Catharine M Bosio

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (48)246.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Highly virulent bacterial pathogens have evolved rapid means to suppress host inflammatory responses by unknown mechanisms. Here, we use virulent Francisella tularensis, the cause of lethal tularemia in humans, as a model to elucidate these mechanisms. We show that following infection of murine macrophages F. tularensis rapidly and selectively destabilizes mRNA containing adenylate-uridylate-rich elements that encode for cytokines and chemokines important in controlling bacterial infection. Degradation of host mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 did not require viable bacteria or de novo protein synthesis, but did require escape of intracellular organisms from endocytic vesicles into the host cytosol. The specific targeting of host mRNA encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines for decay by a bacterial pathogen has not been previously reported. Thus, our findings represent a novel strategy by which a highly virulent pathogen modulates host inflammatory responses critical to the evasion of innate immunity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 05/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upregulation of the transcription factor T-bet is correlated with strength of protection against secondary challenge with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis, which causes the highly infectious disease tularemia. Thus, to determine if this mediator had direct consequences in immunity to LVS, we examined its role in infection. Despite substantial in vivo IFN-gamma levels, T-bet knockout (KO) mice infected intradermally (i.d.) or intranasally (i.n.) with LVS succumbed to infection with doses 2 logs less than WT counterparts, and exhibited significantly increased bacterial burdens in the lung and spleen. Lungs of LVS-infected T-bet KO mice contained fewer lymphocytes, and more neutrophils and IL-17, compared to WT mice. LVS-vaccinated T-bet KO mice survived lethal LVS intraperitoneal secondary challenge, but not high doses of LVS i.n., independent of route of vaccination. Immune T-lymphocytes from spleens of i.d. LVS-vaccinated WT or KO mice controlled intracellular bacterial replication in an in vitro co-culture system, but cultures with T-bet KO splenocytes supernatants contained less IFN-gamma and increased TNF-alpha. In contrast, immune T-bet KO lung lymphocytes were greatly impaired in controlling intramacrophage growth of LVS; this functional defect is the likely mechanism underpinning the lack of respiratory protection. Taken together, T-bet is important in host resistance to primary LVS infection, and i.n. secondary challenge. Thus, T-bet represents a true, useful correlate for immunity to LVS.
    Infection and immunity 01/2014; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes an acute lethal respiratory disease of humans. The heightened virulence of the pathogen is linked to its unique ability to inhibit toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated inflammatory responses. The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent, but not attenuated strains of, F. tularensis are not detected by the host cell and inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by primary macrophages in response to known TLR ligands and suppress neutrophil recruitment in vivo. We further show that lipid mediated inhibition of inflammation is dependent on TLR2, MyD88, and the nuclear hormone and fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα). Pathogen lipid-mediated interference of inflammatory responses by engagement of both TLR2 and PPARα represents novel manipulation of host signaling pathways consistent with the ability of highly virulent F. tularensis to efficiently evade host immune responses.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 08/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Induction of innate immunity is essential for host survival of infection. Evasion and inhibition of innate immunity constitute a strategy used by pathogens, such as the highly virulent bacterium Francisella tularensis, to ensure their replication and transmission. The mechanism and bacterial components responsible for this suppression of innate immunity by F. tularensis are not defined. In this article, we demonstrate that lipids enriched from virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4, but not attenuated live vaccine strain, inhibit inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of inflammatory responses is associated with IκBα-independent inhibition of NF-κBp65 activation and selective inhibition of activation of IFN regulatory factors. Interference with NF-κBp65 and IFN regulatory factors is also observed following infection with viable SchuS4. Together these data provide novel insight into how highly virulent bacteria selectively modulate the host to interfere with innate immune responses required for survival of infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B1a cells are an important source of natural Abs, Abs directed against T-independent Ags, and are a primary source of IL-10. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk) is a cytoplasmic kinase that is essential for mediating signals from the BCR and is critical for development of B1a cells. Consequentially, animals lacking btk have few B1a cells, minimal Ab responses, and can preferentially generate Th1-type immune responses following infection. B1a cells have been shown to aid in protection against infection with attenuated Francisella tularensis, but their role in infection mediated by fully virulent F. tularensis is not known. Therefore, we used mice with defective btk (CBA/CaHN-Btk(XID)/J [XID mice]) to determine the contribution of B1a cells in defense against the virulent F. tularensis ssp. tularensis strain SchuS4. Surprisingly, XID mice displayed increased resistance to pulmonary infection with F. tularensis. Specifically, XID mice had enhanced clearance of bacteria from the lung and spleen and significantly greater survival of infection compared with wild-type controls. We revealed that resistance to infection in XID mice was associated with decreased numbers of IL-10-producing B1a cells and concomitant increased numbers of IL-12-producing macrophages and IFN-γ-producing NK/NKT cells. Adoptive transfer of wild-type B1a cells into XID mice reversed the control of bacterial replication. Similarly, depletion of NK/NKT cells also increased bacterial burdens in XID mice. Together, our data suggest B cell-NK/NKT cell cross-talk is a critical pivot controlling survival of infection with virulent F. tularensis.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virulent Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis is an intracellular, Gram negative bacterium that causes acute lethal disease following inhalation of fewer than 15 organisms. Pathogenicity of Francisella infections is tied to its unique ability to evade and suppress inflammatory responses in host cells. It has been proposed that induction of alternative activation of infected macrophages is a mechanism by which attenuated Francisella species modulate host responses. In this report we reveal that neither attenuated F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) nor virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 induce alternative activation of macrophages in vitro or in vivo. LVS, but not SchuS4, provoked production of arginase1 independent of alternative activation in vitro and in vivo. However, absence of arginase1 did not significantly impact intracellular replication of LVS or SchuS4. Together our data establish that neither induction of alternative activation nor expression of arginase1 are critical features of disease mediated by attenuated or virulent Francisella species.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82096. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We employed Francisella tularensis LVS to study mechanisms of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, and specifically to understand protective correlates. One potential molecular correlate identified previously was IL-6, a cytokine with pleotropic roles in immunity including influences on T and B cell functions. Given its role as an immune modulator and correlation with successful anti-LVS vaccination, we examined the role IL-6 plays in host response to LVS. IL-6 deficient (IL-6 KO) mice infected with LVS intradermally or intranasally, or anti-IL-6 treated mice, showed greatly reduced LD(50)s compared to wild type (WT) mice. Increased susceptibility was not due to altered splenic immune cell populations during infection or decreased serum antibody production, as IL-6 KO mice had similar compositions of each compared to WT mice. Although LVS-infected IL-6 KO produced much less serum amyloid A and haptoglobin (two acute phase proteins) compared to WT mice, there were no other obvious pathophysiological differences between LVS-infected WT and IL-6 KO mice. IL-6 KO or WT mice that survived primary LVS infection also survived a high dose LVS secondary challenge. Using an in vitro overlay assay that measures T cell activation, cytokine production, and abilities of the primed splenocytes to control intracellular LVS growth, we found that IL-6 KO total splenocytes or purified T cells were slightly defective in controlling intracellular LVS growth, but were equivalent in cytokine production. Taken together, IL-6 is an integral part of a successful immune response to primary LVS infection, but its exact role in precipitating adaptive immunity remains elusive.
    Infection and immunity 12/2012; · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast with common human infections for which vaccine efficacy can be evaluated directly in field studies, alternative strategies are needed to evaluate efficacy for slowly developing or sporadic diseases like tularemia. For diseases such as these caused by intracellular bacteria, serological measures of antibodies are generally not predictive. Here, we used vaccines varying in efficacy to explore development of clinically useful correlates of protection for intracellular bacteria, using Francisella tularensis as an experimental model. F. tularensis is an intracellular bacterium classified as Category A bioterrorism agent which causes tularemia. The primary vaccine candidate in the U.S., called Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), has been the subject of ongoing clinical studies; however, safety and efficacy are not well established, and LVS is not licensed by the U.S. FDA. Using a mouse model, we compared the in vivo efficacy of a panel of qualitatively different Francisella vaccine candidates, the in vitro functional activity of immune lymphocytes derived from vaccinated mice, and relative gene expression in immune lymphocytes. Integrated analyses showed that the hierarchy of protection in vivo engendered by qualitatively different vaccines was reflected by the degree of lymphocytes' in vitro activity in controlling the intramacrophage growth of Francisella. Thus, this assay may be a functional correlate. Further, the strength of protection was significantly related to the degree of up-regulation of expression of a panel of genes in cells recovered from the assay. These included IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12Rβ2, T-bet, SOCS-1, and IL-18bp. Taken together, the results indicate that an in vitro assay that detects control of bacterial growth, and/or a selected panel of mediators, may ultimately be developed to predict the outcome of vaccine efficacy and to complement clinical trials. The overall approach may be applicable to intracellular pathogens in general.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2012; 8(1):e1002494. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    Deborah D Crane, Dana P Scott, Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for tularemia has been hampered by the lack of understanding of which immune components are required to survive infection. Defining these requirements for protection against virulent F. tularensis, such as strain SchuS4, has been difficult since experimentally infected animals typically die within 5 days after exposure to as few as 10 bacteria. Such a short mean time to death typically precludes development, and therefore assessment, of immune responses directed against virulent F. tularensis. To enable identification of the components of the immune system that are required for survival of virulent F. tularensis, we developed a convalescent model of tularemia in C57Bl/6 mice using low dose antibiotic therapy in which the host immune response is ultimately responsible for clearance of the bacterium. Using this model we demonstrate αβTCR(+) cells, γδTCR(+) cells, and B cells are necessary to survive primary SchuS4 infection. Analysis of mice deficient in specific soluble mediators shows that IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 are essential for survival of SchuS4 infection. We also show that IFN-γ is required for survival of SchuS4 infection since mice lacking IFN-γR succumb to disease during the course of antibiotic therapy. Finally, we found that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells are the primary producers of IFN-γand that γδTCR(+) cells and NK cells make a minimal contribution toward production of this cytokine throughout infection. Together these data provide a novel model that identifies key cells and cytokines required for survival or exacerbation of infection with virulent F. tularensis and provides evidence that this model will be a useful tool for better understanding the dynamics of tularemia infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33349. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37752. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Timothy J Bauler, Jennifer C Chase, Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Active suppression of inflammation is a strategy used by many viral and bacterial pathogens, including virulent strains of the bacterium Francisella tularensis, to enable colonization and infection in susceptible hosts. In this study, we demonstrated that virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 selectively inhibits production of IL-12p40 in primary human cells via induction of IFN-β. In contrast to the attenuated live vaccine strain, infection of human dendritic cells with virulent SchuS4 failed to induce production of many cytokines associated with inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and IL-12p40). Furthermore, SchuS4 actively suppressed secretion of these cytokines. Assessment of changes in the expression of host genes associated with suppression of inflammatory responses revealed that SchuS4, but not live vaccine strain, induced IFN-β following infection of human dendritic cells. Phagocytosis of SchuS4 and endosomal acidification were required for induction of IFN-β. Further, using a defined mutant of SchuS4, we demonstrated that the presence of bacteria in the cytosol was required, but not sufficient, for induction of IFN-β. Surprisingly, unlike previous reports, induction of IFN-β by F. tularensis was not required for activation of the inflammasome, was not associated with exacerbation of inflammatory responses, and did not control SchuS4 replication when added exogenously. Rather, IFN-β selectively suppressed the ability of SchuS4-infected dendritic cells to produce IL-12p40. Together, these data demonstrated a novel mechanism by which virulent bacteria, in contrast to attenuated strains, modulate human cells to cause disease.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(4):1845-55. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2011; 68(18):3019-31. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This unit describes the utility of various mouse models of infection for studying pathogenesis and adaptive immune responses to the facultative intracellular bacteria pathogen Francisella tularensis. By judicious use of different combinations of mouse and bacterial strains, as well as different routes of infection, murine tularemia models may be used to explore a complete picture of F. tularensis infection and immunity. Moreover, studies using Francisella, particularly the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), serve as a convenient and tractable model system that appears to be representative of mammalian host responses to intracellular pathogens in general.
    Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 04/2011; Chapter 19:Unit 19.14.
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    Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Perhaps the most impressive feature of this bacterium is its ability to cause lethal disease following inoculation of as few as 15 organisms. This remarkable virulence is, in part, attributed to the ability of this microorganism to evade, disrupt, and modulate host immune responses. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanisms utilized by F. tularensis to evade and inhibit innate and adaptive immune responses. The capability of F. tularensis to interfere with developing immunity in the host was appreciated decades ago. Early studies in humans were the first to demonstrate the ability of F. tularensis to suppress innate immunity. This work noted that humans suffering from tularemia failed to respond to a secondary challenge of endotoxin isolated from unrelated bacteria. Further, anecdotal observations of individuals becoming repeatedly infected with virulent strains of F. tularensis suggests that this bacterium also interferes with the generation of adequate adaptive immunity. Recent advances utilizing the mouse model for in vivo studies and human cells for in vitro work have identified specific bacterial and host compounds that play a role in mediating ubiquitous suppression of the host immune response. Compilation of this work will undoubtedly aid in enhancing our understanding of the myriad of mechanisms utilized by virulent F. tularensis for successful infection, colonization, and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2011; 2:9.
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    Rebecca V Anderson, Deborah D Crane, Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis within weeks of vaccination is thought to involve both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, the relative roles for cellular and humoral immunity in long lived protection against virulent F. tularensis are not well established. Here, we dissected the correlates of immunity to pulmonary infection with virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 in mice challenged 30 and 90 days after subcutaneous vaccination with LVS. Regardless of the time of challenge, LVS vaccination protected approximately 90% of SchuS4 infected animals. Surprisingly, control of bacterial replication in the lung during the first 7 days of infection was not required for survival of SchuS4 infection in vaccinated mice. Control and survival of virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 infection within 30 days of vaccination was associated with high titers of SchuS4 agglutinating antibodies, and IFN-γ production by multiple cell types in both the lung and spleen. In contrast, survival of SchuS4 infection 90 days after vaccination was correlated only with IFN-γ producing splenocytes and activated T cells in the spleen. Together these data demonstrate that functional agglutinating antibodies and strong mucosal immunity are correlated with early control of pulmonary infections with virulent F. tularensis. However, early mucosal immunity may not be required to survive F. tularensis infection. Instead, survival of SchuS4 infection at extended time points after immunization was only associated with production of IFN-γ and activation of T cells in peripheral organs.
    Vaccine 09/2010; 28(40):6562-72. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia pestis is a dangerous bacterial pathogen that when inhaled can rapidly induce fatal pneumonic plague. Thus, there is a need for stable, safe, and easily administered mucosal vaccines capable of eliciting effective protection against pulmonary Y. pestis infections. Cationic liposome-nucleic acid complexes (CLDC) have been shown previously to be effective vaccine adjuvants for parenteral immunization, but have not been previously evaluated for use in oral immunization. Therefore, we investigated the ability of an orally administered CLDC adjuvanted vaccine to elicit protective immunity against lethal pneumonic plague. C57Bl/6 mice were vaccinated orally or subcutaneously using 10mug Y. pestis F1 antigen combined with CLDC and immune responses and protection from challenge was assessed. We found that oral immunization elicited high titers of anti-F1 antibodies, equivalent to those generated by parenteral immunization. Importantly, orally immunized mice were protected from lethal pulmonary challenge with virulent Y. pestis for up to 18 weeks following vaccination. Vaccine-induced protection following oral immunization was found to be dependent primarily on CD4+ T cells, with a partial contribution from CD8+ T cells. Thus, CLDC adjuvanted vaccines represent a new type of orally administered, non-replicating vaccine capable of generating effective protection against pulmonary infection with virulent Y. pestis.
    Vaccine 08/2010; 28(36):5924-9. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 degrees C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2010; 107(30):13456-60. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protection against virulent pathogens that cause acute, fatal disease is often hampered by development of microbial resistance to traditional chemotherapeutics. Further, most successful pathogens possess an array of immune evasion strategies to avoid detection and elimination by the host. Development of novel, immunomodulatory prophylaxes that target the host immune system, rather than the invading microbe, could serve as effective alternatives to traditional chemotherapies. Here we describe the development and mechanism of a novel pan-anti-bacterial prophylaxis. Using cationic liposome non-coding DNA complexes (CLDC) mixed with crude F. tularensis membrane protein fractions (MPF), we demonstrate control of virulent F. tularensis infection in vitro and in vivo. CLDC+MPF inhibited bacterial replication in primary human and murine macrophages in vitro. Control of infection in macrophages was mediated by both reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse cells, and ROS in human cells. Importantly, mice treated with CLDC+MPF 3 days prior to challenge survived lethal intranasal infection with virulent F. tularensis. Similarly to in vitro observations, in vivo protection was dependent on the presence of RNS and ROS. Lastly, CLDC+MPF was also effective at controlling infections with Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella abortus. Thus, CLDC+MPF represents a novel prophylaxis to protect against multiple, highly virulent pathogens.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2010; 6(5):e1000921. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    Jennifer C Chase, Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute, lethal disease following inhalation. We have previously shown that viable F. tularensis fails to stimulate secretion of proinflammatory cytokines following infection of human dendritic cells (hDC) in vitro and pulmonary cells in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the presence of the CD14 receptor is critical for detection of virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 by dendritic cells, monocytes, and pulmonary cells. Addition of soluble CD14 (sCD14) to hDC restored cytokine production following infection with strain SchuS4. In contrast, addition of anti-CD14 to monocyte cultures inhibited the ability of these cells to respond to strain SchuS4. Addition of CD14 or blocking CD14 following SchuS4 infection in dendritic cells and monocytes, respectively, was not due to alterations in phagocytosis or replication of the bacterium in these cells. Administration of sCD14 in vivo also restored cytokine production following infection with strain SchuS4, as assessed by increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12p70, and IL-6 in the lungs of mice receiving sCD14 compared to mock-treated controls. In contrast to homogenous cultures of monocytes or dendritic cells infected in vitro, mice treated with sCD14 in vivo also exhibited controlled bacterial replication and dissemination compared to mock-treated controls. Interestingly, animals that lacked CD14 were not more susceptible or resistant to pulmonary infection with SchuS4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the absence or low abundance of CD14 on hDC and in the lung contributes to evasion of innate immunity by virulent F. tularensis. However, CD14 is not required for development of inflammation during the last 24 to 48 h of SchuS4 infection. Thus, the presence of this receptor may aid in control of virulent F. tularensis infections at early, but not late, stages of infection.
    Infection and immunity 10/2009; 78(1):154-67. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    Deborah D Crane, Shayna L Warner, Catharine M Bosio
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    ABSTRACT: Opsonization by Abs represents a critical component of the host immune response against many pathogens. The mechanisms by which virulent microbes evade this protective response are not completely understood. In disease mediated by Francisella tularensis, Ab can effectively protect against infections with attenuated strains, for example, LVS, but not virulent strains such as SchuS4. Thus, it is likely that SchuS4 has mechanisms, which are not present in LVS, that allow evasion of opsonization by Ab, dampening the protective effects of these host molecules. Here we demonstrate that evasion of Ab-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis by the highly virulent SchuS4 is associated with its ability to bind the host serine protease plasmin. SchuS4, but not the closely related LVS, bound active plasmin. Plasmin bound SchuS4 degraded exogenous and opsonizing Abs, whereas LVS failed to do so. Furthermore, plasmin-mediated inhibition of Ab opsonization by SchuS4 also inhibited Ab-mediated uptake of this bacterium by macrophages. Ab-mediated uptake of uncoated and opsonized SchuS4 elicited a strong proinflammatory response in infected macrophages. However, plasmin-coated, opsonized SchuS4 poorly elicited production of these protective proinflammatory cytokines. This unique host-pathogen interplay is a novel immune evasion strategy utilized by virulent F. tularensis, and it provides one explanation for the ability of Ab to protect against attenuated, but not virulent, strains of F. tularensis. This mechanism may also represent a more common hereto unrecognized strategy by which virulent bacteria evade detection and clearance by Ig.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(7):4593-600. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
246.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites (LICP)
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • National Research Council Canada
      • Institute for Biological Sciences (IBS)
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005–2009
    • Colorado State University
      • Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 2007
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2004–2007
    • United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
    • U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
    • Clinical Research Management, Inc
      Brunswick, Ohio, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • • Division of Bacterial, Parasitic & Allergenic Products
      • • Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States