Claudine Legault

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (65)344.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis.
    Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of yoga for reducing self-reported menopausal hot flashes in a randomized study including an attention control group. We randomized 54 late perimenopausal women (2-12 mo of amenorrhea) and postmenopausal women (>12 mo of amenorrhea)-aged 45 to 58 years and who experienced at least four hot flashes per day, on average, for at least 4 weeks-to one of three groups: yoga, health and wellness education (HW), and wait list (WL). Yoga and HW classes consisted of weekly 90-minute classes for 10 weeks. All women completed daily hot flash diaries throughout the trial (10 wk) to track the frequency and severity of hot flashes. The mean hot flash index score is based on the number of mild, moderate, severe, and very severe hot flashes. Hot flash frequency declined significantly across time for all three groups, with the strongest decline occurring during the first week. There was no overall significant difference in hot flash frequency decrease over time by treatment groups, but the yoga and HW groups followed similar patterns and showed greater decreases than the WL group. On week 10, women in the yoga group reported an approximately 66% decrease in hot flash frequency, women in the HW group reported a 63% decrease, and women in the WL group reported a 36% decrease. The hot flash index showed a similar pattern. Results suggest that yoga can serve as a behavioral option for reducing hot flashes but may not offer any advantage over other types of interventions.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 01/2014; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg.m-2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg.m-2; 69% female) with radiographic knee osteoarthritis that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. Results A higher BMI was associated with greater (p = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (p = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (p < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. Conclusion BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibio-femoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee osteoarthritis patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment).
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common cause of chronic pain and disability, has biomechanical and inflammatory origins and is exacerbated by obesity. To determine whether a ≥10% reduction in body weight induced by diet, with or without exercise, would improve mechanistic and clinical outcomes more than exercise alone. Single-blind, 18-month, randomized clinical trial at Wake Forest University between July 2006 and April 2011. The diet and exercise interventions were center-based with options for the exercise groups to transition to a home-based program. Participants were 454 overweight and obese older community-dwelling adults (age ≥55 years with body mass index of 27-41) with pain and radiographic knee OA. Intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise, intensive diet-induced weight loss, or exercise. Mechanistic primary outcomes: knee joint compressive force and plasma IL-6 levels; secondary clinical outcomes: self-reported pain (range, 0-20), function (range, 0-68), mobility, and health-related quality of life (range, 0-100). Three hundred ninety-nine participants (88%) completed the study. Mean weight loss for diet + exercise participants was 10.6 kg (11.4%); for the diet group, 8.9 kg (9.5%); and for the exercise group, 1.8 kg (2.0%). After 18 months, knee compressive forces were lower in diet participants (mean, 2487 N; 95% CI, 2393 to 2581) compared with exercise participants (2687 N; 95% CI, 2590 to 2784, pairwise difference [Δ](exercise vs diet )= 200 N; 95% CI, 55 to 345; P = .007). Concentrations of IL-6 were lower in diet + exercise (2.7 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.5 to 3.0) and diet participants (2.7 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.0) compared with exercise participants (3.1 pg/mL; 95% CI, 2.9 to 3.4; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = 0.39 pg/mL; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.81; P = .007; Δ(exercise vs diet )= 0.43 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.85, P = .006). The diet + exercise group had less pain (3.6; 95% CI, 3.2 to 4.1) and better function (14.1; 95% CI, 12.6 to 15.6) than both the diet group (4.8; 95% CI, 4.3 to 5.2) and exercise group (4.7; 95% CI, 4.2 to 5.1, Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.71; P(pain) = .004; 18.4; 95% CI, 16.9 to 19.9; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise), 4.29; 95% CI, 2.07 to 6.50; P(function )< .001). The diet + exercise group (44.7; 95% CI, 43.4 to 46.0) also had better physical health-related quality of life scores than the exercise group (41.9; 95% CI, 40.5 to 43.2; Δ(exercise vs diet + exercise) = -2.81; 95% CI, -4.76 to -0.86; P = .005). Among overweight and obese adults with knee OA, after 18 months, participants in the diet + exercise and diet groups had more weight loss and greater reductions in IL-6 levels than those in the exercise group; those in the diet group had greater reductions in knee compressive force than those in the exercise group. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00381290.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2013; 310(12):1263-73. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objectives: This study examined the relationship between positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, and cognitive performance. Methods: The sample consisted of 1479 non-demented, postmenopausal women (mean age = 67 years) at increased risk of breast cancer enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. At each annual visit, women completed a standardized neuropsychological battery and self-report measures of affect and depression. Data from three visits were used in linear mixed models for repeated measures using likelihood ratio tests. Separate analyses were performed to relate positive/negative affect and depression to each cognitive measure. Results: Higher positive affect was associated with better letter fluency (p = .006) and category fluency (p < .0001). Higher negative affect was associated with worse global cognitive function (p < .0001), verbal memory (CVLT List B; p = .002), and spatial ability (p < .0001). Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with verbal knowledge (p = .004), figural memory (p < .0001), and verbal memory (p's ≤ .0001). Discussion: Findings are consistent with some prior research demonstrating a link between positive affect and increased verbal fluency and between depressive symptoms and decreased memory. The most novel finding shows that negative affect is related to decreased global cognition and visuospatial ability. Overall, this research in a large, longitudinal sample supports the notion that positive affect is related to increases and negative affect to decreases in performance on distinct cognitive measures.
    Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition 12/2012; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity and reliability of a cognitive test battery and questionnaires administered by telephone. DESIGN: Observational study; 110 participants randomly assigned to receive two administrations of the same cognitive test battery 6 months apart in one of four combinations (Time 1 administration/Time 2 administration): telephone/telephone, telephone/face to face, face to face/telephone, face to face/face to face. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ten women aged 65 to 90 without dementia. MEASUREMENTS: The battery included tests of attention; verbal learning and memory; verbal fluency; executive function; working memory; global cognitive functioning; and self-reported measures of perceived memory problems, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and health-related quality of life. Test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, relative bias associated with telephone administration, and change scores were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in scores on any of the cognitive tests or questionnaires between participants randomly assigned to telephone or face-to-face administration at the Time 1 assessment, indicating equivalence across administration modes. There was no significant bias for tests or questionnaires administered by telephone (P's > .01), nor was there a difference in mean change scores between administration modes except for Category Fluency (P = .01) and California Verbal Learning Test long-delay free recall (P = .004). Mean test-retest coefficients for the battery were not significantly different between groups, although individual test-retest correlation coefficients were generally higher within modes than between modes. CONCLUSION: Telephone administration of cognitive tests and questionnaires to older women is reliable and valid. Use of telephone batteries can substantially reduce the cost and burden of cognitive assessments and increase enrollment, retention, and data completeness, thereby improving study validity.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 09/2012; 60(9):1616-1623. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess correlates of physical activity, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and physical functioning, in 160 older (66 ± 6 years old), overweight/obese (mean body mass index = 33.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2), sedentary (less than 30 mins of activity, 3 days a week) individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Physical activity was measured with accelerometers and by self-report. Physical function was assessed by 6-min walk distance, knee strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Pain and perceived function were measured by questionnaires. Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to analyze the relationships. Results: The mean number of steps taken per day was 6209 and the average PAEE was 237 ± 124 kcal/day. Participants engaged in 131 ± 39 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and 10.6 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MPA/VPA). Total steps/day, PAEE, and minutes of MPA/VPA were all negatively correlated with age. The 6-min walk distance and lower extremity function were better in those who had higher total steps/day, higher PAEE, higher minutes of MPA/VPA, and a higher PASE score. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a population who has higher levels of spontaneous activity have better overall physical function than those who engage in less activity.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 08/2012; 10(6):777-83. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth and sex steroid hormones decrease with aging and obesity. The effect of dietary weight loss and exercise training lifestyle interventions was examined on hormones as well as determining their relationships with physical function in older obese and overweight adults. Individuals were randomized into one of four 18 month interventions: Healthy Lifestyle (HL), Exercise, Diet, and Exercise-Diet. Clinical research setting with facility based exercise and nutrition education and behavior classrooms. Older (≥60 yrs) overweight and obese (BMI≥28 kg/m(2)) adults with knee osteoarthritis (n=309) were recruited for the study. Weight loss goal for Diet groups was ≥5%. Exercise groups trained (mostly walking and resistance training) 3 days/week for 60 min/session. Body weight, growth hormone (GH), corticosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months. Physical function was determined through performance task (6-min walking distance) and self-reported questionnaires (Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index-WOMAC) at similar time points. Diet, Exercise, and Exercise-Diet groups lost 4.9%, 3.5%, and 6.2% of their weight at 18 months, respectively. There was a significant diet treatment effect on GH levels in women as higher concentrations of this hormone were apparent following dietary weight loss intervention (p=0.01). No other hormones were affected by either diet or exercise treatments in men or women. A significant inverse correlation between baseline 6-minute walking distance and SHBG (r=-0.33) was found in men. The increase in basal GH levels from the diet treatment in women suggests that this lifestyle behavior intervention may mitigate the age- and obesity-related decreases in growth hormone levels, to help preserve muscle mass, strength, and physical function in older adults.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2012; 16(2):169-74. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify evidenced-based obesity treatments that are effective in maintaining lost weight. Weight loss results in reductions in energy expenditure, including spontaneous physical activity (SPA) which is defined as energy expenditure resulting primarily from unstructured mobility-related activities that occur during daily life. To date, there is little research, especially randomized, controlled trials, testing strategies that can be adopted and sustained to prevent declines in SPA that occur with weight loss. Self-monitoring is a successful behavioral strategy to facilitate behavior change, so a provocative question is whether monitoring SPA-related energy expenditure would override these reductions in SPA, and slow weight regain. This study is a randomized trial in older, obese men and women designed to test the hypothesis that adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI), focused around self-monitoring of SPA, to a weight loss intervention will result in less weight and fat mass regain following weight loss than a comparable intervention that lacks this self-regulatory behavioral strategy. Participants (n=72) are randomized to a 5-month weight loss intervention with or without the addition of a behavioral component that includes an innovative approach to promoting increased SPA. Both groups then transition to self-selected diet and exercise behavior for a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-month period, the SRI group is provided with an intervention designed to promote a SPA level that is equal to or greater than each individual's baseline SPA level, allowing us to isolate the effects of the SPA self-regulatory intervention component on weight and fat mass regain.
