C C Hui

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, United States

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Publications (31)331.5 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suppressor of fused (Su(fu)) is a negative regulator of the Hedgehog signaling pathway that controls the nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of Gli/Ci transcription factors through direct protein-protein interactions. We show here that Su(fu) is present in a complex with the oncogenic transcriptional activator beta-catenin and functions as a negative regulator of T-cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcription. Overexpression of Su(fu) in SW480 (APC(mut)) colon cancer cells in which beta-catenin protein is stabilized leads to a reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels and in Tcf-dependent transcription. This effect of Su(fu) overexpression can be blocked by treatment of these cells with leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of CRM1-mediated nuclear export. Overexpression of Su(fu) suppresses growth of SW480 (APC(mut)) tumor cells in nude mice. These observations indicate that Su(fu) negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling and that CRM-1-mediated nuclear export plays a role in this regulation. Our results also suggest that Su(fu) acts as a tumor suppressor.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2001; 276(43):40113-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anorectal malformations are a common clinical problem affecting the development of the distal hindgut in infants. The spectrum of anorectal malformations ranges from the mildly stenotic anus to imperforate anus with a fistula between the urinary and intestinal tracts to the most severe form, persistent cloaca. The etiology, embryology, and pathogenesis of anorectal malformations are poorly understood and controversial. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an endoderm-derived signaling molecule that induces mesodermal gene expression in the chick hindgut. However, the role of Shh signaling in mammalian hindgut development is unknown. Here, we show that mutant mice with various defects in the Shh signaling pathway exhibit a spectrum of distal hindgut defects mimicking human anorectal malformations. Shh null-mutant mice display persistent cloaca. Mutant mice lacking Gli2 or Gli3, two zinc finger transcription factors involved in Shh signaling, respectively, exhibit imperforate anus with recto-urethral fistula and anal stenosis. Furthermore, persistent cloaca is also observed in Gli2(-/-);Gli3(+/-), Gli2(+/-);Gli3(-/-), and Gli2(-/-);Gli3(-/-) mice demonstrating a gene dose-dependent effect. Therefore, Shh signaling is essential for normal development of the distal hindgut in mice and mutations affecting Shh signaling produce a spectrum of anorectal malformations that may reveal new insights into their human disease equivalents.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2001; 159(2):765-74. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • J Kim, P Kim, C C Hui
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    ABSTRACT: VACTERL represents a non-random association of congenital anomalies in humans of poorly known etiology and pathogenesis. From our mutant analysis of Gli genes, which encode transcription factors mediating Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction, we observed that defective Shh signaling leads to a spectrum of developmental anomalies in mice strikingly similar to those of VACTERL. In this review, we will discuss the function of the three Gli transcription factors in Shh signaling and mammalian development. We propose that VACTERL could be caused by defective Shh signaling during human embryogenesis and suggest that the Gli mutant mice can serve as useful models for studying the pathogenesis of VACTERL.
    Clinical Genetics 06/2001; 59(5):306-15. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The secreted factor Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is both required for and sufficient to induce multiple developmental processes, including ventralization of the CNS, branching morphogenesis of the lungs and anteroposterior patterning of the limbs. Based on analogy to the Drosophila Hh pathway, the multiple GLI transcription factors in vertebrates are likely to both transduce SHH signaling and repress Shh transcription. In order to discriminate between overlapping versus unique requirements for the three Gli genes in mice, we have produced a Gli1 mutant and analyzed the phenotypes of Gli1/Gli2 and Gli1/3 double mutants. Gli3(xt) mutants have polydactyly and dorsal CNS defects associated with ectopic Shh expression, indicating GLI3 plays a role in repressing Shh. In contrast, Gli2 mutants have five digits, but lack a floorplate, indicating that it is required to transduce SHH signaling in some tissues. Remarkably, mice homozygous for a Gli1(zfd )mutation that deletes the exons encoding the DNA-binding domain are viable and appear normal. Transgenic mice expressing a GLI1 protein lacking the zinc fingers can not induce SHH targets in the dorsal brain, indicating that the Gli1(zfd )allele contains a hypomorphic or null mutation. Interestingly, Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+), but not Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli3(zfd/+) double mutants have a severe phenotype; most Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+) mice die soon after birth and all have multiple defects including a variable loss of ventral spinal cord cells and smaller lungs that are similar to, but less extreme than, Gli2(zfd/zfd) mutants. Gli1/Gli2 double homozygous mutants have more extreme CNS and lung defects than Gli1(zfd/zfd);Gli2(zfd/+) mutants, however, in contrast to Shh mutants, ventrolateral neurons develop in the CNS and the limbs have 5 digits with an extra postaxial nubbin. These studies demonstrate that the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of GLI1 protein is not required for SHH signaling in mouse. Furthermore, Gli1 and Gli2, but not Gli1 and Gli3, have extensive overlapping functions that are likely downstream of SHH signaling.
    Development 05/2000; 127(8):1593-605. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-Linked glycosylation is a post-translational modification occurring in many eukaryotic secreted and surface-bound proteins and has impact on diverse physiological and pathological processes. Similarly important is the generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkers, which anchor membrane proteins to the cell. Both protein modifications depend on the central nucleotide sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). The enzymatic reactions leading to generation of nucleotide sugars are established, yet most of the respective genes still await cloning. We describe the characterization of such a gene, EMeg32, which we identified based on its differential expression in murine hematopoietic precursor cells. We further demonstrate regulated expression during embryogenesis. EMeg32 codes for a 184-amino acid protein exhibiting glucosamine-6-phosphate acetyltransferase activity. It thereby holds a key position in the pathway toward de novo UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. Surprisingly, the protein associates with the cytoplasmic side of various intracellular membranes, accumulates prior to mitosis, and copurifies with the cdc48 homolog p97/valosin-containing protein.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2000; 275(17):12821-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Nature Genetics 04/2000; 24(3):216-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the Drosophila Iroquois homeobox gene family are implicated in the development of peripheral nervous system and the regionalization of wing and eye imaginal discs. Recent studies suggest that Xenopus Iroquois homeobox (Irx) genes are also involved in neurogenesis. Three mouse Irx genes, Irx1, Irx2 and Irx3, have been previously identified and are expressed with distinct spatio-temporal patterns during neurogenesis. We report here the cloning and expression analysis of two novel mouse Irx genes, Irx5 and Irx6. Although Irx5 and Irx6 proteins are structurally more related to one another, we find that Irx5 displays a developmental expression pattern strikingly similar to that of Irx3, whereas Irx6 expression resembles that of Irx1. Consistent with the notion that Mash1 is a putative target gene of the Irx proteins, all four Irx genes display an overlapping expression pattern with Mash1 in the developing CNS. In contrast, the Irx genes and Mash1 are expressed in complementary domains in the developing eye and olfactory epithelium.
    Mechanisms of Development 04/2000; 91(1-2):317-21. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • S G Kimmel, R Mo, C C Hui, P C Kim
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic, embryological, and pathogenetic aspects of hindgut development remain poorly understood. Recently, the morphogenetic pathway involving the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene has been shown essential to the normal development of many midaxial organs, including the foregut. This study reports genetically based murine models of congenital anorectal malformations (CAM) involving the Shh-responsive transcription factors, Gli2 and Gli3. Its purpose is to show the necessity of these 2 factors to normal hindgut development. Gli2-/- mutants were generated by a targeted deletion. Gli3-/- mutants are spontaneous mutants involving the Gli3 gene. Gli2-/- Gli3+/- mutants were generated by intercrossing double heterozygotes. Whole-mount midsagittal sections of the embryos were analyzed on embryonic days (E) 11.5 and E13.5. Gli3-/- mutants had anal stenosis and ectopic anus, and Gli2-/- mutants showed imperforate anus and rectourethral fistula. Gli2-/- Gli3+/- mutants had a cloacal abnormality. The phenotypic abnormalities observed in these mutant mice are identical to the spectrum of human CAM. The severity of the phenotype appears to reflect the gene dose. Gli2 and Gli3 play an important role in the normal development of murine hindgut. The results of this study provide, for the first time, a molecular basis for CAM.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2000; 35(2):227-30; discussion 230-1. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has critical functions during embryogenesis of both invertebrate and vertebrate species [1]; defects in this pathway in humans can cause developmental disorders as well as neoplasia [2]. Although the Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 zinc finger proteins are known to be effectors of Hh signaling in vertebrates, the mechanisms regulating activity of these transcription factors remain poorly understood [3] [4]. In Drosophila, activity of the Gli homolog Cubitus interruptus (Ci) is likely to be modulated by its interaction with a cytoplasmic complex containing several other proteins [5] [6], including Costal2, Fused (Fu), and Suppressor of fused (Su(fu)), the last of which has been shown to interact directly with Ci [7]. We have cloned mouse Suppressor of fused (mSu(fu)) and detected its 4.5 kb transcript throughout embryogenesis and in several adult tissues. In cultured cells, mSu(fu) overexpression inhibited transcriptional activation mediated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Gli1 and Gli2. Co-immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged proteins indicated that mSu(fu) interacts with Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3, and that the inhibitory effects of mSu(fu) on Gli1's transcriptional activity were mediated through interactions with both amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of Gli1. Gli1 was localized primarily to the nucleus of both HeLa cells and the Shh-responsive cell line MNS-70; co-expression with mSu(fu) resulted in a striking increase in cytoplasmic Gli1 immunostaining. Our findings indicate that mSu(fu) can function as a negative regulator of Shh signaling and suggest that this effect is mediated by interaction with Gli transcription factors.
