C Jakobs

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (621)2762.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Aberrations in about 10-15% of X-chromosome genes account for intellectual disability (ID); with a prevalence of 1–3% (Gécz et al., 2009 [1]). The SLC6A8 gene, mapped to Xq28, encodes the creatine transporter (CTR1). Mutations in SLC6A8, and the ensuing decrease in brain creatine, lead to co-occurrence of; speech/language delay, autism-like behaviours and epilepsy with ID. A splice variant of SLC6A8 – SLC6A8C, containing intron 4 and exons 5–13, was identified. Herein, we report the identification of a novel variant – SLC6A8D, and functional relevance of these isoforms. Methods Via (quantitative)RT-PCR, uptake assays, and confocal microscopy, we investigated their expression and function vis-à-vis creatine transport. Results SLC6A8D is homologous to SLC6A8C except for a deletion of exon 9 (without occurrence of a frame shift). Both contain an open reading frame encoding a truncated protein but otherwise identical to CTR1. Like SLC6A8, both variants are predominantly expressed in tissues with high energy requirement. Our experiments reveal that these truncated isoforms do not transport creatine. However, in SLC6A8 (CTR1)–overexpressing cells, a subsequent infection (transduction) with viral constructs encoding either the SLC6A8C (CTR4) or SLC6A8D (CTR5) isoform resulted in a significant increase in creatine accumulation compared to CTR1 cells re-infected with viral constructs containing the empty vector. Moreover, transient transfection of CTR4 or CTR5 into HEK293 cells resulted in significantly higher creatine uptake. Conclusions CTR4 and CTR5 are possible regulators of the creatine transporter since their overexpression results in upregulated CTR1 protein and creatine uptake. General Significance Provides added insight into the mechanism(s) of creatine transport regulation.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 06/2014; 1840(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.02.012 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    01/2014; 1:220–222. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.04.005
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    ABSTRACT: We screened for the presence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in 187 children (105 males; 82 females, ages 4-14 years old) who presented with confirmed features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twelve patients (7%) manifested increased 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-OH-IVA) excretion in urine, and minor to significant improvement in autistic features was observed in seven patients following supplementation with biotin. Five diagnoses included: Lesch Nyhan syndrome (2), succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (2), and phenylketonuria (1) (2.7%). Additional metabolic disturbances suggestive of IEMs included two patients whose increased urine 3-OH-IVA was accompanied by elevated methylcitrate and lactate in sera, and 30 patients that showed abnormal glucose-loading tests. In the latter group, 16/30 patients manifested increased sera beta hydroxybutyrate (b-OH-b) production and 18/30 had a paradoxical increase of sera lactate. Six patients with elevated b-OH-b in sera showed improved autistic features following implementation of a ketogenic diet (KD). Five patients showed decreased serum ketone body production with glucose loading. Twelve of 187 patients demonstrated non-specific MRI pathology, while 25/187 had abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Finally, family history was positive for 22/187 patients (1st or 2nd degree relative with comparable symptomatology) and consanguinity was documented for 12/187 patients. Our data provide evidence for a new biomarker (3-OH-IVA) and novel treatment approaches in ASD patients. Concise 1 sentence take-home message: Detailed metabolic screening in a Greek cohort of ASD patients revealed biomarkers (urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and serum b-OH-b) in 7% (13/187) of patients for whom biotin supplementation or institution of a KD resulted in mild to significant clinical improvement in autistic features.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12/2013; 7:858. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00858 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report 4 pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy patients in which good outcome was determined in three. The 4 patients were male and aged from 7 to 24 years old (from three unrelated Caucasian families). A clinical diagnosis of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was confirmed by biochemical and genetic studies. Clinical evaluation was performed and medical records were reviewed for therapy implementation and management, neurodevelopment outcome, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. All were taking pyridoxine treatment and were seizure-free. Elevated urinary alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde excretion was found in all patients. Antiquitin gene analysis identified a large homozygous deletion in one patient and two heterozygous mutations in the others. Treatment with pyridoxine should be attempted for all cases of infantile and childhood refractory epilepsy, as has been the case over the last 20 years. Currently, urinary alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde is a reliable biomarker of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, even under pyridoxine treatment. Detection of mutations in the antiquitin gene, encoding alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, establishes the diagnosis and allows for adequate genetic counselling.
    Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape 11/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1684/epd.2013.0610 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by; its use as ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Most tissues express this gene, with highest levels detected in skeletal muscle and kidney. There are lower levels of the gene detected in colon, brain, heart, testis and prostate. The mechanism(s) by which this regulation occurs is still poorly understood. A duplicated unprocessed pseudogene of SLC6A8 - SLC6A10P, has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2 (contains the entire SLC6A8 gene, plus 2293bp of 5'flanking sequence and its entire 3'UTR). Expression of SLC6A10P has so far only been shown in human testis and brain. It is still unclear as to what is the function of SLC6A10P. In a patient with autism, a chromosomal breakpoint that intersects the 5' flanking region of SLC6A10P was identified; suggesting that SLC6A10P is a non-coding RNA involved in autism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of cis-acting factor(s) that regulate expression of the creatine transporter, as well as to determine if these factors are functionally conserved upstream of the creatine transporter pseudogene. Via gene-specific PCR, cloning and functional luciferase assays we identified a 1104bp sequence proximal to the mRNA start site of the SLC6A8 gene with promoter activity in five cell types. The corresponding 5'flanking sequence (1050bp) on the pseudogene also had promoter activity in all 5 cell lines. Surprisingly the pseudogene promoter was stronger than that of its parent gene in 4 of the cell lines tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of a pseudogene with stronger promoter activity than its parental gene.
    Gene 10/2013; 533(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2013.10.008 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a family with a 16-month-old boy with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and his 30-month-old brother with cirrhosis. After failing to identify a diagnosis after routine metabolic evaluation, we utilized a combination of RNA-Seq and whole exome sequencing to identify a novel homozygous p.Ser171Phe Transaldolase (TALDO1) variant in the proband, his brother with cirrhosis, as well as a clinically asymptomatic older 8-year-old brother. Metabolite analysis and enzymatic testing of TALDO1 demonstrated elevated ribitol, sedoheptitol, and sedoheptulose-7P, and lack of activity of TALDO1 in the three children homozygous for the p.Ser171Phe mutation. Our findings expand the phenotype of transaldolase deficiency to include early onset hepatocellular carcinoma in humans and demonstrate that, even within the same family, individuals with the same homozygous mutation demonstrate a wide range of phenotypes.
    10/2013; DOI:10.1007/8904_2013_254
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    ABSTRACT: Mosaic IDH1 mutations are described as the cause of metaphyseal chondromatosis with increased urinary excretion of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (MC-HGA), and mutations in IDH2 as the cause of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2HGA) type II. Mosaicism for IDH2 mutations has not previously been reported as a cause of D-2HGA. Here we describe three cases: one MC-HGA case with IDH1 mosaic mutations, and two D-2HGA type II cases. In one D-2HGA case we identified mosaicism for an IDH2 mutation as the genetic cause of this disorder; the other D-2HGA case was caused by a heterozygous IDH2 mutation, while the unaffected mother was a mosaic carrier. We performed amplicon deep sequencing using the 454 GS Junior platform, next to Sanger sequencing, to identify and confirm mosaicism of IDH1 or IDH2 mutations in MC-HGA or D-2HGA, respectively. We identified different mutant allele percentages in DNA samples derived from different tissues (blood vs fibroblasts). Furthermore, we found that mutant allele percentages of IDH1 decreased after more passages had occurred in fibroblast cell cultures. We describe a method for the detection and validation of mosaic mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, making quantification with laborious cloning techniques obsolete.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2013; 50(11). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2013-101961 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Creatine transporter deficiency is a monogenic cause of X-linked intellectual disability. Since its first description in 2001 several case reports have been published but an overview of phenotype, genotype and phenotype-genotype correlation has been lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data of 101 males with X-linked creatine transporter deficiency from 85 families with a pathogenic mutation in the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most patients developed moderate to severe intellectual disability; mild intellectual disability was rare in adult patients. Speech language development was especially delayed but almost a third of the patients were able to speak in sentences. Besides behavioural problems and seizures, mild to moderate motor dysfunction, including extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, and gastrointestinal problems were frequent clinical features. Urinary creatine to creatinine ratio proved to be a reliable screening method besides MR spectroscopy, molecular genetic testing and creatine uptake studies, allowing definition of diagnostic guidelines. A third of patients had a de novo mutation in the SLC6A8 gene. Mothers with an affected son with a de novo mutation should be counselled about a recurrence risk in further pregnancies due to the possibility of low level somatic or germline mosaicism. Missense mutations with residual activity might be associated with a milder phenotype and large deletions extending beyond the 3' end of the SLC6A8 gene with a more severe phenotype. Evaluation of the biochemical phenotype revealed unexpected high creatine levels in cerebrospinal fluid suggesting that the brain is able to synthesise creatine and that the cerebral creatine deficiency is caused by a defect in the reuptake of creatine within the neurones.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2013; DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2013-101658 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Krebs cycle is of fundamental importance for the generation of the energetic and molecular needs of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Both enantiomers of metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate are directly linked to this pivotal biochemical pathway and are found elevated not only in several cancers, but also in different variants of the neurometabolic disease 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Recently we showed that cancer-associated IDH2 germline mutations cause one variant of 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Complementary to these findings, we now report recessive mutations in SLC25A1, the mitochondrial citrate carrier, in 12 out of 12 individuals with combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Impaired mitochondrial citrate efflux, demonstrated by stable isotope labeling experiments and the absence of SLC25A1 in fibroblasts harboring certain mutations, suggest that SLC25A1 deficiency is pathogenic. Our results identify defects in SLC25A1 as a cause of combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2013; 92(4):627-31. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.03.009 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis mutant shm1-1 is defective in mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 activity and displays a lethal photorespiratory phenotype at ambient CO2 concentration but grows normally at high CO2 . After transferring high CO2 -grown shm1-1 plants to ambient CO2 , the younger leaves remain photosynthetically active while developed leaves display increased yellowing and decreased FV /FM values. Metabolite analysis of plants transferred from high CO2 to ambient air indicates a massive light-dependent (photorespiratory) accumulation of glycine, 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Amino acid markers of senescence accumulated in ambient air in wild-type and shm1-1 plants maintained in darkness and also build up in shm1-1 in the light. This, together with an enhanced transcription of the senescence marker SAG12 in shm1-1, suggests the initiation of senescence in shm1-1 under photorespiratory conditions. Mitochondrial D-2HG dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) converts D-2HG into 2OG. In vitro studies indicate that 2OG exerts competitive inhibition on D-2HGDH with a Ki of 1.96 mm. 2OG is therefore a suitable candidate as inhibitor of the in vivo D-2HGDH activity, as 2OG is produced and accumulates in mitochondria. Inhibition of the D-2HGDH by 2OG is likely a mechanism by which D-2HG accumulates in shm1-1, however it cannot be ruled out that D-2HG may also accumulate due to an active senescence programme that is initiated in these plants after transfer to photorespiratory conditions. Thus, a novel interaction of the photorespiratory pathway with cellular processes involving D-2HG has been identified.
    Plant Biology 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/plb.12020 · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Neuropediatrics 03/2013; 44(02). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1337718 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Transaldolase deficiency is a recently described inborn error of pentose phosphate pathway. We conducted this study to further delineate the associated phenotype. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on 12 new cases representing six families with this metabolic defect that were observed over an 8 year span. None of these cases received the correct diagnosis initially because of significant overlap in the presenting symptoms (growth retardation, dysmorphic features, cutis laxa, congenital heart disease, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and bleeding tendency) with a wide range of genetic disorders. However, the consanguineous nature of these families allowed us to pursue autozygome analysis, which highlighted TALDO as the likely candidate gene and sequencing confirmed segregation of a novel homozygous mutation with the disease in all the studied families. Biochemical analysis was also consistent with transaldolase deficiency. CONCLUSION: This study expands the clinical definition of transaldolase deficiency, and adds to its allelic heterogeneity. In addition, we emphasize the diagnostic challenge posed by this rare and pleiotropic metabolic disorder.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 01/2013; 36(6). DOI:10.1007/s10545-012-9577-8 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 09/2012; 36(1). DOI:10.1007/s10545-012-9537-3 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Choline is essential for mammalian cell function. It plays a critical role in cell membrane integrity, neurotransmission, cell signaling and lipid metabolism. Moreover, choline is involved in methylation in two ways: a) its synthesis requires methyl groups donated by S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet); and b) choline oxidation product betaine methylates homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine (Met) and produces dimethylglycine. This later donates one carbon units to tetrahydrofolate (THF). Methods: To evaluate the correlations of choline and betaine with folate, AdoMet, S-anenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), total homocysteine (tHcy), and DNA methylation, choline, betaine and dimethylglycine were measured by LC-MS/MS in plasma of 109 healthy volunteers, in whom folate, AdoMet, AdoHcy, tHcy, and DNA methylation have previously been reported. Results: Using a bivariate model, choline and betaine showed strong positive correlations with folate (r=0.346 and r=0.226), AdoHcy (r=0.468 and r=0.296), and correlated negatively with AdoMet/AdoHcy ratio (r=-0.246 and r=-0.379). Only choline was positively correlated with AdoMet (r=0.453). Using a multivariate linear regression model, choline correlated strongly with folate (β=17.416), AdoMet (β=61.272), and AdoHcy (β=9.215). Betaine correlated positively with folate (β=0.133) and negatively with tHcy (β=-0.194) ratio. Choline is an integral part of folate and methylation pathways. Conclusions: Our data highlight the importance of integrating choline in studies concerning addressing pathological conditions related to folate, homocysteine and methylation metabolism.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2012; 51(3). DOI:10.1515/cclm-2012-0302 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary lysine restriction as an adjunct to pyridoxine therapy on biochemical parameters, seizure control, and developmental/cognitive outcomes in children with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) caused by antiquitin (ATQ) deficiency. METHODS: In this observational study, seven children with confirmed ATQ deficiency were started on dietary lysine restriction with regular nutritional monitoring. Biochemical outcomes were evaluated using pipecolic acid and α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) levels in body fluids; developmental/cognitive outcomes were evaluated using age-appropriate tests and parental observations. RESULTS: Lysine restriction was well tolerated with good compliance; no adverse events were reported. Reduction in biomarker levels (measurement of the last value before and first value after initiation of dietary lysine restriction) ranged from 20 to 67% for plasma pipecolic acid, 13 to 72% for urinary AASA, 45% for plasma AASA and 42% for plasma P6C. For the 1 patient in whom data were available and who showed clinical deterioration upon interruption of diet, cerebrospinal fluid levels decreased by 87.2% for pipecolic acid and 81.7% for AASA. Improvement in age-appropriate skills was observed in 4 out of 5 patients showing pre-diet delays, and seizure control was maintained or improved in 6 out 7 children. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study provides Level 4 evidence that lysine restriction is well tolerated with significant decrease of potentially neurotoxic biomarkers in different body compartments, and with the potential to improve developmental outcomes in children with PDE caused by ATQ deficiency. To generate a strong level of evidence before this potentially burdensome dietary therapy becomes the mainstay treatment, we have established: an international PDE consortium to conduct future studies with an all-inclusive integrated study design; a website containing up-to-date information on PDE; a methodological toolbox; and an online registry to facilitate the participation of interested physicians, scientists, and families in PDE research.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2012; 107(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.09.006 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: GAMT deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of creatine biosynthesis resulting in severe neurological complications in untreated patients. Currently available treatment is only successful to stop disease progression, but is not sufficient to reverse neurological complications occurring prior to diagnosis. Normal neurodevelopmental outcome in a patient, treated in the newborn period, highlights the importance of early diagnosis. METHODS: Targeted mutation analysis (c.59G>C and c.327G>A) in the GAMT gene by the QIAxcel system and GAA measurement by a novel two-tier method were performed in 3000 anonymized newborn blood dot spot cards. RESULTS: None of the targeted mutations were detected in any newborn. Two novel heterozygous variants (c.283_285dupGTC; p.Val95dup and c.278_283delinsCTCGATGCAC; p.Asp93AlafsX35) were identified by coincidence. Carrier frequency for these insertion/deletion types of GAMT mutations was 1/1475 in this small cohort of newborns. GAA levels were at or above the 99th percentile (3.12μmol/l) in 4 newborns. Second-tier testing showed normal results for 4 newborns revealing 0.1% false positive rate. No GAMT mutations were identified in 4 of the newborns with elevated GAA levels in the first tier testing. CONCLUSION: This is the first two-tier study to investigate carrier frequency of GAMT deficiency in the small cohort of newborn population to establish evidence base for the first steps toward newborn screening for this treatable neurometabolic disorder.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 08/2012; 107(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.07.022 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y 6mo-16y). The following data were retrieved: sex; age at seizure onset; age at the start of pyridoxine therapy; level of urinary alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde; antiquitin mutations; developmental milestones; evaluation of neurocognitive functioning and school career; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) assessments. Pyridoxine was started antenatally in two children, in the first week of life in five, in the first month of life in three, or after the first month of life (range 2.5-8mo) in four. No child was physically disabled; however, only five walked at 2 years of age. Mental development was delayed in most: median IQ or developmental index was 72 (SD 19). Pyridoxine monotherapy controlled seizures in 10 of 14 children, whereas four needed additional antiepileptic drugs. Seizure persistence, antiepileptic drugs (other than pyridoxine), EEG background, and epileptiform activity were not associated with outcome. On neonatal MRI, structural and white matter abnormalities occurred in five of eight children; on follow-up, the number of abnormal MRIs was increased. Delayed initiation of pyridoxine medication and corpus callosum abnormalities were significantly associated with unfavourable neurodevelopmental outcome, but normal follow-up imaging did not predict a good outcome. Outcome of patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy remains poor. Individual outcome cannot be predicted by the evaluated characteristics. We suggest that collaborated research in structured settings could help to improve treatment strategies and outcome for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 07/2012; 54(9):849-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04347.x · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes a presentation made at the retirement Symposium of Prof. Dr. Cornelis Jakobs in November of 2011, highlighting the progress toward clinical trials in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, a disorder first recognized in 1981. Active and potential clinical interventions, including vigabatrin, L-cycloserine, the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382, and the ketogenic diet, are discussed. Several biomarkers to gauge clinical efficacy have been identified, including cerebrospinal fluid metabolites, neuropsychiatric testing, MRI, EEG, and measures of GABAergic function including (11 C)flumazenil positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Thirty years after its discovery, encompassing extensive studies in both patients and the corresponding murine model, we are now running an open-label trial of taurine intervention, and are poised to undertake a phase II trial of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist SGS742.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 06/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10545-012-9499-5 · 4.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
2,762.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1997–2014
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      • • Metabolic Unit
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Maxima Medical Center
      Veldhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
    • University of Georgia
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2006
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1984–2006
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    • Greenwood Genetic Center
      GRD, South Carolina, United States
  • 1985–2004
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Molecular & Medical Genetics
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2000
    • Medical University of Graz
      • Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 1999
    • Steno Diabetes Center
      Gjentofte, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1995–1998
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Clinical Genetics
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1979–1997
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1992
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1987
    • Clinique médicale et pédagogique Dupré
      Sceaux-l'Unité, Île-de-France, France