Christopher George

The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)28.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence (MERCURY) Study validated the use of MRI for posttreatment staging and its correlation with survival outcomes. As a consequence, reassessment of MRI scans after preoperative therapy has implications for surgical planning, the timing of surgery, sphincter preservation, deferral of surgery for good responders, and development of further preoperative treatments for radiologically identified poor responders. CONCLUSION: In this article we report a validated systematic approach to the interpretation of MR images of patients with rectal cancer after chemoradiation.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 10/2012; 199(4):W486-95. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-suspected pelvic sidewall (PSW) lymph node involvement in rectal cancer is uncertain. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed retrospectively by specialist gastrointestinal radiologists for the presence of suspicious PSW nodes. Scans and outcome data were from patients with biopsy-proven rectal cancer and a minimum of 5 years' follow-up in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence Study. Overall disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and stratified according to preoperative therapy. Binary logistic regression was used to match patients for propensity of clinical and staging characteristics, and further survival analysis was carried out to determine associations between suspicious PSW nodes on MRI and survival outcomes. Of 325 patients, 38 (11·7 per cent) had MRI-identified suspicious PSW nodes on baseline scans. Such nodes were associated with poor outcomes. Five-year DFS was 42 and 70·7 per cent respectively for patients with, and without suspicious PSW nodes (P < 0·001). Among patients undergoing primary surgery, MRI-suspected PSW node involvement was associated with worse 5-year DFS (31 versus 76·3 per cent; P = 0·001), but the presence of suspicious nodes had no impact on survival among patients who received preoperative therapy. After propensity matching for clinical and tumour characteristics, the presence of suspicious PSW nodes on MRI was not an independent prognostic variable. Patients with suspicious PSW nodes on MRI had significantly worse DFS that appeared improved with the use of preoperative therapy. These nodes were associated with adverse features of the primary tumour and were not an independent prognostic factor.
    British Journal of Surgery 12/2011; 98(12):1798-804. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathologic staging after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer in a prospectively enrolled, multicenter study. In a prospective cohort study, 111 patients who had rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant therapy were assessed for response by MRI and pathology staging by T, N and circumferential resection margin (CRM) status. Tumor regression grade (TRG) was also assessed by MRI. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between staging of good and poor responders on MRI or pathology and survival outcomes after controlling for patient characteristics. On multivariate analysis, the MRI-assessed TRG (mrTRG) hazard ratios (HRs) were independently significant for survival (HR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.65 to 11.7) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.80). Five-year survival for poor mrTRG was 27% versus 72% (P = .001), and DFS for poor mrTRG was 31% versus 64% (P = .007). Preoperative MRI-predicted CRM independently predicted local recurrence (LR; HR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.51). Five-year survival for poor post-treatment pathologic T stage (ypT) was 39% versus 76% (P = .001); DFS for the same was 38% versus 84% (P = .001); and LR for the same was 27% versus 6% (P = .018). The 5-year survival for involved pCRM was 30% versus 59% (P = .001); DFS, 28 versus 62% (P = .02); and LR, 56% versus 10% (P = .001). Pathology node status did not predict outcomes. MRI assessment of TRG and CRM are imaging markers that predict survival outcomes for good and poor responders and provide an opportunity for the multidisciplinary team to offer additional treatment options before planning definitive surgery. Postoperative histopathology assessment of ypT and CRM but not post-treatment N status were important postsurgical predictors of outcome.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2011; 29(28):3753-60. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the pattern of nodal enhancement at MRI enhanced with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) in the nodal classification of rectal cancer in pathologically matched mesorectal lymph nodes. Twenty-five patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum underwent prospective evaluation with 3-mm axial T2-weighted and USPIO-enhanced T2*-weighted MRI before surgery. Mesorectal nodes visible at in vivo MRI were independently scored by two radiologists as malignant or nonmalignant according to morphologic criteria (irregular nodal contour, heterogeneous signal intensity) on T2-weighted MR images and according to USPIO enhancement pattern on T2*-weighted MR images. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of morphologic and USPIO criteria in identification of malignancy in the pathologically matched mesorectal nodes were compared by use of the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement was compared by use of kappa statistics. After surgery, radiologic-pathologic comparison of 126 mesorectal nodes (116 benign, 10 malignant) was possible. Use of morphologic criteria resulted in an average sensitivity of 65% (95% CI, 35-88%); specificity, 75% (67-83%); positive predictive value, 19% (8-34%); and negative predictive value, 96% (91-99%). Use of USPIO criteria resulted in an average sensitivity of 65% (95% CI, 35-88%); specificity, 93% (87-96%); positive predictive value, 43% (21-67%); and negative predictive value, 97% (92-99%). Use of USPIO MRI improved diagnostic specificity for both observers (p < 0.01). Interobserver agreement was fair for morphologic criteria (kappa = 0.39) but good for USPIO criteria (kappa = 0.68). Use of the pattern of USPIO enhancement had higher diagnostic specificity than but the same sensitivity as morphologic findings in pathologically matched mesorectal lymph nodes.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 06/2010; 194(6):W505-13. · 2.90 Impact Factor