ABSTRACT: The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naïve hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Resistant isolates were identified, and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined. Resistant Escherichia coli isolates were also analyzed for urovirulence-associated loci. Thirteen (2.9%) of 455 stools yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (seven children), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (four children), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter aerogenes (one child each). Neither the subjects themselves nor members of their households used fluoroquinolones in the 4 weeks preceding collection. Six of the seven resistant E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, in which extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bacteria are frequently found. All resistant E. coli isolates contained at least three putative E. coli virulence loci. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were resistant to additional antibiotics. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to therapeutically important antimicrobial agents are excreted by some humans, despite these persons' lack of exposure to the particular drugs. The sources of these resistant organisms are unknown. This underrecognized reservoir of drug-resistant potential pathogens poses public health challenges.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2006; 50(10):3325-9. · 4.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the frequency of recovery of pathogens from children with diarrhea who presented to a pediatric emergency department and characterized the associated illnesses, to develop guidelines for performing a bacterial enteric culture.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients with diarrhea who presented to a large regional pediatric emergency department during the period from November 1998 through October 2001. A thorough microbiologic evaluation was performed on stool specimens, and the findings were correlated with case, physician, and laboratory data.
A total of 1626 stool specimens were studied to detect diarrheagenic bacteria and, if there was a sufficient amount of stool, Clostridium difficile toxin (688 specimens), parasites (656 specimens), and viruses (417 specimens). One hundred seventy-six (47%) of 372 specimens that underwent complete testing yielded a bacterial pathogen (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, 39 specimens [of which 28 were serotype O157:H7]; Salmonella species, 39; Campylobacter species, 25; Shigella species, 14; and Yersinia enterocolitica, 2), a viral pathogen (rotavirus, 85 specimens; astrovirus, 27; adenovirus, 18; or rotavirus and astrovirus, 8), a diarrheagenic parasite (5 specimens); or C. difficile toxin (46 specimens). Samples from 2 patients yielded both bacterial and viral pathogens. A model to identify predictors of bacterial infection found that international travel, fever, and the passing of >10 stools in the prior 24 h were associated with the presence of a bacterial pathogen. Physician judgment regarding the need to perform a stool culture was almost as accurate as the model in predicting bacterial pathogens.
Nearly one-half of the patients who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea had a definite or plausible pathogen in their stool specimens. We were unable to develop a model that was substantially better than physician judgment in identifying patients for whom bacterial culture would yield positive results. The unexpectedly high rate of C. difficile toxin warrants further examination.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2006; 43(7):807-13. · 9.15 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The frequency with which bacteria cause diarrhea evaluated in ambulatory settings is often unknown. We attempted to determine the microbiologic etiology of diarrhea in a private pediatric practice (site A) and a clinic serving largely immigrant children (site B) and to establish guidelines for bacterial culture.
Children with diarrhea were prospectively enrolled, and their stools were examined for diarrheagenic bacteria, viruses and parasites.
A total of 123 and 103 children were enrolled at sites A and B, respectively. Stools from all (100%), 126 (55.8%), 104 (46.0%) and 75 (33.2%) were tested for bacterial enteric pathogens, parasites, Clostridium difficile toxin and viruses, respectively. Of the 75 patients whose stool underwent complete testing, 36 (48%) contained at least 1 definitive or plausible pathogen. Twelve stools (5.3%) tested positive for bacteria [Campylobacter jejuni (n = 7), Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella serogroup D and Salmonella Braenderup (n = 1 each)]. One contained Blastocystis hominis, 8 contained C. difficile toxin and 16 contained viruses (9 rotavirus, 5 adenovirus and 2 astrovirus). Visible fecal blood (P = 0.029), increased stool frequency (P = 0.035), abdominal tenderness (P = 0.011) and fecal white (P < 0.001) or red blood cells (P = 0.002) were associated with bacterial infection. All children with stool yielding diarrheagenic bacteria or C. difficile toxin had at least 1 of these factors, but so did 75% of children without these agents (positive predictive value, 11%; negative predictive value, 100%; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 25%).
The bacterial diarrhea prevalence is similar to that in other ambulatory studies, although the spectrum differs. Exclusion criteria for stool testing in diarrhea remain elusive. Studies to determine the etiology of unexplained diarrhea and cost-effective algorithms for diarrhea diagnosis, are needed.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2005; 24(2):142-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor