Christophe Laurent

Université René Descartes - Paris 5, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (115)331.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oncologic and functional outcomes were compared between transanal and transabdominal specimen extraction after laparoscopic coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer.
    Annals of surgery. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To prospectively evaluate the utility of computed tomography (CT) for determination of tumor response and prediction of resectability after neoadjuvant combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT) in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Materials and Methods This study received institutional review board approval, and all participants provided written informed consent. Consecutive patients with cephalic locally advanced pancreatic cancer who underwent surgical exploration and/or resection following neoadjuvant CRT were prospectively enrolled from June 2009 to May 2013. Two radiologists independently analyzed the baseline and post-CRT CT scans for the size, attenuation, and circumferential vascular contacts of the tumor. Associations between the postoperative histologic grade of the tumor response (pTNM) and the clinical, biologic, and CT criteria were assessed by using Spearman correlation coefficients. CT criteria related to the presence of complete (ie, R0) resection were assessed by using logistic regression. Results Forty-seven patients were included, 33 with an R0 resection and 14 with positive margins (ie, R1) or no resection. Variables demonstrating a significant correlation with the histologic tumor classification of tumor response were post-CRT carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level (r = 0.46), post-CRT largest tumor axis (r = 0.44), post-CRT sum of the largest and smallest tumor axes (r = 0.46), change in the largest axis (r = -0.31), change in the sum of the largest and smallest axes (r = -0.39), change in superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and/or portal vein (hereafter, SMV/portal vein) contact (r = -0.38), and post-CRT superior mesenteric artery contact (r = 0.34). Partial regression of tumor contact with the SMV/portal vein was associated in all cases with R0 resection (10 of 10 patients, positive predictive value = 100%), and partial regression of tumor contact with any peripancreatic vascular axis was associated with R0 resection in 91% of cases (20 of 22 patients, positive predictive value = 91%). Persistence of SMV/portal vein stenosis after CRT was not predictive of R1 resection. Conclusion Partial regression of tumor-vessel contact indicates suitability for surgical exploration, irrespective of the degree of decrease in tumor size or the degree of residual vascular involvement. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 06/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic sphincter preservation for low rectal cancer is challenging due to the high risk of positive circumferential resection margin. We hypothesized that perineal dissection of the distal rectum may improve quality of surgery, compared with the conventional abdominal dissection.
    Annals of surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer. We characterised HCC associated with infection compared with non-HBV-related HCC to understand interactions between viral and hepatocyte genomic alterations and their relationships with clinical features.
    Gut 06/2014; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic mutations activating telomerase reverse-trancriptase promoter were recently identified in several tumour types. Here we identify frequent similar mutations in human hepatocellular carcinomas (59%), cirrhotic preneoplastic macronodules (25%) and hepatocellular adenomas with malignant transformation in hepatocellular carcinomas (44%). In hepatocellular tumours, telomerase reverse-transcripase- and CTNNB1-activating mutations are significantly associated. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that telomerase reverse-trancriptase promoter mutations can increase the expression of telomerase transcript. In conclusion, telomerase reverse-trancriptase promoter mutation is the earliest recurrent genetic event identified in cirrhotic preneoplastic lesions so far and is also the most frequent genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinomas, arising from both the cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic liver.
