C Venkataraman

Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, United States

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Publications (32)139.37 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Death receptor-6 (DR6), a member of the death domain-containing TNFR superfamily, is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues and regulated upon lymphocyte activation. Targeted disruption of DR6 results in enhanced CD4(+) T cell proliferation and T helper 2 (Th2) differentiation in vitro, whereas the in vivo role of DR6 in regulating Th2 cell differentiation and effector function remains largely unknown. In the current study, we used a Th2-skewed allergic airway inflammation model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge to compare the inflammatory response in the lung of both wild type (WT) and DR6(-/-) mice. DR6(-/-) mice were protected from the development of airway inflammation as evidenced by attenuated eosinophil accumulation and reduced mucus-producing cells in the lining airways of allergen-challenged animals. Consistent with these observations, a profound reduction of Th2 cytokine production (IL-5 and IL-13) was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Furthermore, a significant increase in the frequency of IFN-gamma secreting cells was observed in the DR6(-/-) mouse lungs after OVA challenge, which may account for the reduced pulmonary Th2 cytokine production. These data point to a critical role of DR6 in regulating airway inflammation in the OVA-induced mouse model of asthma.
    Immunology Letters 08/2006; 106(1):42-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-linking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the activation of several protein tyrosine kinases leading to phospholipase C-gamma2-dependent phospholipid hydrolysis and Ca2+ mobilization, followed by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) family members. Sustained Ca2+ release in B lymphocytes is dependent on the membrane localization and activation of the protein tyrosine kinase BTK. Ca2+ release is a tightly regulated process involving BTK membrane localization through its phosphorylation by PKCbeta. A selective role of PKCbeta in B cell signaling was first revealed by the characterization of PKCbeta knockout mice, which displayed decreased B cell proliferation in response to various mitogenic stimuli. However, it is not clear whether the B cell defects displayed by the PKCbeta knockout mice are due a B cell developmental defect or the scaffolding function of PKCbeta, resulting in a defect in the recruitment or formation of signal transducing complex molecules. Thus, in this report we investigated the effects of pharmacologic inhibition of the catalytic function of PKCbeta on B cell survival and growth. Treatment of Daudi B lymphoma cell line with a selective PKCbeta inhibitor, LY333531, inhibited anti-IgM-induced phosphorylation of BTK on Ser180 in a concentration-dependent manner, which was concomitant with an increase in BTK activation, and Ca2+ mobilization. In primary splenic B cells, LY333531 inhibited BCR-induced B cell proliferation, but did not affect basal or LPS-induced proliferation. Finally, LY333531 treatment resulted in the induction of apoptosis of anti-IgM-activated B cells, which corroborated with their inability to up-regulate pro-survival factors, Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2. These results support the important and selective role of the PKCbeta enzymatic function in controlling Ca2+ release during BCR signaling leading to B lymphocyte survival and growth.
    Immunology Letters 06/2006; 105(1):83-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCL3 is a C-C family chemokine detected at high levels in the synovial tissue and fluids of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. CCL3 binds to the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5, which are expressed by inflammatory leukocytes such as macrophages and T cells present in the affected joints of RA patients. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether absence of CCL3 prevented development of inflammation and joint destruction in anti-type II collagen monoclonal antibody (anti-CII mAb)-induced arthritis. "CCL3 null mice were different from wild-type control mice in terms of body weight loss". In addition, CCL3 null mice exhibited milder clinical and histopathological scores following administration of anti-CII mAb and endotoxin. Moreover, the release of TNF in response to systemic administration of endotoxin was not affected in CCL3 null mice compared to wild-type mice, indicating that the phenotype was not attributable to a defect in endotoxin response. These results indicate that CCL3 plays an essential role in the development of inflammation and joint destruction induced by anti-CII mAb.
    Immunology Letters 10/2005; 100(2):202-4. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1) with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1alpha or MIP-1beta. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM) to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1.
    BMC Immunology 02/2005; 6:15. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal and pleural cavities in mice and humans contain a unique population of B-lymphocytes called B-1 cells that are defective in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling but have an increased propensity to produce autoantibodies. Several molecules such as Btk, Vav, and CD19 known to be important for BCR signaling have been shown to be critical for the development of B-1 cells from undefined precursors. Here we demonstrate that B-1 cell unresponsiveness to BCR cross-linking is in part due to defective signaling through CD19, a molecule known to modulate signaling thresholds in B cells. The defective CD19 signaling is manifested in reduced synergy between mIgM and CD19 to stimulate calcium mobilization in B-1 cells. BCR induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CD19 was transient in B-1 cells while it was prolonged in splenic B-2 cells. In both B-1 and B-2 cells BCR cross-linking induced a modest increase of CD19 associated Lyn, a Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) thought to be important for CD19 phosphorylation. However, the tyrosine phosphorylated CD19 in B-1 cells binds less phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) compared to B-2 cells. Most interestingly, we find that Vav-1 and Vav-2, proteins thought to be critical for CD19 signal transduction, are severely reduced in B-1 cells resulting in a complete absence of any CD19 associated Vav. Also we showed that both B-1a and B-1b B cells failed to proliferate in response to BCR cross-linking which in part appears to be due to defects in CD19 mediated amplification of BCR induced calcium mobilization.
