort of 954 adult de novo AML patients. No differences in outcome for subgroups intermediate I versus II were found. Therefore we renewed the reporting system and defined the subgroups as follows: favorable (CBF leukemias, or intermediate cytogenetics with NPM1mutation (mut) or biallelic CEBPAmut), intermediate I (intermediate cytogenetics), intermediate II (intermediate cytogenetics and at least one of the following: MLL-PTD, RUNX1mut, FLT3-ITD/wt ratio≥0.5), and adverse (adverse cytogenetics). Significant differences in outcomes between all four subgroups were found.
    Leukemia research 12/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2012.11.008 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    Acta Haematologica 11/2012; 129(3):135-136. DOI:10.1159/000343422 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood used as a source of stem cells for transplantation (PBSCT) is known to exert stronger immune-mediated effects compared with BM (BMT). We decided to retrospectively analyze the impact of stem cell source on the OS of CML patients who relapsed after either matched related donor PBSCT (N=168) or BMT (N=216) and were treated with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI). Univariate analysis revealed a lower probability of OS after DLI in patients relapsing after PBSCT vs BMT (66% vs 79% at 5 years, P=0.013). However, a multivariate Cox analysis did not reveal any significant impact of PBSCT as a risk factor for decreased OS for patients transplanted in first chronic phase (CP1; hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.619-1.734). A statistical interaction term suggested that the impact of stem cell source on OS after DLI was different for those transplanted in advanced phases (negative impact of previous PBSCT-HR 2.176, 95% CI 0.930-5.091). In summary, the stem cell source does not affect the OS of CML patients who underwent PBSCT in CP1, relapsed and were treated with DLI. However, when the patients were transplanted in advanced phases, previous PBSCT seems to negatively affect OS after DLI compared with BMT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 26 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.234.
    Bone marrow transplantation 11/2012; 48(6). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2012.234 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1mut) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role for outcome in first complete remission, and also for the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, there is limited data on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. Design and Methods. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0, range:18.4-69.3 years), who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen, comprising cytoreductive chemotherapy (Fludarabine, high-dose AraC, Amsacrine), followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. Results. After a median follow-up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64+/-4%, 53±4% and 44±5% at one, two and four years. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1mut/FLT3wt genotype, in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34+ cells (hazard ratio: 2,155, 95% confidence interval: 0,263-0,964, p=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio: 0,142, 95% confidence interval: 0,19-0,898, p=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD based subgroups carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.
    Haematologica 09/2012; 98(4). DOI:10.3324/haematol.2012.070235 · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at evaluating ASXL1mut in 740 AML with intermediate risk karyotype for frequency, association with other mutations and impact on outcome. Five hundred fifty-three cases had a normal karyotype (NK) and 187 had intermediate risk aberrant cytogenetics. Overall, ASXL1mut were detected in 127/740 patients (17.2%). ASXL1mut were more frequent in males than in females (23.5% vs 9.9%, P<0.001). They were associated with higher age (median: 71.8 vs 61.8, P<0.001), a history of preceding myelodysplastic syndromes, and with a more immature immunophenotype compared with patients with wild-type ASXL1 (ASXL1wt). ASXL1mut were more frequent in patients with aberrant karyotype (58/187; 31.0%), especially in cases with trisomy 8 (39/74; 52.7%), than in those with NK (69/553; 12.5%; P<0.001). ASXL1mut were observed more frequent in RUNX1mut (P<0.001), and less frequent in NPM1mut (P<0.001), FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) (P<0.001), FLT3-TKD (P=0.001) and DNMT3Amut (P<0.001). Patients with ASXL1mut had a shorter overall survival (OS) (P<0.001) and event free survival (P=0.012) compared with ASXL1wt. In multivariable analysis, ASXL1mut was an independent adverse factor for OS (P=0.032, relative risk: 1.70). In conclusion, ASXL1mut belong to the most frequent mutations in intermediate risk group AML. Their strong and independent dismal prognostic impact suggests the inclusion into the diagnostic work-up of AML.Leukemia advance online publication, 28 September 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.262.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 09/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.262 · 9.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been developed to minimise early toxic effects and deaths after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these regimens before this procedure has not been investigated in a randomised trial. In this prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial we compared a reduced-intensity fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with a standard regimen in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Patients were aged 18-60 years and had intermediate-risk or high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia (defined by cytogenetics) in first complete remission; an available HLA-matched sibling donor or an unrelated donor with at least nine of ten HLA alleles; and adequate renal, cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological function. Between Nov 15, 2004, and Dec 31, 2009, patients were randomly assigned (1:1, by a computer-based minimisation procedure that balanced patients for age, cytogenetic risk, induction therapy, and donor type) to receive either reduced-intensity conditioning of four doses of 2 Gy of total-body irradiation and 150 mg/m(2) fludarabine or standard conditioning of six doses of 2 Gy of total-body irradiation and 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. All patients were given ciclosporin and methotrexate as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Neither investigators nor patients were blinded to study treatment. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of non-relapse mortality, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with, number NCT00150878. The trial was stopped early on Dec 31, 2009, because of slow accrual of patients. 99 patients were randomly assigned to receive reduced-intensity conditioning and 96 to receive standard conditioning. The incidence of non-relapse mortality did not differ between the reduced-intensity and standard conditioning groups (cumulative incidence at 3 years 13% [95% CI 6-21] vs 18% [10-26]; HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·30-1·31]). Relapse incidence (cumulative incidence 3 years 28% [95% CI 19-38] vs 26% [17-36]; HR 1·10 [95% CI 0·63-1·90]), disease-free survival (3 year disease-free survival 58% [95% CI 49-70] vs 56% [46-67]; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·55-1·32]), and overall survival (3 year overall survival 61% [95% CI 50-74] vs 58% [47-70]; HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·48-1·25]) did not differ significantly between groups. Grade 3-4 of oral mucositis was less common in the reduced-intensity group than in the standard conditioning group (50 patients in the reduced-intensity conditioning group vs 73 patients in the standard conditioning group); the frequency of other side-effects such as graft-versus-host disease and increased concentrations of bilirubin and creatinine did not differ significantly between groups. Reduced-intensity conditioning results in a similar incidence of non-relapse mortality and reduced toxic effects compared with standard conditioning without affecting survival outcomes, and thus could be preferentially used in patients younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia transplanted in first complete remission. Medical Faculty of Dresden University.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2012; 13(10):1035-44. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70349-2 · 24.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The karyotype is so far the most important prognostic parameter in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Molecular mutations have been analyzed to subdivide AML with normal karyotype into prognostic subsets. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the entire AML cohort solely based on molecular markers. One thousand patients with cytogenetic data were investigated for the following molecular alterations: PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11, FLT3-ITD, and MLL-PTD, as well as mutations in NPM1, CEPBA, RUNX1, ASXL1, and TP53. Clinical data were available in 841 patients. Based on Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses, 5 distinct prognostic subgroups were identified: (1) very favorable: PML-RARA rearrangement (n = 29) or CEPBA double mutations (n = 42; overall survival [OS] at 3 years: 82.9%); (2) favorable: RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (n = 35), CBFB-MYH11 (n = 31), or NPM1 mutation without FLT3-ITD (n = 186; OS at 3 years: 62.6%); (3) intermediate: none of the mutations leading to assignment into groups 1, 2, 4, or 5 (n = 235; OS at 3 years: 44.2%); (4) unfavorable: MLL-PTD and/or RUNX1 mutation and/or ASXL1 mutation (n = 203; OS at 3 years: 21.9%); and (5) very unfavorable: TP53 mutation (n = 80; OS at 3 years: 0%; P < .001). This comprehensive molecular characterization provides a more powerful model for prognostication than cytogenetics.
    Blood 08/2012; 120(15):2963-72. DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-03-419622 · 10.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
387.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • Klinikum Augsburg
      • II. Department of Internal Medicine
      Augsberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2010–2014
    • Municipal Hospital of Lüneburg
      Luneberg, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universität Augsburg
      Augsberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2005
    • University of Cologne
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany