[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that variations in H- and L-subunit composition in the ferritin shell affect intracellular iron metabolism, we established stable transfectants of mouse erythroleukemia cells overexpressing the H-ferritin subunit. Analyses were performed on individual clones of transfected cells induced to differentiate with hexamethylenbisacetamide (HMBA). The results showed that there was a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin produced, in inverse relationship with the level of H-subunit overexpression. Incorporation of [2-14C]glycine into heme was reduced by 20% t0 30% in the clones overexpressing H-ferritin subunit compared with control clone. However, the reduction in hemoglobin production was not reversed by addition of heme precursors (delta-aminolevulinic acid or iron) or by hemin itself. A reduced accumulation of beta-globin mRNA was also observed, which could account for the impaired hemoglobin synthesis. Furthermore, synthesis of the endogenous L-ferritin subunit was greatly repressed. Gel retardation assays performed on cytoplasmic extracts of transfected cells using an iron-responsive element (IRE) as a probe revealed that in overexpressing cells, the iron-regulatory protein (IRP) had a conformation with a high RNA-binding affinity, thus leading to translational repression of the endogenous L-ferritin synthesis. These data suggest that an increased formation of H-rich isoferritins leads to a rapid chelation of the regulatory iron pool. While the mechanism underlying the reduction in beta-globin mRNA remains to be elucidated, this study provides direct evidence for the role of IRP-mediated regulation of ferritin expression in erythroid cell metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of ferritin, the iron-storing molecule, is regulated at the translational level by iron through interaction between a cytoplasmic protein, iron regulatory protein (IRP), and a conserved nucleotide motif present in the 5' non-coding region of all ferritin mRNAs--the iron responsive element (IRE). This region forms a stem-loop structure and when the supply of iron to the cells is limited, the IRP is bound to IRE and represses ferritin synthesis. Ferritin is composed of a 24-subunit protein shell surrounding an iron core. The two types of subunit, H and L, are encoded by two genes located on chromosomes 11q13 and 19q13.1, respectively. Both genes are ubiquitously expressed but transcriptional regulation mediates tissue-specific changes in the H/L mRNA ratio and isoferritin profiles. We now report the identification of a single point mutation in the IRE of the L-ferritin mRNA in members from a family affected with dominantly inherited hyperferritinaemia and cataract. This mutation consists of an A to G change in the highly conserved CAGUGU motif that constitutes the IRE loop and mediates the high-affinity interaction with the IRP. We show that this mutation abolishes the binding of IRP in vitro and leads to a high constitutive, poorly regulated L-ferritin synthesis in cultured lymphoblastoid cells established from affected patients. This is, to our knowledge, the first mutation affecting the IRP-IRE interaction and the iron-mediated regulation of ferritin synthesis. We suggest that excess production of ferritin in tissues is responsible for the hyperferritinaemia and that intracellular accumulation of ferritin leads to cataract.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have cloned the functional gene coding for the L ferritin subunit by successive rounds of screening of a mouse genomic library using different oligonucleotides so as to avoid cloning the multiple pseudogenes of this rather complex multigene family. The L gene consists in 4 exons interrupted by 3 introns and spanning 1.8 kb. Quantitative measurements of H and L ferritin mRNA in various mouse tissues using a ribonuclease protection assay reveals important variations in the L/H ratio, the liver displaying the highest amount of L mRNA. Functional analysis of 1 kb of upstream sequence by transient transfections into the hepatoma cell line HepG2 shows that the mouse L gene transcription relies upon a minimal 130 bp promoter region containing 1 TATA box and 2 CCAAT motifs. Elements with an enhancing activity specific of hepatic tissue are likely to be located outside of this 1 kb fragment.
Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 05/1995; 318(4):431-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple ferritin H subunit sequences are present in the genome of higher vertebrates, but it is not yet known with certainty if more than one is expressed. In this paper, we provide evidence that there is only one functional ferritin H gene in the mouse. We screened a mouse genomic library using a mouse ferritin H cDNA as a probe and characterized five clones. These genomic clones proved to contain three pseudogenes and two allelic forms of a unique functional gene. These two alleles differed by only two point mutations in the promoter and three in the first intron and by a 31-bp insertion in the first intron. They were equally expressed when transiently transfected in HeLa cells. These five genomic clones account for all the bands observed on a Southern blot of mouse genomic DNA hybridized with a ferritin H cDNA, and these bands present a restriction fragment length polymorphism between various representatives of the genus Mus. Using a DNA panel prepared from the backcross progeny (C57BL/6 X Mus spretus)F1 X C57BL/6, we localized the functional ferritin H gene (Fth) in region B of mouse chromosome 19 and established cen-Ly-1-Fth-Pax-2 as the most likely gene order, thus defining a conserved syntenic fragment with human chromosome 11q.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human and rodent genomes contain multiple copies of ferritin H and L subunit sequences, although it is not yet clear whether there is more than one expressed gene for either of these subunits. We have isolated a cDNA corresponding to mouse ferritin H subunit and observed that the mouse genome contains three to four H-related sequences. This cDNA was used to establish the genomic location of mouse ferritin H subunit genes by chromosomal in situ hybridization. Metaphase chromosomes of concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes from a WMP male mouse were examined by in situ hybridization with 3H-labeled cDNA and the chromosomes were identified by R banding (fluorochrome-photolysis-Giemsa method). The results indicate that mouse ferritin H-related sequences map at chromosomes 3, 6, and 19. Homology of synteny between human and mouse suggests that the sequence on mouse chromosome 19 corresponds to the structural H gene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The porphobilinogen deaminase gene encodes the third enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. This gene is expressed in a tissue-specific manner and gives rise to two isoenzymatic forms encoded by mRNA species differing in their 5' extremity. Recent studies in human demonstrated that the tissue-specific expression of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene is determined in erythropoietic cells, by the utilization of a specific promoter situated 3' to the housekeeping promoter used in other cell types. This results, through differential splicing, in the mutually exclusive presence of either exon 1 or exon 2 in mature mRNAs. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene from mouse. The overall organization of the mouse gene is similar to that of the human one. In the housekeeping promoter, only a short stretch of homology is found including two potential Sp1 binding sites; in contrast, more extensive similarity appears in the erythroid-specific promoter including two motifs also found in globin gene, a CACCC box, and a recently described Ery F1 consensus binding sequence. We derived a set of single-stranded probes corresponding to different parts of the mouse gene to carry out a detailed analysis of the transcriptional unit in various cell types, using a run-on transcription assay on isolated nuclei. In liver cells, the first (non-erythropoietic) exon is more actively transcribed than parts of the gene situated downstream, suggesting that the elongation of transcripts is blocked within the 5' part of the first intron. In erythropoietic cells, the downstream promoter becomes activated; surprisingly, the initiation of transcription is also enhanced from the upstream (housekeeping) promoter and most of the transcripts initiated at the housekeeping promoter stop downstream of the first exon, between the two promoters.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1989; 264(25):14829-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the regulation of ferritin synthesis during induction of Friend erythroleukemic cells by dimethyl sulfoxide. Northern blot analysis shows that mouse ferritin H and L mRNAs each contain approximately 1.1 kilobases. The levels of both mRNAs increase after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in a biphasic manner. After a sharp rise in the first 6 h, the levels decline and then rise again over the next 90 h. These increases in mRNA levels reflect increased transcription of both mRNAs. Analysis of ferritin subunit synthesis surprisingly showed no corresponding increase in the rate of protein synthesis, suggesting that the additional mRNA was not in functional polysomes. These studies also indicated a novel processing of mouse ferritin H subunits. H subunits appear to be synthesized as a precursor of approximately 22,500. This form is not present in mature shells. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the precursor is first processed to an intermediate form of 20,000 and then to the 18,000 component found in functional shells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1987; 262(22):10619-23. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a hemochromatosis allele is implicated in the expression of porphyria cutanea tarda. HLA phenotypes were determined in 69 porphyria cutanea tarda patients, 42 of which had the sporadic type (normal erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity) and 27 unrelated patients who had the familial type (diminished erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity). The incidence of HLA antigen A3, a marker of the hemochromatosis allele, was identical in the sporadic patients (23.8%), in the familial patients (22.2%), and in the controls (24.5%). Furthermore, no clinical difference could be found between A3 and non-A3 patients. These results demonstrate no systematic association between hemochromatosis and porphyria cutanea tarda in the population studied. Another HLA-linked gene, however, could be implicated in the expression of the disease as HLA antigen DR7 presented an incidence statistically different (p less than 0.05) between sporadic (16.6%) and familial patients (43%).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porphobilinogen deaminase (hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 220.127.116.11), the third enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the stepwise condensation of four porphobilinogen units to yield hydroxymethylbilane, which is in turn converted to uroporphyrinogen III by cosynthetase. We compared the apparent molecular mass of porphobilinogen deaminase from erythropoietic and from non-erythropoietic cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immune-blotting. The results indicate that two isoforms of porphobilinogen deaminase can be distinguished and differ by 2000 Da. Analysis of cell-free translation products directed by mRNAs from human erythropoietic spleen and from human liver demonstrates that the two isoforms of porphobilinogen deaminase are encoded by distinct messenger RNAs. We cloned and sequenced cDNAs complementary to the non-erythropoietic form of porphobilinogen deaminase encoding RNA. Comparison of these sequences to that of human erythropoietic mRNA [Raich et al. (1986) Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5955-5968] revealed that the two mRNA species differ by their 5' extremity. From the mRNA sequences we could deduce that an additional peptide of 17 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus of the non-erythropoietic isoform of porphobilinogen deaminase accounts for its higher molecular mass. RNase mapping experiments demonstrate that the two porphobilinogen deaminase mRNAs are distributed according to a strict tissue-specificity, the erythropoietic form being restricted to erythropoietic cells. We propose that a single porphobilinogen deaminase gene is transcribed from two different promoters, yielding the two forms of porphobilinogen deaminase mRNAs. Our present finding may have some relevance for further understanding the porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency in certain cases of acute intermittent porphyria with an enzymatic defect restricted in non-erythropoietic cells.
European Journal of Biochemistry 02/1987; 162(1):105-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase deficiency in man is responsible for familial porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. A recent study of a family with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria showed that the enzyme defect resulted from rapid degradation of the protein in vivo. Cloning and sequencing of a complementary DNA for the mutated gene revealed that the mutation was due to the replacement of a glycine residue by a glutamic acid residue at position 281. This base change leads to a protein that is very rapidly degraded in the presence of cell lysate. Characterization of the mutation will allow comparison of this defect in a homozygous patient with defects in other patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to determine the molecular basis of uroporphyrinogen (URO) decarboxylase deficiency responsible for hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) and familial porphyria cutanea tarda, we used a human URO decarboxylase cDNA to analyze the organization and expression of the URO decarboxylase gene in lymphoblastoid cells from normal individuals and from two patients with HEP. We could detect neither deletions nor rearrangements in the URO decarboxylase gene. Synthesis, processing, and cell-free translation of the specific transcripts appeared to be normal. The half-life of the abnormal protein was 12 times shorter than that of the normal enzyme. The results indicate that the enzyme defect is due to a rapid degradation of the protein in vivo. This study is the first to provide information regarding the molecular mechanism responsible for the URO decarboxylase deficiency in HEP.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/1986; 77(2):431-5. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have monitored, during the dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-induced differentiation of MEL cells, the accumulation of mRNAs encoding two enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway, namely porphobilinogen deaminase and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Our results demonstrate that the induction of these two enzymes is accounted for by a coordinate increase in their corresponding mRNAs, as estimated by hybridization with specific cloned cDNA probes. These events occur early during the differentiation process and precede the accumulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs. Blocking the heme biosynthetic pathway with succinylacetone does not appear to modify the Me2SO-mediated increase of porphobilinogen deaminase and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase mRNAs although succinylacetone has been shown to prevent the induction of immunoreactive porphobilinogen deaminase as well as its enzymatic activity (Beaumont, C., Deybach, J. C., Grandchamp, B., Da Silva, V., de Verneuil, H., and Nordmann, Y. (1984) Exp. Cell Res. 154, 474-484). Heme depletion resulting from the presence of succinylacetone in the culture medium reduces the extent of the Me2SO-mediated accumulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs, and this effect is reversed by the addition of 10 microM exogenous hemin. Although the presence of succinylacetone prevents hemoglobinization of MEL cells, it does not prevent MEL cells from losing their proliferative capacity when treated with Me2SO.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1985; 260(17):9630-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the previously reported association of HLA-linked idiopathic haemochromatosis with idiopathic refractory sideroblastic anaemia (IRSA), the prevalence of HLA-A3 antigen in a group of 22 patients with IRSA was compared to that observed in healthy controls and in patients with homozygous idiopathic haemochromatosis and to that calculated for a population heterozygous for idiopathic haemochromatosis. The prevalence of A3 in patients with IRSA (0.23) was quite similar to that observed in controls (0.29) and significantly different from that observed in homozygous (0.73; P less than 10(-5] and heterozygous (0.57; P less than 10(-3] haemochromatosis. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin and liver iron concentration showed no difference in IRSA patients with or without A3. It is concluded that there is neither systematic association between the haemochromatosis allele and IRSA nor systematic implication of such an allele in the development of iron overload observed in IRSA.