    Molecular Immunology 10/2002; 39(1-2):57-68. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD72 is a 45-kDa B cell transmembrane glycoprotein that has been shown to be important for B cell activation. However, whether CD72 ligation induces B cell activation by delivering positive signals or sequestering negative signals away from B cell receptor (BCR) signals remains unclear. Here, by comparing the late signaling events associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we identified many similarities and some differenes between CD72 and BCR signaling. Thus, CD72 and BCR activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Both CD72- and BCR-mediated ERK and JNK activation required protein kinase C activity, which was equally important for CD72- and BCR-induced B cell proliferation. However, CD72 induced stronger JNK activation compared with BCR. Surprisingly, the JNK activation induced by both BCR and CD72 is Btk independent. Although both CD72 and BCR induced Btk-dependent ERK activation, CD72-mediated proliferation is more resistent to blocking of ERK activity than that of BCR, as shown by the proliferation response of B cells treated with PD98059 and dibutyryl cAMP, agents that inhibit ERK activity. Most importantly, CD72 signaling compensated for defective BCR signaling in X-linked immunodeficiency B cells and partially restored the proliferation response of X-linked immunodeficiency B cells to anti-IgM ligation. These results suggest that CD72 signals B cells by inducing BCR-independent positive signaling pathways.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 167(3):1263-1273. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • G Schaefer, C Venkataraman, U Schindler
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    ABSTRACT: Th cell subsets, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, play an important role in mounting an immune response against invading pathogens. Several genes are selectively up-regulated during differentiation and effector phases of Th subsets. In this study, we report the identification of a novel cytokine-like molecule designated FISP (IL-4-induced secreted protein), which is selectively expressed and secreted by Th2 cells. Detectable levels of FISP are observed only 3 days after initiation of Th2 differentiation. Expression of FISP in developing Th cells requires at least two signals: TCR signaling involving protein kinase C activation and STAT6-dependent IL-4R signaling.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2001; 166(10):5859-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Gabriele Schaefer, Chandrasekar Venkataraman, Ulrike Schindler
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    ABSTRACT: Th cell subsets, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, play an important role in mounting an immune response against invading patho- gens. Several genes are selectively up-regulated during differ- entiation and effector phases of Th subsets. In this study, we report the identification of a novel cytokine-like molecule des- ignated FISP (IL-4-induced secreted protein), which is selec- tively expressed and secreted by Th2 cells. Detectable levels of FISP are observed only 3 days after initiation of Th2 differ- entiation. Expression of FISP in developing Th cells requires at least two signals: TCR signaling involving protein kinase C activation and STAT6-dependent IL-4R signaling. The Jour- nal of Immunology, 2001, 166: 5859 -5863.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2001; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • C Venkataraman, Y A Kwaik
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular replication of the Legionnaires' disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, within protozoa plays a major role in bacterial ecology and pathogenesis. Invasion of the protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis by L. pneumophila is mediated by attachment to the Gal/GalNAc lectin receptor, which is similar to the beta(2) integrin transmembrane receptors of mammalian cells. Bacterial invasion is associated with induction of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity in H. vermiformis that results in tyrosine dephosphorylation of the lectin receptor and several cytoskeletal proteins. In this report, we show that entry of L. pneumophila into H. vermiformis is not required to induce tyrosine dephosphorylation of one of the cytoskeletal proteins, paxillin. Tyrosine dephosphorylation of paxillin is mediated at the level of bacterial attachment to the lectin receptor, and is blocked by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the lectin receptor. Attachment of L. pneumophila to the lectin receptor is not mediated by the type IV pilus, which is one of the bacterial ligands involved in attachment to protozoa. Interestingly, the lectin receptor in resting H. vermiformis is associated with several phosphorylated proteins that are dissociated upon bacterial attachment and invasion. We show that the L. pneumophila-induced PTPase activity in H. vermiformis and the associated tyrosine dephosphorylation of host proteins can be mimicked by the cytoskeletal disrupting agent, cytochalasin D. Taken together, our data indicate that attachment of L. pneumophila to the lectin receptor of H. vermiformis induces a PTPase activity, tyrosine dephosphorylation of the lectin and cytoskeletal proteins, dissociation of the lectin from its associated phosphorylated proteins, and most probably disassembly of the cytoskeleton. This novel L. pneumophila-protozoa interaction may be a bacterial strategy to invade protozoa and to be trafficked into a replicative 'niche', or to block differentiation of the protozoan host into a cyst in which L. pneumophila cannot replicate.
    Microbes and Infection 08/2000; 2(8):867-75. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    C Venkataraman, G Schaefer, U Schindler
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    ABSTRACT: Development of naive Th cells into Th1 and Th2 effector populations requires coordinated expression of a complex set of genes. In this study, we have identified a novel four-transmembrane domain protein, Chandra, that is differentially expressed in Th1 cells. Chandra expression is observed in STAT4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, indicating that Chandra is not an IL-12- or IFN-gamma-responsive gene. Interestingly, Chandra mRNA is detected in anti-CD3-activated T cells from STAT6-deficient mice in the absence of any differentiation conditions. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-4 signaling is sufficient to induce transcription of Chandra in anti-CD3-activated T cells from wild-type mice, demonstrating that STAT6 signaling is required to repress Chandra expression in activated T cells and Th2 subsets. This is the first demonstration of a differentially expressed four-transmembrane domain protein in Th1 cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2000; 165(2):632-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • G Sen, G Bikah, C Venkataraman, S Bondada
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    ABSTRACT: CD5, a membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been shown to negatively regulate antigen receptor-mediated growth responses in peritoneal B lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature T cells. The CD5-expressing peritoneal B cells (B-1) that are normally unresponsive to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated growth signals mount a proliferative response to BCR cross-linking if the CD5 gene is deleted or if the CD5 molecule is sequestered away from the BCR. SHP-1, a cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase, has also been implicated in the negative regulation of antigen receptor-mediated signaling. The present study shows that SHP-1 is constitutively associated with the BCR in B-1 cells. This association is mediated in part by CD5, as it is reduced substantially after antigen receptor ligation in CD5(-/-) B-1 cells, and upon sequestration of CD5 from the antigen receptor complexes in wild-type B-1 cells. Prior cross-linking of CD5 also restores a normal calcium mobilization response as well as NF-kappaB activation in B-1 cells. These data support a model whereby CD5 negatively regulates antigen receptor-mediated growth signals by recruiting SHP-1 into the BCR complex in B-1 cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 11/1999; 29(10):3319-28. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates are very vulnerable to pathogenic encapsulated bacteria due to their inability to mount an antibody response to capsular polysaccharides, which are thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens (Ag). Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides induced neonatal B cells to proliferate to anti-IgM, a TI-2 stimulus. CpG ODN inhibited the spontaneous and B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis of neonatal B cells and reduced the amount of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS, strongly correlated with anti-IgM-induced apoptosis of neonatal B cells. CpG ODN protected neonatal B cells from apoptosis by down-regulation of the Bcl-xS protein. Neonatal B cells underwent polyclonal differentiation upon stimulation with CpG ODN, but unlike in adult B cells, this was not preceded by IL-6 secretion. CpG ODN stimulated neonatal B cells to mount an Ag-specific antibody response to TNP-Ficoll, another TI-2 Ag. Thus CpG ODN could provide a novel approach to induce the immune system in neonates to respond to harmful encapsulated bacteria.
