[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in-vacuum undulator with a permanent magnet at room temperature is a mature technology and is widely used; with a short period length in a medium-energy facility, it can enhance photon brilliance in the hard x-ray region. A cryogenic permanent magnet has been investigated as an in-vacuum undulator; this undulator will become the best prospective device to satisfy the requirements of a photon source with great brilliance in the hard x-ray region. For the further hard x-ray region, a superconducting wiggler can provide great flux with a continuous spectrum, whereas a superconducting undulator will provide great brilliance with a discrete spectrum. High-temperature superconducting wires are highly promising for use in the development of superconducting undulators; unique algorithms for their development with an extremely short period in a small-magnet gap have been devised. Some out-of-vacuum planar undulators with special functions must also be fabricated to enable diverse applications in various light-source facilities. This article describes current and future developments for insertion devices in storage-ring and free-electron-laser facilities and discusses their feasibility for use therein.
Review of Modern Physics 01/2011; 14. · 44.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated with reflux laryngitis.
To investigate the risk factors and the predictors of pharyngeal acid reflux (PAR) in Taiwanese patients with suspected reflux laryngitis.
With referral from ENT physicians, 104 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of reflux laryngitis completed a validated symptom questionnaire, an upper endoscopy exam and ambulatory 24-h pH tests with three sensors located at the hypopharynx, proximal and distal oesophagus. Patients with one or more episodes of PAR were considered abnormal.
Pharyngeal acid reflux was identified in 17% (18/104) of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, PAR was independently associated with classical reflux symptoms [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-12.8], hiatus hernia (aOR = 6.7, 95% CI: 1.5-30.2) and overweight (aOR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.0-11.0). In predicting PAR, classical reflux symptoms had a sensitivity of 78% and hiatus hernia had a specificity of 95%. With all three factors, the positive predictive value for PAR was 80%. Classical reflux symptoms included heartburn, chest pain, dyspepsia and acid regurgitation.
Classical reflux symptoms, hiatus hernia and overweight are independent risk factors that may predict pharyngeal acid reflux in patients with suspected reflux laryngitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A helical staggered undulator with a short period was designed to generate elliptically polarized photons. To enhance the helical field, cryogenic permanent-magnet blocks were added between the poles in hybrid-type staggered arrays, and a further exotic holmium pole was used in an analysis of the pure-type staggered arrays. A greater helical field strength was achieved with an optimal solenoid field. A helical staggered magnet with rotation of the poles was investigated; the stronger horizontal and vertical fields generated elliptically polarized photons over a much wider range. The spectral performance with elliptical polarization is presented. The field homogeneity and the distribution of the integral field on the transverse axis were calculated. The field performance of a helical staggered structure was examined with a three-period mock-up.
Journal of Physics Conference Series 07/2010; 234(3):032005.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand dew point temperature and solar radiation value during foggy time based on an additional visible sensor at Lintsushan Observatory, Tatachia region, central Taiwan. The analysis showed that the deficit of air temperature and dew point temperature (DADP) were lower than 1 ℃ during foggy time. The correlative regression between measured value and estimated value was y = 0.8547x + 0.8872. The correlative coefficient was 0.8341. The historical annual foggy days from 1997 to 2008 of Guanshan Observatory (latitude: 23°30'52.74", longitude: 120°54'42.72", altitude: 1,700 m) and Lintsushan Observatory (latitude: 23°28'38.68", longitude: 120°53'18.47", altitude: 2,780 m) were estimated using Magnus Model Method. The result showed that annual foggy days decreased gradually at Guanshan Observatory located on middle altitude. The annual foggy days increased gradually at Lintsushan Observatory located on higher altitude.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have supported the hypothesis of different presentations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) between cardiac and gastric vagal activity. Due to the regionality of the ANS, different responses among different organ systems to the same stimulation (such as a meal) are quite possible.
In this study we monitored the postprandial changes of heart rate variability (HRV) and gastrointestinal (GI) hormones to determine whether both responded in a similar pattern. Twenty-two healthy volunteers (6 males and 16 females) were enrolled. After recording a baseline ECG rhythm, further recordings were made at 20 min intervals for 120 min after a test meal. Serum human pancreatic polypeptide (PP), leptin, and total and active ghrelin levels were measured.
After the meal, HR increased significantly from baseline at each time point, except for 20 min after the meal. The high frequency (HF) power decreased significantly from 40 min to 120 min after the meal. In addition, the low frequency (LF) power also decreased significantly from 60 min to 120 min. However, the LF:HF ratio increased significantly from 20 min to 120 min. There was a marked increase (>2 fold) of PP at 20 min after the meal, and the increase was sustained throughout the test period.