British Journal of Haematology 06/1985; 60(1):75-80. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the previously reported association of HLA-linked idiopathic haemochromatosis with idiopathic refractory sideroblastic anaemia (IRSA), the prevalence of HLA-A3 antigen in a group of 22 patients with IRSA was compared to that observed in healthy controls and in patients with homozygous idiopathic haemochromatosis and to that calculated for a population heterozygous for idiopathic haemochromatosis. The prevalence of A3 in patients with IRSA (0.23) was quite similar to that observed in controls (0.29) and significantly different from that observed in homozygous (0.73; P<10−5) and heterozygous (0.57; P<10−3) haemochromatosis. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin and liver iron concentration showed no difference in IRSA patients with or without A3. It is concluded that there is neither systematic association between the haemochromatosis allele and IRSA nor systematic implication of such an allele in the development of iron overload observed in IRSA.
British Journal of Haematology 04/1985; 60(1):75 - 80. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A non-competitive enzyme immunoassay specific for delta aminolevulinate dehydrase has been devised and applied to rodent-human hybrid cell lines. Two different conditions have been used, one specific for the human enzyme and the other indicative of both rodent and human enzymes. The ratio of the values obtained under the two conditions was used to discriminate between positive and negative clones. By this method the gene for ALA dehydrase has been assigned to chromosome 9.
Annals of Human Genetics 06/1984; 48(Pt 2):153-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diploid and tetraploid rat hepatocyte subpopulations were isolated by elutriation and cultured for 24 h. Albumin secretion and protein synthesis rates were two-fold lower in 2n than in 4n hepatocytes. [35S]methionine-labelled proteins analysed by acrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a strikingly similar pattern in the two cell subpopulations. No differences in cellular proteins or in the intensity of labelling were observed. These results show (1) that viable diploid and tetraploid hepatocyte subpopulations can be separated by elutriation under sterile conditions and then cultured; and (2) strongly suggest that the same genes are transcribed and further translated at the same rate in both hepatocyte subpopulations.
Experimental Cell Research 09/1983; 147(1):247-54. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When adult rat hepatocytes were co-cultured with another liver epithelial cell type in a medium supplemented or not with fetal calf serum (FCS), it was found that 1. They survived for more than 2 months 2. Albumin secretion levels remained high over the whole culture period 3. Decreased secretion might be reversed 4. This protein secretion activity appeared to be dependent upon both the presence of cell-cell contacts and the production of an extracellular material. The results demonstrate for the first time long-term stabilization and reversibility of a specific function (albumin secretion) at high levels by adult hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium and suggest that both the presence of other liver cell type(s) and the production of an extracellular matrix are needed for the maintenance of specific functions in cultured hepatocytes.
Experimental Cell Research 02/1983; 143(1):47-54. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Albumin was localized and its rate of secretion determined in the original suspension and in the 2n and 4n subpopulations obtained by counter-flow centrifugation, of normal adult rat hepatocytes. Albumin was found in all or almost all the hepatocytes both before and after elutriation, at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The amount of albumin secreted by the 4n hepatocyte fractions was roughly 2-fold that secreted by the 2n hepatocyte fractions. These results suggest that at any single time point, all adult rat hepatocytes produce albumin at a rate directly correlated with their degree of ploidy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1981; 101(3):1038-46. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferritin was localized by immunoperoxidase in rat liver during the early stages of experimental carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine. Carcinogen - altered hepatocytes, indentified by their reduction in membrane-bound ATPase activity, showed a highly elevated content in ferritin (or ferritin subunits), compared to normal hepatocytes. This could correspond to an accumulation of free subunits in the cytoplasm or to a “non-specific” increase in ferritin synthesis related to the carcinogenic process. Our results suggest that some cytoplasmic proteins other than enzymes can be modified during the early stages of carcinogenesis and that ferritin accumulation detected by immunolocalization can be used as a valuable marker to identify foci of cellular alterations.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/1981; 99(3):879-85. · 2.41 Impact Factor