    Current Biology 11/1999; 9(19):1119-22. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gli family zinc finger proteins are mediators of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in vertebrates. The question remains unanswered, however, as to how these Gli proteins participate in the Shh signaling pathway. In this study, regulatory activities associated with the Gli2 protein were investigated in relation to the Shh signaling. Although Gli2 acts as a weak transcriptional activator, it is in fact a composite of positive and negative regulatory domains. In cultured cells, truncation of the activation domain in the C-terminal half results in a protein with repressor activity, while removal of the repression domain at the N terminus converts Gli2 into a strong activator. In transgenic mouse embryos, N-terminally truncated Gli2, unlike the full length protein, activates a Shh target gene, HNF3beta, in the dorsal neural tube, thus mimicking the effect of Shh signal. This suggests that unmasking of the strong activation potential of Gli2 through modulation of the N-terminal repression domain is one of the key mechanisms of the Shh signaling. A similar regulatory mechanism involving the N-terminal region was also found for Gli3, but not for Gli1. When the Shh signal derived from the notochord is received by the neural plate, the widely expressed Gli2 and Gli3 proteins are presumably converted to their active forms in the ventral cells, leading to activation of transcription of their target genes, including Gli1.
    Development 10/1999; 126(17):3915-24. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CBP (CREBBP/CREB-binding protein) and p300 are related signal-dependent transcriptional cofactors and histone acetyltransferases. They are both implicated in tumorigenesis and mutations in the human CBP gene have been found in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS), which is characterized by multiple developmental defects and mental retardation. Studies with CBP and p300 mouse mutants indicate that both proteins are required for normal development, and that there is an essential gene dosage-sensitive role for these transcriptional cofactors in embryogenesis, cell differentiation and proliferation. Although it is generally believed that the expression of CBP and p300 is ubiquitous, we report here that they are developmentally regulated during mouse embryogenesis. In the developing CNS, CBP and p300 proteins were found throughout the newly formed neural plate, but their expression was later restricted to the dorsal parts of the developing neural tube. Later in neural development, CBP and p300 proteins could also be found in subsets of ventral neurons, including motor neurons and oligodendrocytes. During organogenesis, CBP and p300 proteins were expressed in specific cell types of the developing heart, vasculature, skin, lung and liver. Many of these tissues and organs are known to be affected in mutant mice lacking CBP and/or p300, and in RTS patients. Interestingly, while CBP and p300 proteins show extensive overlapping expression during mouse embryogenesis, we observed that their subcellular localization is developmentally regulated in several cell types. Taken together, our results suggest that there are common, as well as distinct, biochemical functions of CBP and p300 during mouse development.
    The International Journal of Developmental Biology 09/1999; 43(6):487-94. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway has been proposed to play an important role in mammalian tooth development. We describe the spatial and temporal expression of genes in this pathway during early tooth development and interpret these patterns in terms of the likely roles of Shh signalling. We show that the two putative receptors of the Shh ligand, Ptc and Ptch-2, localise in different cells, suggesting Shh may function in different ways as an epithelial and mesenchymal signal. Shh signalling has previously been shown, in other organs, to stimulate cell proliferation. In this paper we analyse the Fgf signalling pathway in Gli-2 mutants and propose a mechanism as to how Gli-2 may regulate cell proliferation in tooth development.
    Cellular and molecular biology 08/1999; 45(5):567-78. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stress signaling kinase SEK1/MKK4 is a direct activator of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs; also called Jun-N-terminal kinases, JNKs) in response to a variety of cellular stresses, such as changes in osmolarity, metabolic poisons, DNA damage, heat shock or inflammatory cytokines. We have disrupted the sek1 gene in mice using homologous recombination. Sek1(-/- )embryos display severe anemia and die between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E12.5. Haematopoiesis from yolk sac precursors and vasculogenesis are normal in sek1(-/- )embryos. However, hepatogenesis and liver formation were severely impaired in the mutant embryos and E11.5 and E12.5 sek1(-/- )embryos had greatly reduced numbers of parenchymal hepatocytes. Whereas formation of the primordial liver from the visceral endoderm appeared normal, sek1(-/-) liver cells underwent massive apoptosis. These results provide the first genetic link between stress-responsive kinases and organogenesis in mammals and indicate that SEK1 provides a crucial and specific survival signal for hepatocytes.