These findings suggest that HRV reflects cardiac, but not equivalently, abdominovagal activity. Therefore, HRV as an abdominovagal activity measurement in patients with GI functional problems should be used with caution, and other markers such as PP should be included.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 05/2010; 22(5):546-51, e119. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host genetic factors may affect clinical outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; however, the possible mechanisms remain largely unknown. The role of immunopathogenesis in chronic hepatitis C leads to extensive exploration of host immunity including inflammatory cytokines.
We examined interleukin 10 (IL-10) promoter gene polymorphisms at positions -1082, -819, and -592 relative to transcription start site and studied their association with response to 24 weeks of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment in 143 chronic hepatitis C patients, of whom 97 (67.8%) achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR). In addition, 134 healthy adults were used as controls.
Of chronic hepatitis C patients, 111 (77.6%) were genotype 1 infection, 32 (22.4%) were genotype 2 infection. Patients with sustained virologic response were younger and had higher pretreatment ALT levels than those without. No statistical difference was found between chronic hepatitis C patients who achieved SVR or not in terms of gender, HCV genotype, pretreatment HCV RNA levels, and severity of liver disease. The serum IL-10 levels were comparable between healthy controls and chronic hepatitis C patients as well as between HCV patients with and without SVR. The distribution of IL-10 promoter gene polymorphisms at positions -1082, -819, and -592 relative to transcription start site was comparable between HCV patients and healthy controls as well as HCV patients with and without SVR. A high frequency of ATA haplotype of common IL-10 promoter gene SNPs was found in both chronic hepatitis C patients (70.3%) and healthy controls (69.8%). However, ATA haplotype was not associated with SVR in chronic hepatitis C patients.
Our data fail to demonstrate the influence of IL-10 promoter gene polymorphisms on the response to combination therapy in Taiwanese chronic hepatitis C patients. The impact of genetic variations in IL-10 haplotype on the response to anti-HCV treatment among different ethnic populations deserves further examination.
Digestive and Liver Disease 12/2008; 41(6):424-30. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prototype of an Apple-II elliptically polarized undulator (EPU4.6), of length 0.46 m, has been constructed to test the performance of the newly designed magnet block, which was magnetized at a tilt angle 10. The magnet design and various mechanism analysis are performed to clarify the error source of multipole field components. Good end pole design in the EPU4.6 revealed the variation of the first integral field strength as function of gap and phase is minimized. Shimming algorithm had been used to improve the field quality and phase error. We report here the scheme of the magnetized block arrangement, an analysis of the design mechanism, the end pole design, field shimming and the final test performance using the Hall-probe mapping system.
IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity 07/2008; · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no data concerning the long-term outcome of patients with reflux esophagitis in Taiwan. In this study the outcome and the specific prognostic indicators associated with outcome in patients were assessed retrospectively, 7 years after diagnosis of esophagitis.
The study comprised a total of 128 patients with endoscopic esophagitis, diagnosed between January and June 1995, at Taichung Veterans' General Hospital. The outcome at 7 years after diagnosis was assessed by outpatient or telephone interview. Factors associated with requiring long-term acid suppression therapy were analyzed.
In all, 105 patients were eligible for analysis: 61 patients (58.1%) with LA (Los Angeles classification) grade A, 29 patients (27.6%) with grade B, 11 patients (10.5%) with grade C and 4 patients (3.5%) with grade D esophagitis. Seven years after diagnosis, there were 52 patients (49.5%) with no or occasional reflux symptoms, 8 patients (7.6%) with occasional symptoms requiring treatment with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), 12 patients (11.4%) with occasional symptoms requiring treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), as needed, and 33 patients (31.3%) with sustained symptoms needing daily maintenance with PPIs.
Nearly 50% of patients in Taiwan with endoscopic esophagitis still required treatment 7 years after diagnosis. Approximately 31% of patients still required daily acid suppression therapy. Presence of hiatal hernia and the severity of esophagitis at initial endoscopy independently were predictive of those who would require long-term acid suppression therapy.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2003; 38(11):1131-5. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate Helicobacter pylori primary resistance and its clinical impact on the efficacy of two lansoprazole-based eradication triple therapies.
H. pylori-positive patients (n=228) were randomized to receive one of the 1-week regimens: lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1 g (LAC), or lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg (LMC), each given twice daily. H. pylori status was assessed by 13C-urea breath test and culture at diagnosis and by 13C-urea breath test 6 weeks after therapy. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test (n=98).
