Christian Balmer

Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (2)16.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intraoperative ultrasound was introduced to evaluate the adequacy of repair after surgical repair of congenital cardiac malformations. Our purpose was to review the evolution of this technique at our centre. We evaluated all intraoperative ultrasound studies undertaken between 1997 and 2002, reviewing the data from 1997 through 2001 retrospectively, but undertaking a prospective audit of studies undertaken from 2002 onwards. In all, we carried out a total number of 639 intraoperative ultrasound studies, from a possible 2737 cardiac operations (23.3%), using the epicardial approach in 580 (90.7%), and transoesophageal ultrasound in the other 59 patients (9.3%). Median age was 0.6 years, with an interquartile range from 0.06 to 3.6 years. The findings obtained using intraoperative ultrasound influenced the surgical management in 63 of the 639 patients (9.9%), suggesting the need for additional surgery in 26, adjustment of the band placed round the pulmonary trunk in 16, preoperative assessment of the cardiac malformation in 5, and confirming the need for prolonged support with cardiopulmonary bypass for impaired ventricular function in 16. There were 18 early reoperations, 5 of which may have been predicted by intraoperative ultrasound. Of the 183 studies reviewed prospectively in 2002, it was not possible to obtain the complete range of views in 8 (4.4%), while in 27 patients (14.7%), the postoperative findings using transthoracic interrogation differed from the findings obtained immediately following bypass. Intraoperative ultrasound is an important technique for monitoring the results of complex congenital cardiac surgery. The immediate recognition of significant lesions, together with multidisciplinary discussion, allows for improved management and prevention of early surgical reintervention.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2006; 16(5):455-62. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients with a morphological right ventricle (mRV) in the systemic circulation require early intervention because of progressive systemic ventricular dysfunction or atrioventricular valve regurgitation. They may be eligible for anatomic repair (correction of atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance) but require prior training of the morphological left ventricle (mLV). Forty-one patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries or a previous atrial switch procedure embarked on a protocol of pulmonary artery (PA) banding with a view to anatomic repair. All had an mRV in the systemic circulation and a subpulmonary mLV that was not conditioned by either volume or pressure load. Two patients were not banded, and 39 were followed up for a median of 4.3 years (range, 25 days to 12.6 years). Sixteen patients achieved anatomic repair, with 3 in the early stages of the training protocol. After 2 years, 12 patients were not suitable for anatomic repair and persisted with palliative banding; 8 were functionally improved; and 4 died, underwent transplantation, or required debanding. PA banding improved functional class but did not improve tricuspid regurgitation in the long term for patients not achieving anatomic repair. mLV function was a critical determinant of survival with a PA band as well as survival after anatomic repair. Patients >16 years were unlikely to achieve anatomic repair. PA banding is a safe and effective method of training the mLV before anatomic repair. It is also an effective palliative procedure for those who do not attain this goal.
    Circulation 03/2005; 111(4):405-11. · 15.20 Impact Factor