Christoph Schmid

University of Patras, Rhion, West Greece, Greece

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Publications (57)346.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM), a fatal hematopoietic malignancy characterized by drug resistance, has no standard therapy. The effectiveness of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHCT) in SM remains unknown.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haploidentical haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) using T-cell-replete grafts and post-transplant high-dose CY has found increasing acceptance. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of this strategy as second HSCT incorporating donor change for acute leukaemia relapse after a first allogeneic transplantation. The courses of 20 consecutive adults (median age 37 years, 12 male) with AML (n=14), ALL (n=5) and acute bi-phenotypic leukaemia (n=1) were analysed retrospectively. Conditioning consisted of fludarabine, CY and either melphalan or TBI or tresosulfan+/-etoposide. Engraftment was achieved in 17 (85%), and a second remission was induced in 15 patients (75%) on day +30. The rate of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 35%, while chronic GvHD occurred in five patients. Most commonly observed grade III-IV toxicities were mucositis (30%), hyperbilirubinemia (20%), elevation of transaminases (20%) and creatinine (20%), while invasive fungal infection affected 30%. One-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 36%. At a median follow-up of 17 months, estimated 1-year OS was 45%, and 1-year relapse-free survival was 33%. This strategy was feasible and allowed for successful engraftment with a moderate rate of toxicity. Early outcome and NRM are at least comparable with results after a second HSCT from HLA-matched donors without donor change at HSCT2.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.83.
    Bone marrow transplantation 05/2014; · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. Its efficacy and toxicity may depend on many methodological aspects. The goal of the current study was to explore current clinical practice in this field.METHODSA questionnaire was sent to all centers collaborating in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and included 19 questions regarding various aspects of TBI. A total of 56 centers from 23 countries responded.RESULTSAll centers differed with regard to at least 1 answer. The total maximum dose of TBI used for myeloablative transplantation ranged from 8 grays (Gy) to 14.4 Gy, whereas the dose per fraction was 1.65 Gy to 8 Gy. A total of 16 dose/fractionation modalities were identified. The dose rate ranged from 2.25 centigrays to 37.5 centigrays per minute. The treatment unit was linear accelerator (LINAC) (91%) or cobalt unit (9%). Beams (photons) used for LINAC were reported to range from 6 to 25 megavolts. The most frequent technique used for irradiation was “patient in 1 field,” in which 2 fields and 2 patient positions per fraction are used (64%). In 41% of centers, patients were immobilized during TBI. Approximately 93% of centers used in vivo dosimetry with accepted discrepancies between the planned and measured doses of 1.5% to 10%. In 84% of centers, the lungs were shielded during irradiation. The maximum accepted dose for the lungs was 6 Gy to 14.4 Gy.CONCLUSIONSTBI is an extremely heterogeneous treatment modality. The findings of the current study should warrant caution in the interpretation of clinical studies involving TBI. Further investigation is needed to evaluate how methodological differences influence outcome. Efforts to standardize the method should be considered. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 05/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo evaluate the role of a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT2) given for relapsed acute leukemia (AL) after related or unrelated first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT1) and to analyze the role of donor change for HSCT2 in both settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective registry study on 179 HSCT2s given for relapse after HSCT1 from matched related donors (n = 75) or unrelated donors (n = 104), using identical or alternative donors for HSCT2. Separate analyses were performed according to donor at HSCT1. hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% CI, 1.61 to 3.46; P < .001; stage at HSCT2: HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.83; P = .006). Outcome of HSCT2 was better after related HSCT1 than after unrelated HSCT1 (2-year OS: 37% ± 6% v 16% ± 4%, respectively; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.98; P = .042, multivariate Cox regression). After both related and unrelated HSCT1, selecting a new donor for HSCT2 did not result in a relevant improvement in OS compared with HSCT2 from the original donor; however, donor change was not detrimental either. CONCLUSION After relapse from allogeneic HSCT1, HSCT2 can induce 2-year OS in approximately 25% of patients. Unrelated HSCT2 is feasible after related and unrelated HSCT1. Donor change for HSCT2 is a valid option. However, a clear advantage in terms of OS could not be demonstrated.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) from related or unrelated donors may cure patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders. We analysed 384 elderly patients (55-69 years) with advanced MDS who received either ASCT (n=247) and were reported to The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or a non -transplant approach (n=137) reported to the Düsseldorf registry. Besides an attempt to answer the question of "comparison", the purpose of this work is to explain the difficulties in comparing a non-transplant with a transplant cohort, when death before transplant is likely but unknown and the selection of patients for transplant is based on assumptions. It shows which methods are almost always biased and that even the most sophisticated approaches crucially rely on clinical assumptions. Using the most appropriate model for our data, we derive an overall univariate non-significant survival disadvantage for the transplant cohort (HR: 1.29, p = 0.11). We show that such an "average" hazard ratio is however misleading due to non-proportionality of the hazards reflecting early treatment related mortality, the occurring of which is logically correlated with the interval between diagnosis and transplant creating a disproportional drop in the (reconstructed) survival curve of the transplanted patients. Also in multivariate analysis (correcting for age > 60 (HR: 1.4, p = 0.02) and abnormal cytogenetics (HR: 1.46, p = 0.01)), transplantation seems to be worse (HR: 1.39, p = 0.05) but only in the (incorrect but commonly applied) model without time varying covariates. The long term (time depending) hazard ratio is shown to be virtually 1 and overall survival is virtually identical in both groups. Nonetheless no conclusion can be reached from a clinical point of view without assumptions which are by their very nature untestable unless all patients would be followed from diagnosis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e74368. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recommendations for classification in AML have been published by the European Leukemia Network (ELN). We evaluated these recommendations within an independent cohort of 954 adult de novo AML patients. No differences in outcome for subgroups intermediate I versus II were found. Therefore we renewed the reporting system and defined the subgroups as follows: favorable (CBF leukemias, or intermediate cytogenetics with NPM1mutation (mut) or biallelic CEBPAmut), intermediate I (intermediate cytogenetics), intermediate II (intermediate cytogenetics and at least one of the following: MLL-PTD, RUNX1mut, FLT3-ITD/wt ratio≥0.5), and adverse (adverse cytogenetics). Significant differences in outcomes between all four subgroups were found.
    Leukemia research 12/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    Acta Haematologica 11/2012; 129(3):135-136. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood used as a source of stem cells for transplantation (PBSCT) is known to exert stronger immune-mediated effects compared with BM (BMT). We decided to retrospectively analyze the impact of stem cell source on the OS of CML patients who relapsed after either matched related donor PBSCT (N=168) or BMT (N=216) and were treated with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI). Univariate analysis revealed a lower probability of OS after DLI in patients relapsing after PBSCT vs BMT (66% vs 79% at 5 years, P=0.013). However, a multivariate Cox analysis did not reveal any significant impact of PBSCT as a risk factor for decreased OS for patients transplanted in first chronic phase (CP1; hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.619-1.734). A statistical interaction term suggested that the impact of stem cell source on OS after DLI was different for those transplanted in advanced phases (negative impact of previous PBSCT-HR 2.176, 95% CI 0.930-5.091). In summary, the stem cell source does not affect the OS of CML patients who underwent PBSCT in CP1, relapsed and were treated with DLI. However, when the patients were transplanted in advanced phases, previous PBSCT seems to negatively affect OS after DLI compared with BMT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 26 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.234.
    Bone marrow transplantation 11/2012; · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1mut) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role for outcome in first complete remission, and also for the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, there is limited data on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. Design and Methods. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0, range:18.4-69.3 years), who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen, comprising cytoreductive chemotherapy (Fludarabine, high-dose AraC, Amsacrine), followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. Results. After a median follow-up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64+/-4%, 53±4% and 44±5% at one, two and four years. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1mut/FLT3wt genotype, in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34+ cells (hazard ratio: 2,155, 95% confidence interval: 0,263-0,964, p=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio: 0,142, 95% confidence interval: 0,19-0,898, p=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD based subgroups carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.