    Contemporary clinical trials 12/2011; 33(2):450-5. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention approaches such as physical activity, strength, and cognitive training for improving brain health has not been established. Before definitive trials are mounted, important design questions on participation/adherence, training and interventions effects must be answered to more fully inform a full-scale trial. SHARP-P was a single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial of a 4-month physical activity training intervention (PA) and/or cognitive training intervention (CT) in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a health education control condition in 73 community-dwelling persons, aged 70-85 years, who were at risk for cognitive decline but did not have mild cognitive impairment. Intervention attendance rates were higher in the CT and PACT groups: CT: 96%, PA: 76%, PACT: 90% (p=0.004), the interventions produced marked changes in cognitive and physical performance measures (p≤0.05), and retention rates exceeded 90%. There were no statistically significant differences in 4-month changes in composite scores of cognitive, executive, and episodic memory function among arms. Four-month improvements in the composite measure increased with age among participants assigned to physical activity training but decreased with age for other participants (intervention*age interaction p=0.01). Depending on the choice of outcome, two-armed full-scale trials may require fewer than 1,000 participants (continuous outcome) or 2,000 participants (categorical outcome). Good levels of participation, adherence, and retention appear to be achievable for participants through age 85 years. Care should be taken to ensure that an attention control condition does not attenuate intervention effects. Depending on the choice of outcome measures, the necessary sample sizes to conduct four-year trials appear to be feasible. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00688155.
    BMC Geriatrics 05/2011; 11:27. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the performance of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) for identifying participants appropriate for trials of physical activity and cognitive training interventions. Volunteers (N=343), ages 70-85 years, who were being recruited for a pilot clinical trial on approaches to prevent cognitive decline, were administered TICS and required to score ≥ 31 prior to an invitation to attend clinic-based assessments. The frequencies of contraindications for physical activity and cognitive training interventions were tallied for individuals grouped by TICS scores. Relationships between TICS scores and other measures of cognitive function were described by scatterplots and correlation coefficients. Eligibility criteria to identify candidates who were appropriate candidates for the trial interventions excluded 51.7% of the volunteers with TICS<31. TICS scores above this range were not strongly related to cognition or attendance at screening visits, however overall enrollment yields were approximately half for participants with TICS=31 versus TICS=41, and increased in a graded fashion throughout the range of scores. Use of TICS to define eligibility criteria in trials of physical activity and cognitive training interventions may not be worthwhile in that many individuals with low scores would already be eliminated by intervention-specific criteria and the relationship of TICS with clinic-based tests of cognitive function among appropriate candidates for these interventions may be weak. TICS may be most useful in these trials to identify candidates for oversampling in order to obtain a balanced cohort of participants at risk for cognitive decline.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2011; 26(2):135-43. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Behavioral Medicine 01/2011; 41:S113-S113. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2011; 19. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high weight loss on knee joint loads during walking in participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Data were obtained from a subset of participants enrolled in the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial (ADAPT). Complete baseline and 18-month follow-up data were obtained on 76 sedentary, overweight or obese older adults with radiographic knee OA. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used to calculate knee joint forces and moments. The cohort was divided into high (>5%), low (<5%), and no (0% or gain) weight loss groups. From baseline body weight, the high weight loss group lost an average of 10.2%, the low weight loss group lost an average of 2.7%, and the no weight loss group gained 1.5%. Adjusted 18-month outcome data revealed lower maximum knee compressive forces with greater weight loss (P=0.05). The difference in compressive forces between the high weight loss and no weight loss groups was due primarily to lower hamstring forces (P=0.04). Quadriceps forces were similar between the groups at 18-month follow-up. There was no difference between the groups in 18-month joint space width or Kellgren-Lawrence scores. These results suggest that a 10% weight loss in an overweight and obese osteoarthritic population elicits positive changes in the mechanical pathway to knee OA by having lower knee joint compressive loads during walking compared to low and no weight loss groups. The difference in compressive forces was due, in large part, to reductions in hamstring co-contraction during the initial portion of the stance phase.