    European Journal of Immunology 10/1999; 29(9):2808-18. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) inhibit induction by IL-4 of multiple genes in human monocytes. However, the mechanism by which IFNs mediate this inhibition has not been defined. IL-4 activates gene expression by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation, homodimerization, and nuclear translocation of the latent transcription factor, STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-6). STAT6-responsive elements are characteristically present in the promoters of IL-4-inducible genes. Because STAT6 activation is essential for IL-4-induced gene expression, we examined the ability of type I and type II IFNs to regulate activation of STAT6 by IL-4 in primary human monocytes. Pretreatment of monocytes with IFN-beta or IFN-gamma, but not IL-1, IL-2, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, or transforming growth factor beta suppressed activation of STAT6 by IL-4. This inhibition was associated with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT6 and was not evident unless the cells were preincubated with IFN for at least 1 hr before IL-4 stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition by IFN could be blocked by cotreatment with actinomycin D and correlated temporally with induction of the JAK/STAT inhibitory gene, SOCS-1. Forced expression of SOCS-1 in a macrophage cell line, RAW264, markedly suppressed trans-activation of an IL-4-inducible reporter as well as IL-6- and IFN-gamma-induced reporter gene activity. These findings demonstrate that IFNs inhibit IL-4-induced activation of STAT6 and STAT6-dependent gene expression, at least in part, by inducing expression of SOCS-1.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1999; 96(19):10800-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • C Venkataraman, G Shankar, G Sen, S Bondada
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent stimulant of B cells and macrophages. LPS induces B cell proliferation and differentiation into antibody secreting cells. In addition, LPS also stimulates IL-6 secretion in mature B cells and in immature B cell lines such as WEHI-231. Although sufficient literature is available on LPS induced signaling events in monocytes and macrophages, the mechanisms involved in LPS induced B cell activation are not well understood. In this report, it is shown that both LPS mediated B cell proliferation and IL-6 secretion are dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) signaling pathways. The B cell specific co-receptor, CD19 is not tyrosine phosphorylated in LPS stimulated B cells. Thus, in contrast to B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, the activation of PI 3-kinase appears not to be related to the recruitment of PI 3-kinase to tyrosine phosphorylated CD19. This is the first demonstration of the importance of PI 3-kinase signaling pathway in LPS mediated B lymphocyte activation.
    Immunology Letters 09/1999; 69(2):233-8. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates are very vulnerable to pathogenic encapsulated bacteria due to their inability to mount an antibody response to capsular polysaccharides, which are thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens (Ag). Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides induced neonatal B cells to proliferate to anti-IgM, a TI-2 stimulus. CpG ODN inhibited the spontaneous and B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis of neonatal B cells and reduced the amount of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS , strongly correlated with anti-IgM-induced apoptosis of neonatal B cells. CpG ODN protected neonatal B cells from apoptosis by down-regulation of the Bcl-xS protein. Neonatal B cells underwent polyclonal differentiation upon stimulation with CpG ODN, but unlike in adult B cells, this was not preceded by IL-6 secretion. CpG ODN stimulated neonatal B cells to mount an Ag-specific antibody response to TNP-Ficoll, another TI-2 Ag. Thus CpG ODN could provide a novel approach to induce the immune system in neonates to respond to harmful encapsulated bacteria.
    European Journal of Immunology 08/1999; 29(9):2808 - 2818. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    C Venkataraman, S Leung, A Salvekar, H Mano, U Schindler
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    ABSTRACT: IFN-gamma antagonizes many physiological responses mediated by IL-4, including the inhibition of IL-4-induced IgE production. This event is largely mediated at the level of transcription. We observed that the IL-4 response element of the germline epsilon promoter is sufficient to confer IFN-gamma-mediated repression onto a reporter construct. The inhibitory effects were observed in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid cell lines. Stat1, which is activated by IFN-gamma, cannot recognize the Stat6-specific IL-4 response element in the epsilon promoter. Hence, competitive DNA binding does not seem to be the underlying mechanism for the inhibitory effect. This is supported by the observation that inhibition is not seen at early time points, but requires prolonged IFN-gamma treatment. IFN-gamma stimulation results in a loss of IL-4-induced Stat6 tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding. Using the fibrosarcoma cell line U3A, which lacks Stat1, we demonstrated that the transcription activation function of Stat1 is required for the IFN-gamma-mediated repression. Repression was restored by overexpression of Stat1alpha, but not Stat1beta, in U3A cells. Treatment with IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, specifically up-regulates the expression of SOCS-1 (silencer of cytokine signaling), a recently characterized inhibitor of cytokine signaling pathways, such as IL-6 and IFN-gamma. Overexpression of SOCS-1 effectively blocks IL-4-induced Stat6 phosphorylation and transcription. This suggests that IFN-gamma-mediated repression of IL-4-induced transcription is at least in part mediated by SOCS-1.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/1999; 162(7):4053-61. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Goutam Sen, Gabriel Bikah, Chandrasekar Venkataraman, Subbarao Bondada
