[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secreted factor Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is both required for and sufficient to induce multiple developmental processes, including ventralization of the CNS, branching morphogenesis of the lungs and anteroposterior patterning of the limbs. Based on analogy to the Drosophila Hh pathway, the multiple GLI transcription factors in vertebrates are likely to both transduce SHH signaling and repress Shh transcription. In order to discriminate between overlapping versus unique requirements for the three Gli genes in mice, we have produced a Gli1 mutant and analyzed the phenotypes of Gli1/Gli2 and Gli1/3 double mutants. Gli3(xt) mutants have polydactyly and dorsal CNS defects associated with ectopic Shh expression, indicating GLI3 plays a role in repressing Shh. In contrast, Gli2 mutants have five digits, but lack a floorplate, indicating that it is required to transduce SHH signaling in some tissues. Remarkably, mice homozygous for a Gli1(zfd )mutation that deletes the exons encoding the DNA-binding domain are viable and appear normal. Transgenic mice expressing a GLI1 protein lacking the zinc fingers can not induce SHH targets in the dorsal brain, indicating that the Gli1(zfd )allele contains a hypomorphic or null mutation. Interestingly, Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+), but not Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli3(zfd/+) double mutants have a severe phenotype; most Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+) mice die soon after birth and all have multiple defects including a variable loss of ventral spinal cord cells and smaller lungs that are similar to, but less extreme than, Gli2(zfd/zfd) mutants. Gli1/Gli2 double homozygous mutants have more extreme CNS and lung defects than Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+) mutants, however, in contrast to Shh mutants, ventrolateral neurons develop in the CNS and the limbs have 5 digits with an extra postaxial nubbin. These studies demonstrate that the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of GLI1 protein is not required for SHH signaling in mouse. Furthermore, Gli1 and Gli2, but not Gli1 and Gli3, have extensive overlapping functions that are likely downstream of SHH signaling.
Development 05/2000; 127(8):1593-605. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, patched encodes a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling. Biochemical experiments have demonstrated that vertebrate patched homologues might function as a Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor. In mice, two patched homologues, Ptch and Ptch2, have been identified. Sequence comparison have suggested that they might possess distinct properties in Shh signaling. In the developing tooth, hair and whisker, Shh and Ptch2 are co-expressed in the epithelium while Ptch is strongly expressed in the mesenchymal cells. We report here the chromosomal localization of Ptch2 and further analysis of Ptch2 expression. Throughout mouse development, the level of Ptch2 expression is significantly lower than that of Ptch. In early mouse embryos, Ptch and Ptch2 were found to be co-expressed in regions adjacent to Shh-expressing cells in the developing CNS. Similar to other epidermal structures, Shh and Ptch2 also show overlapping expression in the developing nasal gland and eyelids. Thus, during mouse development, Ptch2 is expressed in both Shh-producing and -nonproducing cells.
Mechanisms of Development 12/1998; 78(1-2):81-4. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The correct patterning of vertebrate skeletal elements is controlled by inductive interactions. Two vertebrate hedgehog proteins, Sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog, have been implicated in skeletal development. During somite differentiation and limb development, Sonic hedgehog functions as an inductive signal from the notochord, floor plate and zone of polarizing activity. Later in skeletogenesis, Indian hedgehog functions as a regulator of chondrogenesis during endochondral ossification. The vertebrate Gli zinc finger proteins are putative transcription factors that respond to Hedgehog signaling. In Drosophila, the Gli homolog cubitus interruptus is required for the activation of hedgehog targets and also functions as a repressor of hedgehog expression. We show here that Gli2 mutant mice exhibit severe skeletal abnormalities including cleft palate, tooth defects, absence of vertebral body and intervertebral discs, and shortened limbs and sternum. Interestingly, Gli2 and Gli3 (C.-c. Hui and A. L. Joyner (1993). Nature Genet. 3, 241-246) mutant mice exhibit different subsets of skeletal defects indicating that they implement specific functions in the development of the neural crest, somite and lateral plate mesoderm derivatives. Although Gli2 and Gli3 are not functionally equivalent, double mutant analysis indicates that, in addition to their specific roles, they also serve redundant functions during skeletal development. The role of Gli2 and Gli3 in Hedgehog signaling during skeletal development is discussed.
Development 02/1997; 124(1):113-23. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Split hand/split foot malformation (SHFM) is a heterogeneous limb developmental disorder, characterized by missing digits and fusion of remaining digits. An autosomal dominant form of this disorder (SHFM1) has been mapped to 7q21.3-q22.1 on the basis of SHFM-associated chromosomal rearrangements. Utilizing a YAC contig across this region, we have defined a critical interval of 1.5 Mb by the analysis of six interstitial deletion patients and mapped the translocation breakpoints of seven ectrodactyly patients within the interval. To delineate the basic molecular defect underlying SHFM, we have searched for candidate genes in a 500 kb region containing five of the translocation breakpoints. Three genes were identified, two genes of the Distal-less (dii) homeobox gene family, DLX5 and DLX6 and a novel gene, which we named DSS1. DSS1 is predicted to encode a highly acidic polypeptide with no significant similarity to any known proteins but 100% amino acid sequence identify with its murine homolog (Dss1). Using RNA in situ hybridization analysis, we detected a tissue-specific expression profile for Dss1 in limb bud, craniofacial primordia and skin. A deficiency in expression of Dss1, DLX5 and/or DLX6 during development may explain the SHFM phenotypes.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/1996; 5(5):571-9. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To gain insight into the molecular genetic basis of cerebellar patterning, the expression patterns of many vertebrate homologues of Drosophila segment polarity genes were examined during normal and abnormal cerebellar development, including members of the En, Wnt, Pax, Gli and Dvl gene families. Five of these genes were found to show transient, spatially restricted patterns of expression. Strikingly, expression of En-2, En-1, Wnt-7B and Pax-2 defined eleven similar sagittal domains at 17.5 dpc, reminiscent of the transient sagittal domains of expression of Purkinje cell markers which have been implicated in cerebellar afferent patterning. Postnatally, transient anterior/posterior differences in expression were observed for En-2, En-1, Gli and Wnt-7B dividing the cerebellum into anterior and posterior regions. The expression patterns of these genes were altered in cerebella of En-2 homozygous mutant mice, which show a cerebellar foliation patterning defect. Strikingly, four of the Wnt-7B expression domains that are adjacent to the En-2 domains are lost in En-2 mutant embryonic cerebella. These studies provide the first evidence of a potential network of regulatory genes that establish spatial cues in the developing cerebellum by dividing it into a grid of positional information required for patterning foliation and afferents. Taken together with previous gene expression studies, our data suggests that eleven sagittal domains and at least two anterior/posterior compartments are the basic elements of spatial information in the cerebellum.
Development 01/1996; 121(12):3935-45. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse LSP1 is a 330 amino acid intracellular F-actin binding protein expressed in lymphocytes and macrophages but not in non-hematopoietic tissues. A 328 amino acid LSP1-related protein, designated S37, is expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells, in fibroblasts, and in a myocyte cell line. The two proteins differ only at their N termini, the first 23 amino acid residues of LSP1 being replaced by 21 different residues in S37. The presence of different amino termini suggests that the LSP1 and S37 proteins are encoded by transcripts arising through alternative exon splicing. Here we report the genomic organization of the Lsp1 gene and show that the distinct N termini of LSP1 and S37 are encoded by two alternatively used exons, each containing a translational start codon. We also demonstrate that alternative 3' acceptor sites are used in the splicing of exon 5. This results in LSP1 and S37 transcripts that either do or do not contain 18 bp encoding the 6 amino acids HLIRHQ of the acidic domain. Therefore, the Lsp1 gene encodes four protein isoforms: full-length LSP1 and S37 proteins, designated LSP1-I and S37-I and the same proteins without the HLIRHQ sequence, designated LSP1-II and S37-II. By in situ hybridization analysis we show that the S37 isoforms are expressed in mesenchymal tissue, but not in adjacent epithelial tissue, of several developing organs during mouse embryogenesis. This, together with our finding that S37 is an F-actin binding protein, suggests that S37 is a cytoskeletal protein of mesenchymal cells, which may play a role in mesenchyme-induced epithelial differentiation during organogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three mouse genes, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, which share a similar zinc finger domain with the products of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus and the Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining gene tra-1 were cloned and characterized. The expression patterns during postimplantation development of the three genes were analyzed by Northern blot, whole-mount, and section in situ hybridizations. Expression was first detected during gastrulation in both the ectoderm and mesoderm. Later in development, their expression became more restricted in various ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues and was not detectable after completion of organogenesis. Interestingly, in the developing neural tube, Gli showed a narrow ventral domain of expression, whereas Gli-2 and Gli-3 showed a broad and dorsally restricted domain. Expression of these three Gli genes in various ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests that they play multiple roles during postimplantation development. Consistent with this hypothesis, a naturally occurring Gli-3 mutation, the mouse extra-toes mutant; shows defects in both mesoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting limb and craniofacial development. Recently, the human GLI3 gene has been proposed to be a candidate gene for GCPS. Here we describe the molecular characterization of extra-toes (Xt), which is a mouse model of GCPS. The Xt heterozygotes show craniofacial defects and a polydactyly phenotype similar to GCPS. We show that a deficiency of Gli3 expression in the XtJ mutant is due to a deletion within the 3' end of the gene. Furthermore, structures affected in the mouse mutant and human syndrome were found to correlate with expression domains of Gli3 in mouse. These results strongly suggest that the deficiency of GLI3 function leads to GCPS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mouse phosphotyrosine phosphatase containing two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, Syp, was identified. Syp bound to autophosphorylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors through its SH2 domains and was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine in PDGF- and EGF-stimulated cells. Furthermore, Syp was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine in cells transformed by v-src. This mammalian phosphatase is most closely related, especially in its SH2 domains, to the corkscrew (csw) gene product of Drosophila, which is required for signal transduction downstream of the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase. The Syp gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic mouse development and in adult tissues. Thus, Syp may function in mammalian embryonic development and as a common target of both receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases.