[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human bru-cellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132532. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132532 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals. In this paper, we present a review of the main aspects of the vaccines that have been used in the brucellosis control over the years and the current research advances in the development of new B. abortus vaccines.
Veterinary Research 07/2015; 46(1):76. DOI:10.1186/s13567-015-0199-7 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of the B. abortus reference strains and field isolates on media containing different inhibitor agents. Reference strains were seeded on tryptose agar containing: i-erythritol (1.0 mg/mL), fuchsin (20 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL), thionin (2.5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL), rifampicin (200 μg/mL) and safranin O (200 μg/mL). Field isolates were tested only on media containing i-erythritol, rifampicin and thionin. Furthermore, each suspension was also inoculated on tryptose agar incubated in air, to test its ability to grow without CO2. Sensitivity to fuchsin was similar among reference strains evaluated. Growth of S19, 544 and 2308 but not RB51 were inhibited on media containing rifampicin. Medium with safranin O showed no inhibition for RB51, 544 and 2308, but it partially inhibited the S19 growth as well as medium containing i-erythritol. Treatment/control growth ratio for 2308 on tryptose agar containing thionin (2.5 μg/mL) was approximatelly 1.0, whereas S19 and RB51 showed 0.85 and 0.89 ratios, respectively. Growth of 544, S19 and RB51 but not 2308 was completely inhibited on medium with thionin (10 μg/mL). All field strains grew on medium containing i-erythritol, but were completelly inhibited by rifampicin. With exception of A1 (B. abortus biovar 3) all field isolates grew on medium with thionin, although some strains showed a treatment/control growth ratio of 0.75-0.80 (10 μg/mL). These results showed that tryptose agar with thionin, i-erythritol or rifampicin could be useful for differentiating vaccine, challenge and field strains of B. abortus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven commercially available PE-labeled anti-human (IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13) and anti-mouse (IL-10, TNF-α) cytokine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were tested for cross-reactivity with cattle, goat, and sheep cytokines. Cross-reactivity was assessed by comparative analysis with the standard reactivity of the target species. Our data demonstrated that anti-human IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A and IL-10 mAbs cross-react with all ruminant species tested. Anti-human IL-5 mAb showed a strong cross-reactivity with cattle and goat IL-5, while anti-human TNF-α mAb showed a selective cross-reactivity with goat TNF-α. No cross-reactivity with the ruminant cytokines was observed for anti-human IL-12 and IL-13 mAbs or for the two anti-mouse cytokine mAbs tested. The present study demonstrated the cross-reactivity of various anti-human cytokine mAbs with cattle, sheep, and goat cytokines, increasing the range of immunological biomarkers for studies in veterinary medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serological survey in free-ranging crab-eating foxes (Canidae: Cerdocyon thous) and brown-nosed coatis
(Procyonidae: Nasua nasua) was performed in the Nhecolândia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal to evaluate the presence of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies on those wild populations. The detection of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies was performed by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) as screening test and the Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA) as a confi rmatory test. The frequency of smooth Brucella Seropositive animals were 13.2% (5/38, 95% CI: 4.4% - 28.1%) for crab-eating foxes and 8.8% (3/34, 95%
CI: 1.9% -23.7%) for brown-nosed coatis. No association was found between seropositivity for brucellosis and gender or age. The results of this study suggest exposure to or infection of crabeating
fox and brown-nosed coati from the Brazilian Pantanal by Brucella spp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective longitudinal study investigated the epidemiology of enteric disease associated with infections in calves aging up to 70 days. A total of 850 fecal samples were collected from 67 calves. Seventeen isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from feces of 11 calves (16.4 %), and statistical analysis revealed no association between the presence of Salmonella spp. and clinical signs of diarrhea or age. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli were identified in 103 strains: eae (7), K99/STa (7), Stx1 (7), Stx1/eae (36), Stx1/Stx2/eae (2), Stx2 (43), and Stx2/eae (1). There was statistical association between diarrheic animals carrying E. coli Stx1/eae
+ in their feces at 2 and 4 weeks of age (P = 0.003) and E. coli Stx2
+ at 5 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Rotavirus was detected in 49 (5.76 %) fecal samples collected from 33 calves (49.2 %). The presence of rotavirus was correlated with diarrheic feces (P < 0.0001) rather than feces with normal consistency. There was a significant relationship between age group and diarrhea (P = 0.001). Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was detected in 93 fecal samples collected from 46 calves (68.6 %). There was an association (P < 0.0001) between diarrheic animals positive for BCoV and age groups. The results demonstrate the importance of the pathogens studied in the etiology of diarrhea in calves.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 09/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1007/s11250-014-0675-5 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n = 10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n = 9) and non-pregnant (n = 10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and IL-4 by CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with γ-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD4+IFN-γ+ T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells nor IFN-γ or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, being CD4+ T-cells the main source of IFN-γ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Ovine epididymitis is predominantly associated with Brucella ovis infection. Molecular characterization of Brucella spp. achieved by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses (MLVA) have proved to be a powerful tool for epidemiological trace-back studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16.
