ABSTRACT: A cavity-hollow cathode was investigated as low-cost sputtering source
for titanium. An argon discharge is produced inside a hollow cathode consisting of
two specifically formed disks of titanium. An additional cavity further enhances
the pendulum effect of the electrons. Measurements with small Langmuir probes
yielded evidence for the formation of a space charge double layer above the cathode.
The sputtered atoms form negatively charged clusters. After further acceleration
by the double layer the clusters impinge on the substrates. Titanium thin films
were produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The films were investigated
by a scanning tunnel microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
J. Plasma Physics. 01/2010; 76:655–664.