    Development 03/1999; 126(3):505-16. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, patched encodes a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling. Biochemical experiments have demonstrated that vertebrate patched homologues might function as a Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor. In mice, two patched homologues, Ptch and Ptch2, have been identified. Sequence comparison have suggested that they might possess distinct properties in Shh signaling. In the developing tooth, hair and whisker, Shh and Ptch2 are co-expressed in the epithelium while Ptch is strongly expressed in the mesenchymal cells. We report here the chromosomal localization of Ptch2 and further analysis of Ptch2 expression. Throughout mouse development, the level of Ptch2 expression is significantly lower than that of Ptch. In early mouse embryos, Ptch and Ptch2 were found to be co-expressed in regions adjacent to Shh-expressing cells in the developing CNS. Similar to other epidermal structures, Shh and Ptch2 also show overlapping expression in the developing nasal gland and eyelids. Thus, during mouse development, Ptch2 is expressed in both Shh-producing and -nonproducing cells.
    Mechanisms of Development 12/1998; 78(1-2):81-4. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foregut malformations (oesophageal atresia, tracheo-oesophageal fistula, lung anomalies and congenital stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea) are relatively common anomalies occurring in 1 in 2,000-5,000 live births, although their aetiology is poorly understood. The secreted glycoprotein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been suggested to act as an endodermal signal that controls hindgut patterning and lung growth. In mice, three zinc-finger transcription factors, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3, have been implicated in the transduction of Shh signal. We report here that mutant mice lacking Gli2 function exhibit foregut defects, including stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea, as well as hypoplasia and lobulation defects of the lung. A reduction of 50% in the gene dosage of Gli3 in a Gli2-/- background resulted in oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula and a severe lung phenotype. Mutant mice lacking both Gli2 and Gli3 function did not form oesophagus, trachea and lung. These results indicate that Gli2 and Gli3 possess specific and overlapping functions in Shh signalling during foregut development, and suggest that mutations in GLI genes may be involved in human foregut malformations.
    Nature Genetics 10/1998; 20(1):54-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of genes involved in the Sonic Hedgehog signalling pathway, including Shh, Ptc, Smo, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3, were found to be expressed in temporal and spatial patterns during early murine tooth development, suggestive of a role in early tooth germ initiation and subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Of these Ptc, Smo, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 were expressed in epithelium and mesenchyme whereas Shh was only detected in epithelium. This suggests that Shh is involved in both lateral (epithelial-mesenchymal) and planar (epithelial-epithelial) signalling in early tooth development. Ectopic application of Shh protein to mandibular mesenchyme induced the expression of Ptc and Gli1. Addition of exogenous Shh protein directly into early tooth germs and adjacent to tooth germs, resulted in abnormal epithelial invagination, indicative of a role for Shh in epithelial cell proliferation. In order to assess the possible role of this pathway, tooth development in Gli2 and Gli3 mutant embryos was investigated. Gli2 mutants were found to have abnormal development of maxillary incisors, probably resulting from a mild holoprosencephaly, whereas Gli3 mutants had no major tooth abnormalities. Gli2/Gli3 double homozygous mutants did not develop any normal teeth and did not survive beyond embryonic day 14.5; however, Gli2(-/-); Gli3(+/-) did survive until birth and had small molars and mandibular incisors whereas maxillary incisor development was arrested as a rudimentary epithelial thickening. These results show an essential role for Shh signalling in tooth development that involves functional redundancy of downstream Gli genes.
    Development 09/1998; 125(15):2803-11. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Floor plate cells at the midline of the neural tube are specified by high-level activity of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted by notochord, whereas motor neurons are thought to be specified by a lower level activity of Shh secreted in turn by floor plate cells. In Drosophila, the Gli zinc finger protein Cubitus interruptus functions as a transcription factor activating Hedgehog-responsive genes. We report that the expression of known Shh-responsive genes such as Ptc and Gli1 is downregulated in mutant mice lacking Gli2 function. Gli2 mutants fail to develop a floor plate yet still develop motor neurons, which occupy the ventral midline of the neural tube. Our results imply that Gli2 is required to mediate high level but not low level Shh activity and show that the development of motor neurons can occur in the absence of floor plate induction.
    Development 08/1998; 125(14):2533-43. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    Nature Genetics 03/1998; 18(2):104-6. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) are dual-specificity protein kinases that phosphorylate and activate MAPK. We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel protein kinase that has significant homology to MKKs. The novel kinase MKK7 has a nucleotide sequence that encodes an open reading frame of 347 amino acids with 11 kinase subdomains. MKK7 is ubiquitously expressed in all adult and embryonic organs but displays high expression in epithelial tissues at later stages of fetal development. When transiently expressed in 293 cells, MKK7 specifically activated stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNKs) but not extracellular-regulated kinase or p38 kinase. A kinase-negative mutant of MKK7 inhibits interleukin-1beta, lipopolysaccharide, and MEKK1-induced SAPK/JNK activation. Thus, MKK7 is a new member of the MAPK kinase family that functions upstream of SAPK/JNK in the SAPK/JNK signaling pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1998; 272(51):32378-83. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Mechanisms of Development 01/1998; 78(1). · 2.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
331.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • SickKids
      • Program in Genetics and Genome Biology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994
    • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1993
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada