[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenodoxin reductase is a monomeric 51 kDa flavoenzyme that is involved in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones. The structure of the native bovine enzyme was determined at 2.8 A resolution, and the structure of the respective recombinant enzyme at 1.7 A resolution. Adrenodoxin reductase receives a two-electron package from NADPH and converts it to two single electrons that are transferred via adrenodoxin to all mitochondrial cytochromes P 450. The structure suggests how the observed flavin semiquinone is stabilized. A striking feature is the asymmetric charge distribution, which most likely controls the approach of the electron carrier adrenodoxin. A model for the interaction is proposed. Adrenodoxin reductase shows clear sequence homology to half a dozen proteins identified in genome analysis projects, but neither sequence nor structural homology to established, functionally related electron transferases. Yet, the structure revealed a relationship to the disulfide oxidoreductases, permitting the assignment of the NADP-binding site.
Journal of Molecular Biology 07/1999; 289(4):981-90. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-crystallographic symmetry averaging for improving and extending an initial set of phases can be crucial at an early stage of a protein structure analysis. A method is described which detects the position of a proper rotation axis in a surprisingly poor electron-density map and is fast enough to run through a large number of axis orientations. It uses a simple multimer mask to define the searching unit, which is then shifted through the whole unit cell looking for the position with the highest correlation coefficient between the interrelated parts. Appropriate weighting and averaging enhances the signal-to-noise ratio. Examples of the application of this algorithm are given. The use of the local rotation axis for phasing is commented on. A search of the Protein Data Bank showed that 27% of the unique crystal forms contain proper local n-fold axes, which could have been located with the presented method.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenodoxin reductase is an essential component of the mitochondrial monooxygenase systems that are involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones and related compounds. After removing by mutagenesis a secondary ribosome binding site and an mRNA loop formed between the gene and the vector, large amounts of the enzyme could be produced in Escherichia coli by coexpression with the HSP60-chaperone system. The purified protein was homogeneous enough for reproducible crystallization. The crystals diffracted X-rays isotropically beyond 1.7 A resolution permitting a structure analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenylate kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaean species Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystal structure was elucidated by multiple isomorphous replacement and non-crystallographic density averaging. The structure was refined at 2.6 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The enzyme is trimeric, in contrast to previous solution measurements that suggested a dimeric structure, and in contrast to the vast majority of adenylate kinases, which are monomeric. In large parts of each subunit the chain fold resembles the known enzyme structure from eubacteria and eukaryotes although the sequence homology is negligible. Since the asymmetric unit contains two trimers with and without bound AMP at the AMP sites and with an ADP at one of the six ATP sites, the analysis shows the enzyme in several states. The conformational differences between these states resemble those of other adenylate kinases. Because of sequence homology, the structure presented provides a good model for the methanococcal adenylate kinases.
Journal of Molecular Biology 10/1998; 282(1):167-79. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are 17 crystal structures of nucleoside monophosphate kinases known. As expected for kinases, they show large conformational changes upon binding of substrates. These are concentrated in two chain segments, or domains, of 30 and 38 residues that are involved in binding of the substrates N1TP and N2MP (nucleoside tri- and monophosphates with bases N1 and N2), respectively.
After aligning the 17 structures on the main parts of their polypeptide chains, two domains in various conformational states were revealed. These states were caused by bound substrate (or analogues) and by crystal-packing forces, and ranged between a 'closed' conformation and a less well defined 'open' conformation. The structures were visually sorted yielding an approximately evenly spaced series of domain states that outlines the closing motions when the substrates bind. The packing forces in the crystals are weak, leaving the natural domain trajectories essentially intact. Packing is necessary, however, to produce stable intermediates. The ordered experimental structures were then recorded as still pictures of a movie and animated to represent the motions of the molecule during a catalytic cycle. The motions were smoothed out by adding interpolated structures to the observed ones. The resulting movies are available through the World Wide Web (http:@bio5.chemie.uni-freiburg.de/ak movie.html).
Given the proliferating number of homologous proteins known to exist in different conformational states, it is becoming possible to outline the motions of chain segments and combine them into a movie, which can then represent protein action much more effectively than static pictures alone are able to do.