    Nature Communications 07/2013; 4:2218. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Surgical treatment of low rectal cancer is controversial, and one of the reasons is the lack of definition and standardization of surgery in low rectal cancer. : We classified low rectal cancers in 4 groups with the aim of demonstrating that most patients with low rectal cancer can receive conservative surgery without compromising oncologic outcome. : Patients with low rectal cancer <6 cm from anal verge were defined in 4 groups: type I (supra-anal tumors: >1 cm from anal ring) had coloanal anastomosis, type II (juxta-anal tumors: <1 cm from anal ring) had partial intersphincteric resection, type III (intra-anal tumors: internal anal sphincter invasion) had total intersphincteric resection, and type IV (transanal tumors: external anal sphincter invasion) had abdominoperineal resection. Patients with ultra-low sphincter-preserving surgery (types II-III) were compared with those with conventional sphincter-preserving surgery (type I). : Postoperative mortality, morbidity, surgical margins, local and distant recurrence, and survival were analyzed. : Of 404 patients with low rectal cancer, 135 were type I, 131 type II, 55 type III, and 83 type IV. There was no difference in local recurrence (5% to 9% vs 6%), distant recurrence (23% vs 23%), and disease-free survival (70%-73% vs 68%) at 5 years between ultra-low (types II-III) and conventional (type I) sphincter-preserving surgery. Predictive factors of survival were tumor stage and R1 resection but not the type of tumor or type of surgery. : This study is limited by the retrospective analysis of a database, obtained from a single institution and covering a 16-year period. : Classification of low rectal cancers and standardization of surgery permitted sphincter-preserving surgery in 79% of patients with low rectal cancer without compromising oncologic outcome. This new surgical classification should be used to standardize surgery and increase sphincter-preserving surgery in low rectal cancer.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 05/2013; 56(5):560-7. · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 05/2013; 32(5):889-90. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bubble-enhanced heating (BEH) can be exploited to increase heating efficiency in treatment of liver tumors with non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The objectives of this study were: (i) to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the heating efficiency of sonication exploiting BEH in pig liver in vivo using a clinical platform; (ii) to determine the acoustic threshold for such effects with real-time, motion-compensated magnetic resonance-guided thermometry; and (iii) to compare the heating patterns and thermal lesion characteristics resulting from continuous sonication and sonication including a burst pulse. The threshold acoustic power for generation of BEH in pig liver in vivo was determined using sonication of 0.5-s duration ("burst pulse") under real-time magnetic resonance thermometry. In a second step, experimental sonication composed of a burst pulse followed by continuous sonication (14.5 s) was compared with conventional sonication (15 s) of identical energy (1.8 kJ). Modification of the heating pattern at the targeted region located at a liver depth between 20 and 25 mm required 600-800 acoustic watts. The experimental group exhibited near-spherical heating with 40% mean enhancement of the maximal temperature rise as compared with the conventional sonication group, a mean shift of 7 ± 3.3 mm toward the transducer and reduction of the post-focal temperature increase. Magnetic resonance thermometry can be exploited to control acoustic BEH in vivo in the liver. By use of experimental sonication, more efficient heating can be achieved while protecting tissues located beyond the focal point.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 04/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim Obesity is associated with increased technical difficulty in laparoscopic surgery. However, its impact has been measured mainly for colectomy but not specifically for rectal excision. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on technical feasibility and oncological outcome of laparoscopic rectal excision for cancer. Method A total of 490 patients treated by laparoscopic rectal excision for rectal cancer from January 1999 to June 2010 were included. Seventy per cent had had preoperative radiochemotherapy. Patients were separated into four groups according to BMI (kg/m(2) ): < 20, 20-25, 25-30 and ≥ 30. The impact of BMI on conversion, surgical morbidity, quality of excision (Quirke mesorectal grade and circumferential resection margin) and long-term oncological outcome was determined. Results Among the 490 patients BMI was < 20 in 43, 20-25 in 223, 25-30 in 177 and ≥ 30 in 47. Mortality (overall 1%) and morbidity (overall 19%) were similar between the groups. Conversion in the four groups was 5%, 14%, 23% and 32% (P = 0.001). The quality of mesorectal excision and circumferential margins did not differ between the groups. The 5-year local recurrence rates (0%, 4.6%, 5.3% and 5.9% respectively; P = 0.823) and the overall and disease-free survival were not significantly influenced by BMI. Conclusion In laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, BMI influenced the risk of conversion but not surgical morbidity, quality of surgery and survival. This suggests that all patients, including obese patients, are suitable for laparoscopic surgery.
    Colorectal Disease 04/2013; 15(4):463-469. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare preservation with the division of the splenic vessels in the surgical management of laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Bicentric retrospective study. Prospectively maintained databases. Between January 1997 and January 2011, 140 patients who underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for benign or lowgrade malignant tumors in the body/tail of the pancreas were included. Patients treated with the attempted splenic vessel preservation were compared with patients treated with the attempted division of the splenic vessels (Warshaw technique). Operative outcomes and postoperative morbidity were evaluated. The outcomes of 55 patients in the splenic vessel preservation group were compared with those of 85 patients in the Warshaw technique group. The clinical characteristics were similar in both groups, except for tumor size, which was significantly greater in the Warshaw technique group (33.6 vs. 42.5 mm; P=.001). The mean operative time, mean blood loss, and rate of conversion to the open procedure did not differ between the 2 groups. The rate of successful spleen preservation was significantly improved following the splenic vessel preservation technique (96.4% vs. 84.7%; P=.03). Complications related to the spleen only occurred in the Warshaw technique group (0% vs. 10.5%; P=.03), requiring a splenectomy in 4 patients (4.7%). The mean length of stay was shorter in the splenic vessel preservation group (8.2 vs. 10.5 days; P=.01). The short-term benefits associated with the preservation of the splenic vessels should lead to an increased preference for this technique in selected patients undergoing laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for benign or low-grade malignant tumors in the body/tail of the pancreas.
    JAMA surgery. 03/2013; 148(3):246-52.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess oncological outcomes in patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced pancreatic head adenocarcinoma after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and to compare these with outcomes in patients treated with surgery alone. METHODS: From 2004 to 2009, patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma were included in a retrospective comparative study. Patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT group) and were compared with those treated with surgery alone (SURG group). RESULTS: A total of 111 patients were included; these comprised 72 patients in the SURG group and 39 patients in the CRT group. The median follow-up was 21 months. Patients in the CRT group presented with a more advanced tumoral status. Microscopic resection rates were similar in both groups, but nodal status and vascular or lymphatic emboli were lower in the CRT group. At 3 years, the SURG and CRT groups exhibited similar overall (36% and 51%, respectively) and disease-free (35% and 37%, respectively) survival (P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced pancreatic head adenocarcinoma, a good response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy results in a survival rate similar to that in patients treated with surgery alone in whom the initial prognosis is better.
    HPB 01/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives- Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology represents an innovative method for the quantification of tissue elasticity. The aims of this study were to evaluate elasticity by ARFI in both liver tumors and background liver tissue and to compare ARFI measurements with histologic data in liver tumors and background liver. Methods- Seventy-nine tumors were prospectively studied: 43 benign and 36 malignant. Acoustic radiation force impulse measurements for each tumor type were expressed as mean ± standard deviation for both liver tumors and background liver; ARFI data were also correlated with histologic data. Results- For liver tumors, the mean stiffness values were 1.90 ± 0.86 m/s for hepatocellular adenoma (n = 9), 2.14 ± 0.49 m/s for hemangioma (n = 15), 3.14 ± 0.63 m/s for focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 19), 2.4 ± 1.01 m/s for hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 24), and 3.0 ± 1.36 m/s for metastasis (n = 12). Important variations were observed within each tumor type or within a single tumor. These variations could have been due to necrosis, hemorrhage, or colloid. There was no statistically significant difference between the benign and malignant groups. Regarding background liver, it was possible to observe pathologic abnormalities in histologic analyses or liver function tests to explain the ARFI data. The degree of fibrosis was not the only determinant of liver stiffness in background liver; other factors such as portal embolization, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by chemotherapy, and cholestasis, also could have interfered. Conclusions- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography could not allow differentiation between benign and malignant tumors. This study provides a better understanding of the correlation between ARFI and histologic data for both tumors and background liver.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 01/2013; 32(1):121-30. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Europe and North America, hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) occur, classically, in middle-aged woman taking oral contraceptives. Twenty percent of women, however, are not exposed to oral contraceptives; HCA can more rarely occur in men, children, and women over 65 years. HCA have been observed in many pathological conditions such as glycogenosis, familial adenomatous polyposis, MODY3, after male hormone administration, and in vascular diseases. Obesity is frequent particularly in inflammatory HCA. The background liver is often normal, but steatosis is a frequent finding particularly in inflammatory HCA. The diagnosis of HCA is more difficult when the background liver is fibrotic, notably in vascular diseases. HCA can be solitary, or multiple or in great number (adenomatosis). When nodules are multiple, they are usually of the same subtype. HNF1 α -inactivated HCA occur almost exclusively in woman. The most important point of the classification is the identification of β -catenin mutated HCA, a strong argument to identify patients at risk of malignant transformation. Some HCA already present criteria indicating malignant transformation. When the whole nodule is a hepatocellular carcinoma, it is extremely difficult to prove that it is the consequence of a former HCA. It is occasionally difficult to identify HCA remodeled by necrosis or hemorrhage.
    International journal of hepatology. 01/2013; 2013:253261.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the accuracy of MDCT for determination of resectability R0 after neoadjuvant therapy in patients with pancreatic head adenocarcinoma locally advanced. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2010, 80 patients with pancreatic head adenocarcinoma underwent multidetector CT before surgery. Of these, 38 patients received neoadjuvant therapy because tumor was considered locally advanced on baseline CT scan. We retrospectively correlated imaging interpretations with operative and histological data and compared results in patients without (control group) or with (neoadjuvant group) preoperative treatment. RESULTS: 41/42 patients in control group and 31/38 patients in neoadjuvant group finally had curative resection. While resection R0 is similar in both groups (83% and 81%), CT accuracy in determining resectability R0 was significantly decreased in neoadjuvant group (58% versus 83%; p=0.039). CT scan specificity was significantly lower after neoadjuvant therapy (52% versus 88% in control group) due to an overestimation of vascular invasion: 12/31 patients with complete resection in neoadjuvant group were evaluated at high risk of incomplete resection on CT scan. Tumor size tends to be underestimated in control group (-2mm) and overestimated in neoadjuvant group (+10mm). T-staging accuracy was decreased in neoadjuvant group (39% versus 78% in control group; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant therapy significantly decreases the accuracy of CT scan in determining operability, T-staging, and resectability R0 of pancreatic head carcinoma. Overestimation of tumor size and vascular invasion significantly reduces CT scan specificity after preoperative treatment.
    European journal of radiology 12/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To compare preservation with the division of the splenic vessels in the surgical management of laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. DESIGN Bicentric retrospective study. SETTING Prospectively maintained databases. PATIENTS Between January 1997 and January 2011, 140 patients who underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for benign or low-grade malignant tumors in the body/tail of the pancreas were included. Patients treated with the attempted splenic vessel preservation were compared with patients treated with the attempted division of the splenic vessels (Warshaw technique). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Operative outcomes and postoperative morbidity were evaluated. RESULTS The outcomes of 55 patients in the splenic vessel preservation group were compared with those of 85 patients in the Warshaw technique group. The clinical characteristics were similar in both groups, except for tumor size, which was significantly greater in the Warshaw technique group (33.6 vs 42.5 mm; P < .001). The mean operative time, mean blood loss, and rate of conversion to the open procedure did not differ between the 2 groups. The rate of successful spleen preservation was significantly improved following the splenic vessel preservation technique (96.4% vs 84.7%; P = .03). Complications related to the spleen only occurred in the Warshaw technique group (0% vs 10.5%; P = .03), requiring a splenectomy in 4 patients (4.7%). The mean length of stay was shorter in the splenic vessel preservation group (8.2 vs 10.5 days; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS The short-term benefits associated with the preservation of the splenic vessels should lead to an increased preference for this technique in selected patients undergoing laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for benign or low-grade malignant tumors in the body/tail of the pancreas.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 11/2012; · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present five cases in whom two rare entities were simultaneously found within the liver, i.e. hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and granulomas. Coexistence of both entities confuses diagnosis. Our aim is to disclose the association between HCA and hepatic granulomas. Five patients presented with HCA for which they underwent resection. During laparotomy or at pathological examination, granulomas were found in tumorous and non-tumorous tissue. No specific cause for the granulomas was found. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A in 4/5 patients, classifying these lesions as inflammatory HCA. HCA and especially the inflammatory subtype may cause formation of granulomas in (peri-)tumorous tissue as a local response to persistent inflammation and/or the presence of a tumor. Both HCA and hepatic granulomas have also been associated with oral contraceptive use. In conclusion, HCAs associated with hepatic granulomas derive from a local response to (inflammatory) HCA or neoplasm, chronic use of oral contraceptives, or a combination of these factors.
    Case Reports in Gastroenterology 09/2012; 6(3):677-83.
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    ABSTRACT: A few studies have suggested advantages of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. However, the role of laparoscopy has not been clearly defined specifically in cases after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the impact of preoperative radiotherapy on the feasibility of laparoscopic rectal excision with sphincter preservation for rectal cancer. From 1999 to 2010, the authors considered all patients treated by laparoscopic rectal excision with sphincter preservation for rectal cancer. Patients treated by long-course preoperative radiochemotherapy (45 Gy during 5 weeks) were compared with those treated by surgery alone. The end points of the study were mortality, conversion, and overall and surgical morbidity. Among 422 patients treated by laparoscopic conservative rectal excision, 292 received preoperative radiotherapy, and 130 had surgery alone. The two groups were similar in sex, age, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. The mortality rate was 0.3% in the radiotherapy group and 0.8% in the surgical group (P = 0.52). The two groups did not differ in terms of conversion (19 vs. 15%; P = 0.39), overall morbidity (37 vs. 29%; P = 0.14), surgical morbidity (20 vs. 18%; P = 0.60), or anastomotic leakage (13 vs. 11%; P = 0.54). Multivariate analysis showed male gender and synchronous metastasis as independent factors of surgical morbidity. The independent factors of conversion were male gender, obesity, tumor stage, and type of anastomosis. Preoperative radiotherapy influenced neither conversion nor surgical morbidity. Long-course radiochemotherapy does not have an impact on the feasibility or short-term outcome of laparoscopic conservative rectal excision for rectal cancer.