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    ABSTRACT: CD5, a membrane-associated glycoprotein, has been shown to negatively regulate antigen receptor-mediated growth responses in peritoneal B lymphocytes, thymocytes and mature T cells. The CD5-expressing peritoneal B cells (B-1) that are normally unresponsive to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated growth signals mount a proliferative response to BCR cross-linking if the CD5 gene is deleted or if the CD5 molecule is sequestered away from the BCR. SHP-1, a cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase, has also been implicated in the negative regulation of antigen receptor-mediated signaling. The present study shows that SHP-1 is constitutively associated with the BCR in B-1 cells. This association is mediated in part by CD5, as it is reduced substantially after antigen receptor ligation in CD5– / – B-1 cells, and upon sequestration of CD5 from the antigen receptor complexes in wild-type B-1 cells. Prior cross-linking of CD5 also restores a normal calcium mobilization response as well as NF-κB activation in B-1 cells. These data support a model whereby CD5 negatively regulates antigen receptor-mediated growth signals by recruiting SHP-1 into the BCR complex in B-1 cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/1999; 29(10):3319-3328. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupancy of the B cell glycoprotein, CD72 results in syk-independent activation of phospholipase-C γ and calcium mobilization. The cytoplasmic tail of CD72 does not contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif to directly transduce signals into the B lymphocyte. Hence, we investigated whether other coreceptors such as CD19 and its associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) were involved in CD72 signaling. Two specific inhibitors of PI 3-K inhibited CD72-stimulated B cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of B lymphocytes via CD72 resulted in recruitment and activation of PI 3-K, which was mediated by CD19. Accordingly, CD72 ligation induced CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, lipid products generated as a result of PI 3-K activation may have an important function in CD72-mediated B lymphocyte activation. The kinetics of CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CD72 ligation were strikingly different from those seen following B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. A transient increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the complement receptors, CD21 and CD35 was observed in BCR- but not CD72-stimulated cells. Co-cross-linking of CD72 and CD19 failed to induce syk tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that even under these conditions, CD72 signaling was independent of syk activation. A transient and stimulation-dependent physical association between CD19 and CD72 was observed in CD72-ligated cells. These observations suggest a mechanism by which CD72 can recruit CD19 and influence activation of CD19-associated PI 3-K, which appears to be critical for CD72-mediated B cell activation.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/1998; 28(10):3003 - 3016. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in B lymphocytes prior to the ligation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in a profound inhibition of BCR induced proliferation. The major effect of increased PKA activity in B lymphocytes was the induction of apoptosis leading to a reduced BCR induced growth response. The growth promoting cytokine IL-4 rescued B lymphocytes from PKA mediated negative effects. IL-4 protected BCR stimulated cells from PKA mediated inhibition primarily by preventing apoptosis and growth arrest. PKA-activation caused a downregulation of anti-IgM induced expression of Bcl-xL protein, that was restored by IL-4. Previous studies have shown that PKA-activation blocks BCR induced phospholipase Cgamma-activation and calcium mobilization. IL-4 was unable to overcome the block in anti-IgM mediated calcium mobilization due to PKA-activation. B cell apoptosis induced by PKA-activation was also seen in CD72 stimulated cells, although CD72 mediated B-lymphocyte proliferation was not affected. PKA mediated block in phospholipase gamma-activation and calcium mobilization were not due to alterations in the activation of tyrosine kinases lyn, blk and syk. Moreover, BCR mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma2 and CD19 were also unaffected by cAMP accumulation. These observations are in contrast to the ability of PKA to drastically reduce the activity of ZAP-70 and syk in T lymphocytes and neutrophils, respectively. The IL-4 mediated protection appears to be due to a change in late events in BCR signaling, which are important for Bcl-xL expression.
    Molecular Immunology 11/1998; 35(14-15):997-1014. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupancy of the B cell glycoprotein, CD72 results in syk-independent activation of phospholipase-C gamma and calcium mobilization. The cytoplasmic tail of CD72 does not contain an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif to directly transduce signals into the B lymphocyte. Hence, we investigated whether other coreceptors such as CD19 and its associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) were involved in CD72 signaling. Two specific inhibitors of PI 3-K inhibited CD72-stimulated B cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of B lymphocytes via CD72 resulted in recruitment and activation of PI 3-K, which was mediated by CD19. Accordingly, CD72 ligation induced CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, lipid products generated as a result of PI 3-K activation may have an important function in CD72-mediated B lymphocyte activation. The kinetics of CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CD72 ligation were strikingly different from those seen following B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. A transient increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the complement receptors, CD21 and CD35 was observed in BCR- but not CD72-stimulated cells. Co-cross-linking of CD72 and CD19 failed to induce syk tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that even under these conditions, CD72 signaling was independent of syk activation. A transient and stimulation-dependent physical association between CD19 and CD72 was observed in CD72-ligated cells. These observations suggest a mechanism by which CD72 can recruit CD19 and influence activation of CD19-associated PI 3-K, which appears to be critical for CD72-mediated B cell activation.
    European Journal of Immunology 11/1998; 28(10):3003-16. · 4.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

811 Citations
139.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2006
    • Eli Lilly
      • Lilly Research Laboratories
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 1997–2002
    • University of Kentucky
      • • Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics
      • • Sanders-Brown Center on Aging
      Lexington, KY, United States