    Haematologica 09/2012; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at evaluating ASXL1mut in 740 AML with intermediate risk karyotype for frequency, association with other mutations and impact on outcome. Five hundred fifty-three cases had a normal karyotype (NK) and 187 had intermediate risk aberrant cytogenetics. Overall, ASXL1mut were detected in 127/740 patients (17.2%). ASXL1mut were more frequent in males than in females (23.5% vs 9.9%, P<0.001). They were associated with higher age (median: 71.8 vs 61.8, P<0.001), a history of preceding myelodysplastic syndromes, and with a more immature immunophenotype compared with patients with wild-type ASXL1 (ASXL1wt). ASXL1mut were more frequent in patients with aberrant karyotype (58/187; 31.0%), especially in cases with trisomy 8 (39/74; 52.7%), than in those with NK (69/553; 12.5%; P<0.001). ASXL1mut were observed more frequent in RUNX1mut (P<0.001), and less frequent in NPM1mut (P<0.001), FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) (P<0.001), FLT3-TKD (P=0.001) and DNMT3Amut (P<0.001). Patients with ASXL1mut had a shorter overall survival (OS) (P<0.001) and event free survival (P=0.012) compared with ASXL1wt. In multivariable analysis, ASXL1mut was an independent adverse factor for OS (P=0.032, relative risk: 1.70). In conclusion, ASXL1mut belong to the most frequent mutations in intermediate risk group AML. Their strong and independent dismal prognostic impact suggests the inclusion into the diagnostic work-up of AML.Leukemia advance online publication, 28 September 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.262.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 09/2012; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been developed to minimise early toxic effects and deaths after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these regimens before this procedure has not been investigated in a randomised trial. In this prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial we compared a reduced-intensity fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with a standard regimen in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Patients were aged 18-60 years and had intermediate-risk or high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia (defined by cytogenetics) in first complete remission; an available HLA-matched sibling donor or an unrelated donor with at least nine of ten HLA alleles; and adequate renal, cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological function. Between Nov 15, 2004, and Dec 31, 2009, patients were randomly assigned (1:1, by a computer-based minimisation procedure that balanced patients for age, cytogenetic risk, induction therapy, and donor type) to receive either reduced-intensity conditioning of four doses of 2 Gy of total-body irradiation and 150 mg/m(2) fludarabine or standard conditioning of six doses of 2 Gy of total-body irradiation and 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. All patients were given ciclosporin and methotrexate as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Neither investigators nor patients were blinded to study treatment. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of non-relapse mortality, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with, number NCT00150878. The trial was stopped early on Dec 31, 2009, because of slow accrual of patients. 99 patients were randomly assigned to receive reduced-intensity conditioning and 96 to receive standard conditioning. The incidence of non-relapse mortality did not differ between the reduced-intensity and standard conditioning groups (cumulative incidence at 3 years 13% [95% CI 6-21] vs 18% [10-26]; HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·30-1·31]). Relapse incidence (cumulative incidence 3 years 28% [95% CI 19-38] vs 26% [17-36]; HR 1·10 [95% CI 0·63-1·90]), disease-free survival (3 year disease-free survival 58% [95% CI 49-70] vs 56% [46-67]; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·55-1·32]), and overall survival (3 year overall survival 61% [95% CI 50-74] vs 58% [47-70]; HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·48-1·25]) did not differ significantly between groups. Grade 3-4 of oral mucositis was less common in the reduced-intensity group than in the standard conditioning group (50 patients in the reduced-intensity conditioning group vs 73 patients in the standard conditioning group); the frequency of other side-effects such as graft-versus-host disease and increased concentrations of bilirubin and creatinine did not differ significantly between groups. Reduced-intensity conditioning results in a similar incidence of non-relapse mortality and reduced toxic effects compared with standard conditioning without affecting survival outcomes, and thus could be preferentially used in patients younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia transplanted in first complete remission. Medical Faculty of Dresden University.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2012; 13(10):1035-44. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The karyotype is so far the most important prognostic parameter in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Molecular mutations have been analyzed to subdivide AML with normal karyotype into prognostic subsets. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the entire AML cohort solely based on molecular markers. One thousand patients with cytogenetic data were investigated for the following molecular alterations: PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11, FLT3-ITD, and MLL-PTD, as well as mutations in NPM1, CEPBA, RUNX1, ASXL1, and TP53. Clinical data were available in 841 patients. Based on Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses, 5 distinct prognostic subgroups were identified: (1) very favorable: PML-RARA rearrangement (n = 29) or CEPBA double mutations (n = 42; overall survival [OS] at 3 years: 82.9%); (2) favorable: RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (n = 35), CBFB-MYH11 (n = 31), or NPM1 mutation without FLT3-ITD (n = 186; OS at 3 years: 62.6%); (3) intermediate: none of the mutations leading to assignment into groups 1, 2, 4, or 5 (n = 235; OS at 3 years: 44.2%); (4) unfavorable: MLL-PTD and/or RUNX1 mutation and/or ASXL1 mutation (n = 203; OS at 3 years: 21.9%); and (5) very unfavorable: TP53 mutation (n = 80; OS at 3 years: 0%; P < .001). This comprehensive molecular characterization provides a more powerful model for prognostication than cytogenetics.
    Blood 08/2012; 120(15):2963-72. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    Helga Maria Schmetzer, Christoph Schmid
    New Advances in Stem Cell Transplantation, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0013-3
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    ABSTRACT: To describe outcomes, treatment and prognostic factors that influence survival of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we retrospectively analyzed 465 ALL adult patients from European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers who relapsed after a first HCT performed in complete remission (CR1 65%, CR2/3 35%). Salvage treatments were: supportive care (13%), cytoreductive therapy (43%), donor lymphocyte infusion without or with prior chemotherapy (23%) and second HCT (20%). Median time from HCT to relapse was 6.9 months, median follow-up was 46 months and median survival after relapse was 5.5 months. Estimated 1-, 2- and 5-year post-relapse survival was 30 ± 2%, 16 ± 2% and 8 ± 1%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, adverse factors for survival were: late CR (CR2/3) at transplant (P<0.012), early relapse after transplant (<6.9 months, P <0.0001) and peripheral blast percent at relapse (P <0.0001). On the basis of multivariate model for survival, three groups of patients were identified with estimated 2 year survival of 6 ± 2, 17 ± 3 and 30 ± 7%. Outcome of ALL patients relapsing after HCT is dismal and there is a need for new therapies. Our study provides the standard expectations in ALL relapse and may help in the decision of post-relapse therapy.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2012; 26(6):1211-7. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the subset with complex karyotype (CK) is traditionally regarded as the worst prognostic group. However, ≥ 3, ≥ 4, or ≥ 5 abnormalities have been variably used for its definition. Recently, monosomal karyotype (MSK) was suggested to indicate an even inferior outcome. We tested which definition fits best to identify the most unfavorable subgroup. After excluding patients with t(15;17)/PML-RARA, t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1, inv (16)/t(16;16)/CBFB-MYH11, and normal karyotype, 824 patients with AML with cytogenetic abnormalities were analyzed. Patients with MSK or CK defined as ≥ 3, ≥ 4, or ≥ 5 abnormalities showed an inferior overall survival compared with the respective remaining patients not fulfilling these criteria (for all, P < .001). Hazard ratios were 1.93, 1.68, 1.94, and 1.92. CK ≥ 4 as a single parameter identified the largest proportion of patients with very poor risk. However, combining CK ≥ 4 and MSK detected an even larger number of patients with very unfavorable outcome (261 of 824; 31.7%).
    Blood 12/2011; 119(9):2122-5. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because information on management and outcome of AML relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) is scarce, a retrospective registry study was performed by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT. Among 2815 RIC transplants performed for AML in complete remission (CR) between 1999 and 2008, cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% ± 1%. Relapsed patients (263) were included into a detailed analysis of risk factors for overall survival (OS) and building of a prognostic score. CR was reinduced in 32%; remission duration after transplantation was the only prognostic factor for response (P = .003). Estimated 2-year OS from relapse was 14%, thereby resembling results of AML relapse after standard conditioning. Among variables available at the time of relapse, remission after HSCT > 5 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.67, P < .001), bone marrow blasts less than 27% (HR = 0.53, 95% CI, 0.40-0.72, P < .001), and absence of acute GVHD after HSCT (HR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.49-0.93, P = .017) were associated with better OS. Based on these factors, 3 prognostic groups could be discriminated, showing OS of 32% ± 7%, 19% ± 4%, and 4% ± 2% at 2 years (P < .0001). Long-term survival was achieved almost exclusively after successful induction of CR by cytoreductive therapy, followed either by donor lymphocyte infusion or second HSCT for consolidation.
    Blood 12/2011; 119(6):1599-606. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the expressions of FR, FL, TR1, and TR2 on blasts and T cells from 71 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and correlated expression rates with the clinical course. Compared to AML-blasts we found higher co-expressions on healthy myeloid and T cells. Expression of all markers on blasts and on T cells was similar in different subtypes and acute stages of AML. Compared to the non-responders (n = 7) responders to the AML Cooperative Group-therapy (n = 22) presented with higher proportions of blasts co-expressing the four markers (FR: 32 vs 15%; FL: 15 vs 13%; TR1: 72 vs 37%; TR2: 24 vs 23%) or T cells (FR: 88 vs 71%; FL: 76 vs 56%; TR1: 96 vs 44%; TR2: 54 vs 42%). Patients with higher expression rates of TR1 on blasts (≥ 48%) and on T cells (≥ 67%) were characterized by a prolonged survival. In summary, our data show a variable expression of FR, FL, TR1 and TR2 on blasts or T cells in different subgroups of AML. Higher co-expression rates of FR, FL, TR1 and TR2 were characterized by a better prognosis for the patients with respect to achieve a remission and to survive. Functional analyses should be performed to find out those patients in who induced upregulation of these markers could contribute to overcome drug resistance.
    Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2011; 16(6):341-50. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia-derived dendritic cells (DC(leu)) potentially present the whole leukemic antigen repertoire. We studied antigen-expression profiles of blasts/dendritic cells (DCs) generated from 137 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/49 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with six different DC-generating media by flow-cytometry combining expression of blast/maturation and DC antigens (DCA:CD1a,b,c, CD25, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD137-L and CD206). First, DCA are regularly and variably expressed on uncultured blasts/mononuclear cells (MNCs). Individual patients' DCA profiles must be evaluated before DC-culture to find suitable DCA to estimate quality/quantity of DC after culture. Second, after culture in every patient, at least one marker fulfilled these criteria. Third, different DC-generating methods showed varying efficiency to generate DC: not every method was always successful. Fourth, individual FACS-DCA profiles showed a successful DC/DC(leu) generation with at least one of three previously tested methods in every given AML/MDS case. Fifth, pooling results of all selected best methods in every given case, 28/30% DC were generated from AML/MDS samples: >60% viable DC, on average 49/56% mature DC and on average 36% of blasts were convertible to DC(leu) resulting in on average 49% DC(leu) of AML-DC. Individual DCA-expression profiles should be evaluated before culture to evaluate DC counts/subtypes (mature/viableDC, DC(leu)) in individual patients.
    Immunotherapy 09/2011; 3(9):1113-24. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In AML, a complex aberrant karyotype is associated with poor response to chemotherapy and dismal prognosis. We prospectively studied the concept of allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT), performed early and regardless of response to induction treatment in patients with complex karyotype AML (CK-AML). The preparative regimen consisted of fludarabine, Ara-C and amsacrine (FLAMSA) chemotherapy, followed by reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) 3 days later. In vivo T-cell depletion by anti-thymocyte globulin was used to protect from early GvHD, and prophylactic donor lymphocyte transfusion was given from day+120 to augment the GvL effect, once tolerance was established. Eighteen consecutive patients with CK-AML (median age: 53 years) received HSCT from related (n=7) or unrelated (n=11) donors. Before FLAMSA-RIC, nine patients each had received one and two induction courses. Stage at start of FLAMSA-RIC was CR/CRi (n=8) or persistent disease (n=10). Following HSCT, 16 patients achieved CR. After a follow-up of 51 months, 11 patients are alive in CR, whereas seven have died in remission (n=3), or from leukaemia (n=4). Cumulative incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute GvHD≥II and chronic GvHD were 0.222±0.098, 0.235±0.104, 0.367±0.120 and 0.481±0.123, respectively. Four-year survival from HSCT is 61%. Early HSCT following FLAMSA-RIC may improve the outcome of this unfavourable AML subgroup.
    Bone marrow transplantation 02/2011; 47(1):46-53. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment options for adults with primary refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (PREF AML) are extremely limited. Although sibling allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term survival, most patients lack a matched family donor and are destined to die of refractory disease. Greater availability of unrelated donors and improvements in supportive care have increased the proportion of patients with PREF AML in whom allografting is technically feasible, but the outcome of unrelated donor transplantation in this population has not been studied. We therefore analysed overall survival in 168 patients with PREF AML, who underwent unrelated donor transplantation between 1994 and 2006. The 5-year overall survival for the whole group was 22%. In multivariate analysis, fewer than three courses of induction chemotherapy, a lower percentage of bone marrow blasts at transplant and patient cytomegalovirus seropositivity were associated with improved survival. This allowed the development of a scoring system that identified four groups with survival rates between 44±11% and 0%. This study demonstrates an important role for unrelated donor transplantation in the management of selected patients with PREF AML and confirms the importance of initiating an urgent unrelated donor search in patients with no matched sibling donor, who fail to respond to induction chemotherapy.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 02/2011; 25(5):808-13. · 10.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
346.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • University of Patras
      Rhion, West Greece, Greece
  • 2007–2012
    • Klinikum Augsburg
      • II. Department of Internal Medicine
      Augsberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2011
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States