    Surgical Endoscopy 01/2012; 26(7):1878-83. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DeOliveira et al. have recently proposed a new staging system for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma that aims at standardizing reports on this disease. Such a tool is currently needed not only to allow comparisons of studies among centres but also over time. Data integration could in turn provide relevant information regarding resectability and prognosis of this rare cancer.
    Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 11/2011; 35(11):697-8. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restoration of bowel continuity is a major goal after surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Intersphincteric resection allows sphincter preservation in low rectal cancer but may have poor functional results, including frequent bowel movements, urgency, and incontinence. This study aimed to evaluate long-term functional outcome after intersphincteric resection to identify factors predictive of good continence. Descriptive observational study. Follow-up of surgery in tertiary care university hospital. Eligible patients were without recurrence 1 year or more after surgery for low rectal cancer. Intersphincteric resection. : Bowel function was assessed with a standardized questionnaire sent to patients. Functional outcome was considered as good if the Wexner score was 10 or less. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate impact of age, gender, body mass index, tumor stage, tumor location, distance of the tumor from the anal verge and from the anal ring, type of surgery, colonic pouch, height of the anastomosis, pelvic sepsis, and preoperative radiotherapy on functional outcome. Of 125 eligible patients, 101 responded to the questionnaire. Median follow-up was 51 (range, 13-167) months. In multivariate analyses, the only independent predictors of good continence were distance of the tumor greater than 1 cm from the anal ring (OR, 5.88; 95% CI, 1.75-19.80; P = .004) and anastomoses higher than 2 cm above the anal verge (OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 1.12-38.67; P = .037). The study is limited by its retrospective, observational design and potential bias due to possible differences between those who responded to the questionnaire and those who did not. Patient characteristics do not appear to influence functional outcome at long-term follow-up after intersphincteric resection. The risk of fecal incontinence depends mainly on tumor level and height of the anastomosis.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 08/2011; 54(8):963-8. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MR thermometry offers the possibility to precisely guide high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the noninvasive treatment of kidney and liver tumours. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate therapy guidance by motion-compensated, rapid and volumetric MR temperature monitoring and to evaluate the feasibility of MR-guided HIFU ablation in these organs. Fourteen HIFU sonications were performed in the kidney and liver of five pigs under general anaesthesia using an MR-compatible Philips HIFU platform prototype. HIFU sonication power and duration were varied. Volumetric MR thermometry was performed continuously at 1.5 T using the proton resonance frequency shift method employing a multi-slice, single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with an update frequency of 2.5 Hz. Motion-related suceptibility artefacts were compensated for using multi-baseline reference images acquired prior to sonication. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed for macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the kidney, liver and skin. The standard deviation of the temperature measured prior to heating in the sonicated area was approximately 1 °C in kidney and liver, and 2.5 °C near the skin. The maximum temperature rise was 30 °C for a sonication of 1.2 MHz in the liver over 15 s at 300 W. The thermal dose reached the lethal threshold (240 CEM(43) ) in two of six cases in the kidney and four of eight cases in the liver, but remained below this value in skin regions in the beam path. These findings were in agreement with histological analysis. Volumetric thermometry allows real-time monitoring of the temperature at the target location in liver and kidney, as well as in surrounding tissues. Thermal ablation was more difficult to achieve in renal than in hepatic tissue even using higher acoustic energy, probably because of a more efficient heat evacuation in the kidney by perfusion.
    NMR in Biomedicine 02/2011; 24(2):145-53. · 3.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
331.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001–2013
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2000–2012
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 1997–2009
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2006
    • Fondation Jean Dausset (CEPH)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours
      Tours, Centre, France