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 12/2010; 19(3):272-80. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Geriatric Psychiatry Outreach (GO) Program began in 2005 and provides in-home psychiatric evaluation and treatment for older adults who have difficulty getting to an office-based setting. An initial assessment was conducted on the first 100 patients seen by the program and follow-up treatment was provided as clinically indicated. The mean age of patients seen was 79.7 (SD: 8.2), 74% were women, and the most common psychiatric diagnoses were depression (50%) and dementia (45%), with a mean of 1.4 (SD: 0.6) psychiatric diagnoses per patient. The patients had a mean of 4.8 (SD: 2.9) medical diagnoses and were on a mean of 6.8 (SD: 4.0) prescription and 2.2 (SD: 1.2) nonprescription medications. Patients received a mean of 4.2 (SD: 4.2) in-person visits and a mean of 30.2 (SD: 36.5) additional contacts related to their care, such as phone calls, e-mails, and faxes. Providing psychiatric services at home for older adults with mental illness is a much needed but rarely available service. Such patients typically have a complex combination of medical and psychiatric diagnoses and benefit from contacts in addition to the face-to-face visits.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 12/2010; 18(12):1141-5. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether small decrements in global cognitive function that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapies have been shown to produce in older women persist after cessation and extend to specific cognitive domains. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Fourteen clinical centers of the Women's Health Initiative. Two thousand three hundred four women aged 65 to 80 free of probable dementia at enrollment. CEE 0.625 mg/d with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10 mg/d) and matching placebos. Annual administrations of a battery of cognitive tests during and after the trial. Assignment to CEE-based therapies was associated with small mean relative decrements in global cognitive function and several domain-specific cognitive functions during the trial, which largely persisted through up to 4 years after the trial. The strongest statistical evidence was for global cognitive function (0.07-standard deviation decrements during (P=.007) and after (P=.01) the trial. For domain-specific scores, the mean decrements were slightly smaller, were less significant, and tended to be larger for CEE-alone therapy. CEE-based therapies, when initiated after the age of 65, produce a small broad-based decrement in cognitive function that persists after their use is stopped, but the differences in cognitive function are small and would not be detectable or have clinical significance for an individual woman. Differences in effects between cognitive domains suggest that more than one mechanism may be involved.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 07/2010; 58(7):1263-71. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the frequency of depressive symptoms and selected psychiatric disorders in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) cohort and related them to cognitive syndromes. WHIMS was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled prevention clinical trial examining whether opposed and unopposed hormone therapy reduced the risk of dementia in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants scoring below a designated cutpoint on a cognitive screener received a comprehensive neuropsychiatric workup and adjudicated outcome of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or probable dementia. Seven thousand four hundred seventy-nine WHIMS participants between age 65 and 79 years and free of dementia at the time of enrollment in WHIMS. Five hundred twenty-one unique participants contributed complete data required for these analyses. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and the presence of selected psychiatric disorders (major depression, generalized anxiety, and panic and alcohol abuse) was made using the PRIME-MD. The 18% of women had at least one psychiatric disorder with depression being the most common (16%) followed by general anxiety or panic (6%) and alcohol abuse (1%). Depression and the presence of a psychiatric disorder were associated with impaired cognitive status. Participants having a psychiatric disorder were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with cognitive impairment as those with no psychiatric disorder (odds ratio = 2.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.17-3.60). Older age, white race, and diabetes were also associated with cognitive impairment. The frequency of a psychiatric disorder is associated with poorer cognitive functioning among older women enrolled in WHIMS. That approximately one in five women had a probable psychiatric disorder, most typically depression, highlights the need for greater detection and treatment efforts in this population.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2010; 18(2):177-86. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42.
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    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 01/2010; 18:177. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
344.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Division of Public Health Sciences
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      • • Department of Health and Exercise Science
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States