MLVA16 genotyping identified thirteen distinct genotypes and a Hunter-Gaston diversity index of 0.989 among the fourteen B. ovis genotyped strains. All B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes observed in the present study represented non-previously described profiles. Analyses of the eight conserved loci included in panel 1 (MLVA8) showed three different genotypes, two new and one already described for B. ovis isolates. Among ten B. ovis isolates from same herd only two strains had identical pattern, whereas the four isolates with no epidemiologic information exhibited a single MLVA16 pattern each. Analysis of minimal spanning tree, constructed using the fourteen B. ovis strains typed in this study together with all nineteen B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes available in the MLVAbank 2014, revealed the existence of two clearly distinct major clonal complexes.
In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a high genetic diversity among B. ovis field isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16.
BMC Research Notes 07/2014; 7(1):447. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-447
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is one of the most important zoonoses in the world. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16) has been shown be a useful tool to epidemiological traceback studies in B. abortus infection. Thus, the present study aimed (i) to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. abortus isolates from a brucellosis outbreak, and (ii) to investigate the in vivo stability of the MLVA16 markers.
Three-hundred and seventy-five clinical samples, including 275 vaginal swabs and 100 milk samples, were cultured from a brucellosis outbreak in a cattle herd, which adopted RB51 vaccination and test-and-slaughter policies. Thirty-seven B. abortus isolates were obtained, eight from milk and twenty-nine from post-partum/abortion vaginal swabs, which were submitted to biotyping and genotyping by MLVA16. Twelve B. abortus isolates obtained from vaginal swabs were identified as RB51. Twenty four isolates, seven obtained from milk samples and seventeen from vaginal swabs, were identified as B. abortus biovar 3, while one isolate from vaginal swabs was identified as B. abortus biovar 1. Three distinct genotypes were observed during the brucellosis outbreak: RB observed in all isolates identified as RB51; W observed in all B. abortus biovar 3 isolates; and Z observed in the single B. abortus biovar 1 isolate. Epidemiological and molecular data show that the B. abortus biovar 1 genotype Z strain is not related to the B. abortus biovar 3 genotype W isolates, and represents a new introduction B. abortus during the outbreak.
The results of the present study on typing of multiple clinical B. abortus isolates from the same outbreak over a sixteen month period indicate the in vivo stability of MLVA16 markers, a low genetic diversity among B. abortus isolates and the usefulness of MLVA16 for epidemiological studies of bovine brucellosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98758. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098758 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) comprises a group of bacteria that have a high degree of genetic similarity. Two species in this group, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, are the main cause of human and bovine tuberculosis, respectively. M. bovis has a broader host range that includes humans; thus, the differentiation of mycobacterium is of great importance for epidemiological and public health considerations and to optimize treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate primers and molecular markers described in the literature to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis by PCR. Primers JB21/22, frequently cited in scientific literature, presented in our study the highest number of errors to identify M. bovis or M. tuberculosis (73 %) and primers Mb.400, designed to flank region of difference 4 (RD4), were considered the most efficient (detected all M. bovis tested and did not detect any M. tuberculosis tested). Although also designed to flank RD4, primers Mb.115 misidentified eight samples due to primer design problems. The results showed that RD4 is the ideal region to differentiate M. bovis from other bacteria classified in MTC, but primer design should be considered carefully.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates. Two hundred and seventy-four M. bovis isolates and 156 M. tuberculosis isolates were tested. Both qPCRs amplified all of the 274 M. bovis samples, but none of the 156 M. tuberculosis samples. The qPCR for PE-PGRS 20 had 91% efficiency and a detection limit of 0.32 ng (sensitivity and specificity for qPCR "Mbovis.100" were 99.64 and 100%, respectively). The qPCR for RD4 had 100% efficiency, and a detection limit of 4 pg (diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. The qPCR tests were performed using 4 extraction sets, 3 qPCR kits, and with a range of equipment; yet, all combinations produced similar results in a diagnostic test, demonstrating the robustness of this method. The techniques proved to be efficient, robust, sensitive, and specific for the diagnosis of M. bovis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of tuberculosis in humans. This bacillus gained prominence with the occurrence of HIV, presenting itself as an important opportunistic infection associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The current study aimed to develop a real-time PCR using Eva Green technology for molecular identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. The primers were designed to Rv1510 gene. Ninety nine samples of M. tuberculosis and sixty samples of M. bovis were tested and no sample of the bovine bacillus was detected by the qPCR. Statistical tests showed no difference between the qPCR and biochemical tests used to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The correlation between tests was perfect with Kappa index of 1.0 (p < 0.001, CI = 0.84 - 1.0). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% (CI = 95.94% - 100%) and 100% (CI = 93.98% - 100%). This qPCR was developed with the goal of diagnosing the bacillus M. tuberculosis in samples of bacterial suspension. TB reference laboratories (health and agriculture sectors), public health programs and epidemiological studies probably may benefit from such method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine brucellosis is an infectious disease of worldwide distribution that can affect dogs, wild canids and man. It is caused by Brucella canis, but dogs can also be infected by smooth Brucella such as B. abortus and B. suis. Due to the increasing importance of dogs in our society, the scarcity of information about canine brucellosis in the country and its zoonotic character, the aims of the present study were (i) to conduct a survey on the infection by B. canis and smooth Brucella in dogs from the municipality of Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil, and (ii) to evaluate the risk factors associated with these infections. Sera from 241 dogs were analyzed by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) to detect B. canis-antibodies, and Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen test (BAPA) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) to detect antibodies to smooth Brucella. From the 241 tested dogs, 132 reacted in the AGID and 128 reacted in the BAPA, but only two were positive in FPA. The seroprevalences of B. canis and smooth Brucella infections in dogs in Araguaina were 54.77% (95% CI: 48.25 to 61.17%) and 0.83% (95% CI: 0.10 to 2.97%), respectively. The analysis of risk factors showed associations between B. canis infection and vaccination against leptospirosis, and between B. canis infection and use of manufactured food. In conclusion, data from the present study showed a low prevalence of infection by smooth Brucella and a widespread and high prevalence of infection by B. canis in the city of Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i) to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008) of B. abortus and (ii) to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b) were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81152. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081152 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were (i) to assess the in vitro genetic stability of S19 and RB51 Brucella abortus vaccines strains and (ii) to evaluate the ability of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) as a tool to be used in the quality control of live vaccines against brucellosis. Sixty-three batches of commercial S19 (n=53) and RB51(n=10) vaccines, produced between 2006 and 2009, were used in this study. S19 and RB51 vaccines were obtained from, respectively, seven and two different manufacturers. Ten in vitro serial passages were performed on reference strains and on selected batches of commercial vaccines. All batches, reference strains and strains of serial passages were typed by the MLVA16. The results demonstrated that B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains are genetically stable and very homogeneous in their respective groups. Anyway, batches of S19 from one manufacturer and batches of RB51 from another presented genotypes distincts from the reference vaccine strains. In both cases, differences were found on locus Bruce07, which had addition of one repeat unit in the case of S19 batches and the deletion of one repeat unit in the case of RB51 batches. In summary, MLVA16 proved to be a molecular tool capable of discriminating small genomic variations and should be included in in vitro official tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were (i) to determine the occurrence and (ii) to evaluate possible factors associated with infection by Brucella abortus in free-ranging equids from Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Sera from 227 free-ranging equids (178 donkeys, 43 horses and 6 mules), captured by the highway police and the prefecture agents, were screened by the rose bengal test (RBT) and confirmed for B. abortus-antibodies by the standard tube agglutination (STAT) and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) tests. Of the 227 equids tested, four (1.76%) were positive for B. abortus antibodies. All were horses, which resulted in an observed frequency of infection for this species of 9.30% (4/43). No association was found among seropositivity for B. abortus and the age and sex. Thus, data from the present study showed that infection by B. abortus is present among horses in Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live attenuated Brucella abortus S19 is the most effective vaccine against brucellosis in cattle. The assessment of the immunological parameters is essential to guarantee the biological quality of live anti-bacteria vaccines. The evaluation of genetic stability of live bacterial vaccines is also important in quality control. The aims of the present study were to compare (i) the immunogenicity and residual virulence, and (ii) the genotypic profile (MLVA15) of the eight S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil to the USDA S19 reference strain. Two batches of each of the eight S19 commercial vaccines used in Brazil (A-H) were tested. They were submitted to the potency and residual virulence in vivo tests recommended by OIE and typed by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) described for Brucella spp. Our results demonstrated that all S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil would be approved by Brazilian and OIE recommendations for potency and residual virulence. Furthermore, the S19 vaccine is genetically very homogeneous, as all but two batches (from the same manufacturer) tested showed identical MLVA15 profile. The two batches with different profiles presented six repeat units in locus Bruce07, instead of the five found in all other strains, including the USDA S19 reference strain. Although presenting a slightly different profile, this vaccine was also protective, as demonstrated by the immunogenicity and residual virulence assays performed. Therefore, the commercial Brazilian S19 vaccines were in accordance to Brazilian and international standards for immunogenicity and residual virulence tests. Moreover, our results also show that MLVA could be a useful inclusion to the list of in vitro tests required by the official control authorities to be applied to the commercial S19 vaccines, as an efficient assay to guarantee the quality and stability of the vaccine strains.