[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin demonstrates a wide interindividual variability in response that is mediated partly by variants in cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1). It is not known whether variants in calumenin (CALU) (vitamin K reductase regulator) have an influence on warfarin dose requirements. We resequenced CALU regions in a discovery cohort of dose outliers: patients with high (>90th percentile, n = 55) or low (<10th percentile, n = 53) warfarin dose requirements (after accounting for known genetic and nongenetic variables). One CALU variant, rs339097, was associated with high doses (P = 0.01). We validated this variant as a predictor of higher warfarin doses in two replication cohorts: (i) 496 patients of mixed ethnicity and (ii) 194 African-American patients. The G allele of rs339097 (the allele frequency was 0.14 in African Americans and 0.002 in Caucasians) was associated with the requirement for a 14.5% (SD +/- 7%) higher therapeutic dose (P = 0.03) in the first replication cohort and a higher-than-predicted dose in the second replication cohort (allele frequency 0.14, one-sided P = 0.03). CALU rs339097 A>G is associated with higher warfarin dose requirements, independent of known genetic and nongenetic predictors of warfarin dose in African Americans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict therapeutic warfarin dose at initiation of therapy; however, the predictive ability of genetic information after a week or longer is unknown. Experts have hypothesized that genotype becomes irrelevant once international normalized ratio (INR) values are available because INR response reflects warfarin sensitivity.
We genotyped the participants in the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (PREVENT) trial, who had idiopathic venous thromboemboli and began low-intensity warfarin (therapeutic INR 1.5-2.0) using a standard dosing protocol. To develop pharmacogenetic models, we quantified the effect of genotypes, clinical factors, previous doses and INR on therapeutic warfarin dose in the 223 PREVENT participants who were randomized to warfarin and achieved stable therapeutic INRs.
A pharmacogenetic model using data from day 0 (before therapy initiation) explained 54% of the variability in therapeutic dose (R(2)). The R(2) increased to 68% at day 7, 75% at day 14, and 77% at day 21, because of increasing contributions from prior doses and INR response. Although CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes were significant independent predictors of therapeutic dose at each weekly interval, the magnitude of their predictive ability diminished over time: partial R(2) of genotype was 43% at day 0, 12% at day 7, 4% at day 14, and 1% at day 21.
Over the first weeks of warfarin therapy, INR and prior dose become increasingly predictive of therapeutic dose, and genotype becomes less relevant. However, at day 7, genotype remains clinically relevant, accounting for 12% of therapeutic dose variability.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 10/2009; 8(1):95-100. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common.
In orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy, we developed and prospectively validated pharmacogenetic and clinical dose refinement algorithms to revise the estimated therapeutic dose after 4 days of therapy.
The pharmacogenetic algorithm used the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genotype, smoking status, peri-operative blood loss, liver disease, INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose. The R(2) was 82% in a derivation cohort (n = 86) and 70% when used prospectively (n = 146). The R(2) of the clinical algorithm that used INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose was 57% in a derivation cohort (n = 178) and 48% in a prospective validation cohort (n = 146). In 1 month of prospective follow-up, the percent time spent in the therapeutic range was 7% higher (95% CI: 2.7-11.7) in the pharmacogenetic cohort. The risk of a laboratory or clinical adverse event was also significantly reduced in the pharmacogenetic cohort (Hazard Ratio 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.97).
Warfarin dose adjustments that incorporate genotype and clinical variables available after four warfarin doses are accurate. In this non-randomized, prospective study, pharmacogenetic dose refinements were associated with more time spent in the therapeutic range and fewer laboratory or clinical adverse events. To facilitate gene-guided warfarin dosing we created a non-profit website, http://www.WarfarinDosing.org.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2008; 6(10):1655-62. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel is commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. Variability in paclitaxel clearance may contribute to the unpredictability of clinical outcomes. We assessed genomic DNA from the plasma of 93 patients with high-risk primary or stage IV breast cancer, who received dose-intense paclitaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Eight polymorphisms in six genes associated with metabolism and transport of paclitaxel were analyzed using Pyrosequencing. We found no association between ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C8 genotypes and paclitaxel clearance. However, patients homozygous for the CYP1B1*3 allele had a significantly longer progression-free survival than patients with at least one Valine allele (P=0.037). This finding could reflect altered paclitaxel metabolism, however, the finding was independent of paclitaxel clearance. Alternatively, the role of CYP1B1 in estrogen metabolism may influence the risk of invasive or paclitaxel resistant breast cancer in patients carrying the CYP1B1*3 allele.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 11/2007; 7(5):362-5. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Group 2 (ERCC2) plays an important role in DNA repair by eliminating bulky DNA adducts produced by platinum agents during the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Several studies have associated polymorphisms in ERCC2 with response to platinum therapy, lung cancer risk, and DNA repair capacity. This study examined ERCC2 polymorphisms and haplotype structure across 18.9 kb in 95 European, 95 African, and 95 Asian individuals. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (ERCC2 -9164 A>T, -1989 A>G, -516 G>A, 468 C>A [Arg156Arg], 1737 C>T [Val579Val], 2133 C>T [Asp711Asp], and 2251 T>G [Lys751Gln]) were mined and mapped using Golden Path, PolyMAPr, and Promolign. Genotyping was performed using PCR and pyrosequencing. Allele frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.47 (Europeans), 0.05 to 0.72 (Africans), and 0 to 0.47 (Asians). The synonymous cSNP at codon 579 could not be confirmed in our populations. There were significant differences in haplotype structure and frequency between populations. This information on ERCC2 genomic structure will allow the construction of definitive studies to clarify the clinical role of this important gene.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 02/2005; 5(1):54-9. · 5.13 Impact Factor