The eradication rates with per protocol/ intention-to-treat analyses were: LAC (n=95/114) 83%/69% and LMC (n=96/114) 85%/72%. Primary resistance was 11% for clarithromycin, 41% for metronidazole and 0% for amoxicillin. Eradication in metronidazole-susceptible/-resistant strains was 85%/82% in LAC and 83%/63% in LMC. Significantly lower cure rates were observed in clarithromycin-resistant patients treated with LAC (95% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) and LMC (86% vs. 0%, P < 0.001).
One-week LAC and LMC are similarly effective therapies. Clarithromycin resistance significantly affected H. pylori eradication in both regimens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychologic factors in functional dyspepsia have been discussed in many previous articles. However, the relationship between depression and functional dyspepsia is still obscure. We investigated the impact of depression on clinical symptoms and gastric dysrhythmia in functional dyspepsia. Thirty-nine patients with functional dyspepsia and 18 healthy subjects were included. Patients were investigated with clinical symptoms assessment, Zung's self-rating depression scale, and electrogastrography. Patients with functional dyspepsia were divided into two groups: 21 patients with depression and 18 patients without depression. The depressed patients had similar total gastrointestinal symptom severity scores compared with the nondepressed patients, but with higher total symptom frequency scores (p < 0.05). With regards to symptoms, the depressed patients had higher abdominal fullness severity and frequency scores and nausea frequency scores. The patients with functional dyspepsia had a lower percentage of normal slow wave in both the fasting and fed states and a higher percentage of bradygastria in the fasting state and tachygastria in the postprandial state (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of bradygastria or tachygastria between the depressed and nondepressed patients. There was no correlation between the specific type of electrogastrographic abnormality and the presence or absence of depression in functional dyspepsia patients.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 09/2001; 33(2):127-31. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial gastric distention is frequently associated with transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since the role of nutrient perfusion into the jejunum in inducing GER is not well understood, we studied the effect of jejunal feeding on GER through a percutaneous gastrojejunal tube in patients with and without reflux esophagitis.
Nine stroke patients with reflux esophagitis were fed through a percutaneous gastrojejunal tube with either a liquid meal (2 kcal/2 ml/min) or saline for 2 h randomly on 2 separate days. An esophageal pH probe was placed 5 cm above the gastroesophageal junction to detect acid reflux. Six stroke patients without esophagitis were enrolled as controls.
In both the patients with esophagitis and the controls, esophageal acid exposure (15.3% (4.9%-28.2%) versus 2.7% (0.0%-10.8%), P=0.003; 5.9% (0.5%-6.7%) versus 0.0% (0.0%-1.5%), P = 0.01) and events of acid reflux (5 (1-16) versus 2 (0-8), P = 0.02; 12 (3-17) versus 1 (0-4), P = 0.02) were significantly greater during jejunal meal feeding than during saline infusion. Furthermore, in the reflux patients, but not in the controls, acid clearance time was also greater during jejunal meal feeding than during saline infusion (2.9 min (0.5-9.6 min) versus 0.7 min (0.0-4.3 min), P = 0.04).
We therefore conclude that jejunal nutrient infusion without gastric distention can induce GER in both patients with reflux esophagitis and controls. This implies that GER induced by jejununal nutrients may in part explain the incapability of jejunal tube feeding to prevent gastropulmonary aspiration in patients at risk.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2001; 36(4):343-6. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic endoscopy with isotonic saline-epinephrine (ISE) injection is a convenient and widely used procedure for hemostasis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated 36 patients (from January 1996 to April 1999) who had been diagnosed with recent or active bleeding due to Mallory-Weiss tears in emergency endoscopic examination. The endoscopic hemostatic method with ISE injection was performed in 15 of 36 patients. The other 21 patients received conservative treatment with hemodynamic support. Patient's clinical data, laboratory data, transfusion requirements, endoscopic findings, and length of hospital stays were evaluated. Initial hemoglobin was significantly lower in the ISE group than the conservative treatment group (9.74 +/- 2.86 g/dL vs. 12.57 +/- 2.80 g/dL, respectively; p < 0.01). Mean transfusion requirements were significantly higher in the ISE group than the conservative treatment group (7.26 +/- 8.78 units vs. 2.85 +/- 6.21 units, respectively; p < 0.1). Patients in the ISE group were supposed to be having a more severe bleeding episode. Most patients achieved initial hemostasis in the ISE group and the conservative treatment group (93% and 95%, respectively). The rebleeding rate was also similar in both groups (1 in 15 in the ISE group and I in 21 in the conservative treatment group). There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay and rebleeding between these two groups (3.47 +/- 1.92 days vs. 2.47 +/- 1.47 days, respectively: p = 0.89). The endoscopic ISE injection is an inexpensive, simple, convenient therapeutic method and it can achieve initial hemostasis for active Mallory-Weiss tears.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 02/2001; 32(2):119-22. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious infection in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Both defects in the host defense mechanisms and the enhancement of the offensive factor (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)) may contribute to the development of SBP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of SIBO versus various antimicrobial capacities in the pathogenesis of SBP in cirrhotic patients.
Forty-five cirrhotic patients were enrolled in this study. Bacterial overgrowth was evaluated by breath hydrogen test (BH2T). The hepatic reticuloendothelial system phagocytic index (HRESPI) was measured by intravenously injected colloid suspensions.
The Child-Pugh scores in the SBP group were higher than in the non-SBP group (10.5 +/- 2.0 versus 8.0 +/- 1.8, P < 0.01). The ascitic protein concentration was significantly lower in the SBP group than in the non-SBP group (897 +/- 425 mg/l versus 1,325 +/- 453 mg/l, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the serum C3 concentration was lower in the SBP group than in the non-SBP group (43.1 +/- 13.6 ng/dl versus 73.2 +/- 26.4 ng/dl, P < 0.01). The serum C4 concentration was also lower in the SBP group than in the non-SBP group (12.4 +/- 4.0 ng/dl versus 16.9 +/- 6.6 ng/dl, P < 0.05). The incidence of SIBO was higher in the SBP group than in the non-SBP group (68.2% versus 17.4%, P < 0.01). HRESPI values were significantly higher in the two groups of cirrhotic patients than in the normal reference. However, there were no statistical differences in HRESPI between the two groups (8.4 +/- 2.8 min in the SBP group versus 7.9 +/- 2.8 min in the non-SBP group).
The results of this study showed that the hepatic reticuloendothelial function is impaired in cirrhotic patients, but the degree of impairment does not differ between patients with and without previous history of SBP. Lower ascitic total protein, lower serum C3 and C4 concentrations, and presence of SIBO are all risk factors for SBP. Based on the results of our study, defects in the host defense mechanisms and the enhancement of the offensive factor (SIBO) may act in concert for the development of SBP.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2001; 36(1):92-6. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic, cirrhotic patients remains unclear. This prospective outpatient study, conducted to assess the relationship of gastroduodenal disease and H. pylori as determined by the (13C) urea breath test, enrolled 109 consecutive cirrhotic patients with dyspepsia. All patients underwent upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed respective prevalences of peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer of 41.3%, 23.9%, and 22.9%; H. pylori infection was found in 52.3%. The rate of peptic ulcer disease in the H. pylori-positive (45.6%) and -negative (36.5%) groups was not significantly different; neither was the prevalence of H. pylori in patients with or without portal hypertensive gastropathy and with or without esophageal varices. The relationship between peptic ulcer disease and H. pylori in dyspeptic patients with cirrhosis appears to be weak. Likewise, no significant relationship was evident between H. pylori and portal hypertensive gastropathy or esophageal varices. This organism may not be a major pathogenetic factor in gastroduodenal diseases in dyspeptic patients with cirrhosis.
Advances in Therapy 01/2001; 18(3):140-50. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal gastric slow-wave frequencies have been observed in diabetic gastroparesis and are associated with impaired antral motor activity. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of acupuncture on gastric slow waves in diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting gastric motor dysfunction.
Fifteen patients with type II diabetes who had had dyspeptic symptoms for more than 3 months were enrolled. Two acupuncture needles were inserted into the subjects' legs at the Zusanli points, and electrical stimulation (2-Hz pulses) was delivered for 30 min. Cutaneous electrogastrography was performed for 30 min at baseline, for 30 min during acupuncture, and for an additional 30 min after acupuncture. Serum gastrin, motilin, and human pancreatic polypeptide levels were also measured.
There was a significant increase in the percentages of normal frequency during and after acupuncture (baseline vs. acupuncture and after acupuncture 21.99 +/- 19.38% vs. 45.93 +/- 19.72 and 48.92 +/- 19.56%; p < 0.01). In addition, the percentage of tachygastric frequency was decreased significantly during and after acupuncture. The dominant frequency was also changed significantly. There was an increase of serum human pancreatic polypeptide during acupuncture (baseline vs. acupuncture 56.96 +/- 27.64 vs. 73.11 +/- 22.37 pmol/l; p < 0.05).
The results of this study revealed that electrical stimulation at the Zusanli points could increase the percentage of normal electrogastrography frequency and decrease the percentage of tachygastric frequency in diabetic patients. The data indicate that acupuncture may enhance the regularity of gastric myoelectrical activity in diabetic patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy has been used for preventing pulmonary aspiration arising from gastric contents by concomitant jejunal feeding and gastric decompression in susceptible patients. Our objective was to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux in patients with percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube feeding.
Eight cerebrovascular accident patients with percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube placement caused by reflux esophagitis with hematemesis, food regurgitation or vomiting, and/or recurrent aspiration pneumonia were tested for gastroesophageal reflux using 24-h esophageal pH monitoring during continuous jejunal liquid meal or saline infusion with concomitant gastric decompression. Twenty-four hour pH monitoring was also performed during intragastric feeding on a different day.
During the liquid meal feeding period, percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy feeding reduced esophageal acid exposure 46% [12.9% (4.9-28.2%) versus 24.0% (19.0-40.6%), p = 0.01], compared to intragastric feeding. However, in the period of the jejunal tube infusion, esophageal acid exposure was significantly lower during saline infusion than during meal infusion [3.2 (0.0%-10.8%) versus 12.9% (4.9-28.2%), p = 0.008].
Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy feeding reduced but did not eliminate gastroesophageal reflux, compared to intragastric feeding in patients with severe gastroesophageal reflux. However, gastroesophageal reflux during percutaneous jejunal feeding was associated with meal infusion. This might, in part, explain the failure of percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube placement to prevent pulmonary aspiration.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2001; 95(12):3439-43. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term efficacy and safety of the endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) were evaluated to define its role as the initial treatment for bleeding gastric varices.
Ninety patients with bleeding gastric varices underwent endoscopic injections of Histoacryl for hemostasis within a 6-year period. Histoacryl was injected intravariceally as a 1:1 mixture with Lipiodol. Among the 90 patients, 5 had active bleeding and 85 had recent bleeding. Most of the varices were large (F2 or F3, 85 cases). The most common locations were the fundus and the posterior wall of the proximal body (94.4%). After Histoacryl injection, patients were followed endoscopically with retreatment as necessary.
The rate of hemostasis at 1 week was 94.4%. Recurrent bleeding occurred in 23.3% of the patients from 3 days to 16 months after the initial injection. Recurrent bleeding was stopped with reinjections of Histoacryl in 16.7% of the patients. The rate of definitive hemostasis was 93.3% (84 of 90). The treatment failure-related mortality rate was 2.2% (2 of 90). To date, 35 patients have died, mostly as a result of malignancy or liver failure, and 55 are still alive. The determining factor for long-term survival was the underlying disease leading to portal hypertension. There were few long-term complications except for Histoacryl cast extrusion-related mucosal defects.
Endoscopic injection of Histoacryl is highly effective for the treatment of bleeding gastric varices, with rare complications both acutely and long term. This treatment modality is appropriate as the first choice for bleeding gastric varices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The traditional transsphenoidal approach for pituitary surgery can be performed via transnasal, transseptal, or sublabial routes through unilateral or bilateral nostrils. It requires wide mucosal and septal dissection and postoperative nasal packing. Endoscopic surgery has been widely used because it allows excellent visualization with minimal invasion. Recently, it has also been applied to pituitary surgery.
From January, 1997 to February, 1999, 40 patients with pituitary adenomas underwent the transsphenoidal approach using a rigid endoscope via one nostril. Among the 40 cases, 18 were prolactinomas, seven were growth hormone-secreting adenomas and 15 were nonfunctional adenomas.
After surgery, complete resolution or improvement of symptoms and restoration of normal hormone levels were achieved in 16 patients with prolactinomas, five with growth hormone-secreting adenomas and 12 with nonfunctional macroadenomas. One patient with a recurrent microprolactinoma needed a second operation to remove the cavernous portion of the tumor. Another male patient with a macroprolactinoma who experienced galactorrhea and gynecomastia showed improvement of clinical symptoms after the operation. Two patients with residual growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas in the cavernous sinus needed Sandostatin treatment. Three patients with nonfunctional macroadenomas underwent nearly total resection leaving residual tumor in the cavernous sinus, which then required adjuvant radiotherapy. No complications related to this approach were encountered in the patients during the follow-up period.
Endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery can be employed for treating pituitary tumors without septal or sublabial complications. Postoperative suffering was reduced and hospitalization was shortened by this mini-invasive procedure. This surgical procedure can be used for both microadenomas and macroadenomas.
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed 05/2000; 63(4):301-10.