[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovine epididymitis is predominantly associated with Brucella ovis infection. Molecular characterization of Brucella spp. achieved by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses (MLVA) have proved to be a powerful tool for epidemiological trace-back studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is one of the most important zoonoses in the world. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16) has been shown be a useful tool to epidemiological traceback studies in B. abortus infection. Thus, the present study aimed (i) to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. abortus isolates from a brucellosis outbreak, and (ii) to investigate the in vivo stability of the MLVA16 markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) comprises a group of bacteria that have a high degree of genetic similarity. Two species in this group, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, are the main cause of human and bovine tuberculosis, respectively. M. bovis has a broader host range that includes humans; thus, the differentiation of mycobacterium is of great importance for epidemiological and public health considerations and to optimize treatment. The current study aimed to evaluate primers and molecular markers described in the literature to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis by PCR. Primers JB21/22, frequently cited in scientific literature, presented in our study the highest number of errors to identify M. bovis or M. tuberculosis (73 %) and primers Mb.400, designed to flank region of difference 4 (RD4), were considered the most efficient (detected all M. bovis tested and did not detect any M. tuberculosis tested). Although also designed to flank RD4, primers Mb.115 misidentified eight samples due to primer design problems. The results showed that RD4 is the ideal region to differentiate M. bovis from other bacteria classified in MTC, but primer design should be considered carefully.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates. Two hundred and seventy-four M. bovis isolates and 156 M. tuberculosis isolates were tested. Both qPCRs amplified all of the 274 M. bovis samples, but none of the 156 M. tuberculosis samples. The qPCR for PE-PGRS 20 had 91% efficiency and a detection limit of 0.32 ng (sensitivity and specificity for qPCR "Mbovis.100" were 99.64 and 100%, respectively). The qPCR for RD4 had 100% efficiency, and a detection limit of 4 pg (diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100%. The qPCR tests were performed using 4 extraction sets, 3 qPCR kits, and with a range of equipment; yet, all combinations produced similar results in a diagnostic test, demonstrating the robustness of this method. The techniques proved to be efficient, robust, sensitive, and specific for the diagnosis of M. bovis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n = 10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n = 9) and non-pregnant (n = 10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and IL-4 by CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with γ-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD4+IFN-γ+ T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells nor IFN-γ or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, being CD4+ T-cells the main source of IFN-γ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98758. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were (i) to assess the in vitro genetic stability of S19 and RB51 Brucella abortus vaccines strains and (ii) to evaluate the ability of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) as a tool to be used in the quality control of live vaccines against brucellosis. Sixty-three batches of commercial S19 (n=53) and RB51(n=10) vaccines, produced between 2006 and 2009, were used in this study. S19 and RB51 vaccines were obtained from, respectively, seven and two different manufacturers. Ten in vitro serial passages were performed on reference strains and on selected batches of commercial vaccines. All batches, reference strains and strains of serial passages were typed by the MLVA16. The results demonstrated that B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains are genetically stable and very homogeneous in their respective groups. Anyway, batches of S19 from one manufacturer and batches of RB51 from another presented genotypes distincts from the reference vaccine strains. In both cases, differences were found on locus Bruce07, which had addition of one repeat unit in the case of S19 batches and the deletion of one repeat unit in the case of RB51 batches. In summary, MLVA16 proved to be a molecular tool capable of discriminating small genomic variations and should be included in in vitro official tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live attenuated Brucella abortus S19 is the most effective vaccine against brucellosis in cattle. The assessment of the immunological parameters is essential to guarantee the biological quality of live anti-bacteria vaccines. The evaluation of genetic stability of live bacterial vaccines is also important in quality control. The aims of the present study were to compare (i) the immunogenicity and residual virulence, and (ii) the genotypic profile (MLVA15) of the eight S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil to the USDA S19 reference strain. Two batches of each of the eight S19 commercial vaccines used in Brazil (A-H) were tested. They were submitted to the potency and residual virulence in vivo tests recommended by OIE and typed by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) described for Brucella spp. Our results demonstrated that all S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil would be approved by Brazilian and OIE recommendations for potency and residual virulence. Furthermore, the S19 vaccine is genetically very homogeneous, as all but two batches (from the same manufacturer) tested showed identical MLVA15 profile. The two batches with different profiles presented six repeat units in locus Bruce07, instead of the five found in all other strains, including the USDA S19 reference strain. Although presenting a slightly different profile, this vaccine was also protective, as demonstrated by the immunogenicity and residual virulence assays performed. Therefore, the commercial Brazilian S19 vaccines were in accordance to Brazilian and international standards for immunogenicity and residual virulence tests. Moreover, our results also show that MLVA could be a useful inclusion to the list of in vitro tests required by the official control authorities to be applied to the commercial S19 vaccines, as an efficient assay to guarantee the quality and stability of the vaccine strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i) to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008) of B. abortus and (ii) to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b) were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81152. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 01/2013; 44(1):145-151. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. Among them, the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis, respectively. We compare the whole genomes of both subspecies to get insights into genomic architecture, phylogenetic relationships, genome conservation and core virulence factors. Pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for both C. fetus subspecies and members of the genus. The C. fetus subspecies conserved (76%) proteome were then analyzed for their subcellular localization and protein functions in biological processes. Furthermore, with pathogenomic strategies, unique candidate regions in the genomes and several potential core-virulence factors were identified. The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic variations and potential core and unique virulence factors characterized in this study would lead to better insight into the species virulence and to more efficient use of the candidates for antibiotic, drug and vaccine development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, multiplex PCR was employed to investigate the virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from 60-day-old calves. Faecal samples were collected from 54 calves at 12 dairy farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 156 isolates were obtained after culture and microbiological isolation and were tested by multiplex PCR for the presence of genes encoding toxins (Stx1, Stx2 and STa) and adherence factors (intimin, F41 and F5). Seventy of 156 isolates were positive for at least one virulence factor: ten (14.3 %) from diarrhoeic animals and 60 (85.7 %) from healthy calves. The virulence markers identified were: Stx1 (82.8 %), eae (24.3 %), F41 (11.4 %), F5 (10 %), STa (4.28 %) and Stx2 (4 %). In diarrhoeic animals, Stx1 (70 %) and F41 (30 %) were identified, while Stx1 (83.3 %), eae (28.3 %), F41 (8.3 %), F5 (11.6 %), STa (5 %) and Stx2 (1.6 %) were detected in isolates from healthy calves. Mixed infections with pathotypes Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli, STEC/enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and STEC/other (eae/F5, Stx1/STa) were detected in five healthy calves. Pathogenic E. coli were identified in 59.26 % of all calves and on 75 % of the dairy farms studied, not only in diarrhoeic (five of six) but also in healthy calves (27 of 48), which demonstrates the importance of this agent in the aetiology of diarrhoea in calves in the state of Minas Gerais.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2012; 44(7):1783-90. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O presente estudo avalia a interferência do teste de tuberculinização no teste do interferon gama (INFg), estima a sensibilidade e a especificidade do INFg em condições brasileiras e simula a utilização dos testes múltiplos usando a tuberculinização comparada e o teste do INFg. Trezentos e cinquenta animais oriundos de dois rebanhos livres e dois rebanhos positivos foram submetidos à tuberculinização comparada e ao teste de INFg. A tuberculinização comparada foi realizada utilizando PPD aviária e bovina. O teste de INFg foi realizado utilizando o kit Bovigam® (CSL Veterinary, Austrália) de acordo com as especificações do fabricante. A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste de INFg foram calculadas pelo Modelo Bayesiano de Classe Latente. Esses parâmetros foram também estimados para os testes múltiplos. Os resultados do teste de INFg no D0 e D3 após o teste de tuberculinização foram comparados pelos testes estatísticos de McNemar e kappa. Os resultados das médias de densidade ótica do teste de INFg em ambos os dias foram similares. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do teste de INFg apresentaram resultados variando (95% intervalo de confiança) de 72 a 100% e 74 a 100%, respectivamente. A sensibilidade do teste em paralelo foi acima de 97,5% enquanto a especificidade do teste em série foi acima de 99,7%. O teste do INFg provou ser um método de diagnóstico muito útil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra linfadenite caseosa (LC) em rebanhos ovinos comerciais do Distrito Federal (DF). Foram coletadas 1.028 amostras de soro entre março e junho de 2004, de todas as propriedades (32) do Distrito Federal com pelo menos 20 fêmeas adultas no rebanho. A soroprevalência da linfadenite caseosa foi determinada por ELISA com proteínas secretadas de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Cinquenta por cento das 32 propriedades apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo para o LC e a prevalência real para animais foi de 44,0% (IC 95: 41,0; 47,0), portanto, esses dados sugerem que a LC está presente em rebanhos ovinos comerciais no Distrito Federal. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ovinos, linfadenite caseosa, prevalência, Distrito Federal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed spoligotyping and 12-mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing to characterise Mycobacterium bovis isolates collected from tissue samples of bovines with lesions suggestive for tuberculosis during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in Brazil. High-quality genotypes were obtained with both procedures for 61 isolates that were obtained from 185 bovine tissue samples and all of these isolates were identified as M. bovis by conventional identification procedures. On the basis of the spoligotyping, 53 isolates were grouped into nine clusters and the remaining eight isolates were unique types, resulting in 17 spoligotypes. The majority of the Brazilian M. bovis isolates displayed spoligotype patterns that have been previously observed in strains isolated from cattle in other countries. MIRU-VNTR typing produced 16 distinct genotypes, with 53 isolates forming eight of the groups, and individual isolates with unique VNTR profiles forming the remaining eight groups. The allelic diversity of each VNTR locus was calculated and only two of the 12-MIRU-VNTR loci presented scores with either a moderate (0.4, MIRU16) or high (0.6, MIRU26) discriminatory index (h). Both typing methods produced similar discriminatory indexes (spoligotyping h = 0.85; MIRU-VNTR h = 0.86) and the combination of the two methods increased the h value to 0.94, resulting in 29 distinct patterns. These results confirm that spoligotyping and VNTR analysis are valuable tools for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis infections in Brazil.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2012; 107(1):64-73. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the infectious agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), is responsible for substantial economic losses in goat and sheep production. Molecular characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR has shown promising results in genotyping strains isolated from sheep with CLA. We evaluated the genetic diversity of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates collected from the Sertão region of the Pernambuco (PE) State, Brazil, and investigated the potential of ERIC-PCR as a tool for the molecular typing of strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from goats. Thirty-two C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from goats in the municipalities of Floresta and Ibimirim, PE, C. pseudotuberculosis type strain ATCC 19410, the 1002 vaccine strain, and a field isolate of Rhodococcus equi were fingerprinted using the primers ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 and the primer pair ERIC- 1R+ERIC-2. Using 100% similarity as the cutoff, 8, 10, and 7 genotypes were obtained with ERIC-1-PCR, ERIC-2-PCR, and ERIC-1+2-PCR, respectively. The Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index calculated for the ERIC-1-PCR was 0.75. The index for the ERIC-2-PCR was 0.88, and the index for the ERIC-1+2-PCR was 0.79. Among goat isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis, three, two and four genotypes (found by ERIC-1-PCR, ERIC-2-PCR, and ERIC-1+2-PCR, respectively) had been previously described among sheep isolates from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. These results showed that ERIC-PCR has good discriminatory power and typeability, making it a useful tool for discrimination among C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from goats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumo Foram determinadas por estudo de soroprevalência as aglutininas anti- Leptospira spp. em 1360 amostras de soros de bovinos clinicamente sadios e em idade reprodutiva, sem histórico de vacinação, com mais de três anos de idade, criados extensivamente em ...
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners.
We assessed the seroprevalence of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in 805 sheep from 23 sheep farms that supply slaughterhouses in the state of Minas Gerais; we also analyzed management practices that could be associated with CLA occurrence, used on these and nearby farms that also supplied animals to the slaughterhouse (n = 60). The serum samples for assaying CLA infection were taken at the slaughterhouse. Frequency of infection with C. pseudotuberculosis was estimated at 43.7%, and farm frequency was estimated at 100%. Management practices were analyzed through a questionnaire. All farmers (60/60) had extensive/semi-extensive rearing system; 70.0% (42/60) identified sheep individually; 11.7% (7/60) had periodical technical assistance; 41.7% (25/60) disinfected the facilities; 86.7% (52/60) used barbed wire fences and did not implement adequate CLA control measures; only 11.7% (7/60) of breeders reported vaccination against C. pseudotuberculosis; 13.3% (8/60) took note of animals with clinical signs of CLA; 1.7% (1/60) opened and sanitized abscesses, and isolated the infected animals; 10.0% (6/60) knew the zoonotic potential of this disease and 1.7% (1/60) of the farmers culled animals in case of recurrence of abscesses.
It can be concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widely spread in sheep flocks in Minas Gerais state in Brazil and that there is a lack of good management measures and vaccination, allowing transmission of this infectious agent throughout the production network.
BMC Veterinary Research 11/2011; 7:68. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the etiologic agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease of cattle that is of worldwide importance. The complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of the type strain C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354(T) are reported.
Journal of bacteriology 10/2011; 193(20):5871-2. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A infecção por Brucella ovis é considerada uma das principais causas de epididimite e infertilidade em carneiros, resultando em falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas significativas em rebanhos ovinos ao redor do mundo. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar três testes sorológicos disponíveis para o diagnóstico da brucelose ovina por B. ovis, utilizando 181 soros ovinos. Amostras de soro provenientes de carneiros experimentalmente infectados foram coletadas ao longo de 192 dias pós-infecção (n=117) e durante o período pré-infecção (n=9). Adicionalmente, amostras de soro foram obtidas de ovinos provenientes de um rebanho livre para B. ovis (n=55). As técnicas de imunodifusão em gel de agar (IDGA), utilizando dois antígenos disponíveis comercialmente, e de fixação de complemento foram comparadas (FC). Foram obtidos resultados de sensibilidade especificidade semelhantes para ambos os métodos de IDGA e ainda, a técnica de IDGA foi mais eficiente do que a da FC para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por B. ovis.
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 08/2011; 63(4):1016-1021. · 0.27 Impact Factor