[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with ultrasonic-guided instillation of povidone-iodine to treat post-kidney transplantation lymphocele. Patients and methods. We studied the safety and efficacy of this procedure for treatment of lymphocele in 6 male kidney transplanted recipients in which we assisted a progressive increase of creatinine and urinary proteins levels and color-Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated an increase (25,4%) of index of resistence (IR) Using eco-colorDoppler, the related-graft lymphocele location and the distance to the anterior abdominal wall were determined; then, a radiopaque double-lumen catheter was used to instillate 5% povidone-iodine 10 ml. Results. Percutaneous drainage achieved a resolution rate of 100%. Studying the rate of peripheral and internal vascularization of the kidney before and after treatment, eco-colorDoppler showed a significant decrease of the IR (24,6%). Conclusions. The US-guided povidone-iodine instillation for treatment of lymphocele following renal transplantation may be considered as first choice therapy in such disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple technique for implanting a long-term jugular catheter in piglets under general anesthesia is described. We report our experience in 10 young female pigs with a body weight of 20-30 Kg. The surgical procedure involves implantation of a jugular central venous catheter (11Fr polyurethane) tunneled in the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck. This procedure may be performed in about 15 minutes. The maintenance of the catheter is described which allows several daily blood samples to be taken. This procedure reduces both the stress in piglets and the chance of catheter dislodgement due to the animals scratching or rubbing. Blood sampling can be easily performed with a low incidence of infection or thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of mortality is high in burn patients and correlates with age, burn area extent, and sepsis. Immunosuppression has been reported to occur after severe burn. Cytotoxic cells possess specialized granules containing perforin and a group of serine proteases (granzymes). Granzyme A is a serine protease constitutively expressed by gammadelta and NK cells, in agreement with their functional cytolytic potential. In vitro studies have shown that GrA may be released extracellularly during cytotoxic cell degranulation, indicating the activation of cytotoxic cells. The aim of our study was to determine plasma GrA activity in burned patients and to verify if decreased GrA levels were associated with poor prognosis. Specific GrA activity was tested in the plasma of burned and healthy subjects by esterase assay. Plasma GrA was significantly decreased in septic rather than in nonseptic burn patients and in healthy subjects (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). At day 3 plasma GrA was significantly lower in nonsurvivor than in survivor septic patients (p < 0.05). The value of 91 mOD showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% in differentiating survivor from nonsurvivor septic patients. Because this is a retrospective study, Granzyme A is not a confirmed predictor of septic outcome after burn, but its determination could give useful information about the development and severity of sepsis.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 03/2010; 36(6):811-8. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2009.11.009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.DCs are derived from bone marrow progenitors and circulate in the blood as immature precursors prior to migration into peripheral tissues. Within different tissues, DCs differentiate and become active in the taking up and processing of antigens, and their subsequent presentation on the cell surface is linked to major histocompatibility molecules. Upon appropriate stimulation, DCs undergo further maturation and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues, where they present antigen to T cells and induce an immune response. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of burn injury on skin DCs in terms of percentage, HLA-DR, and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression. The skin DCs were isolated from burned skin and non-burned skin in the same patient at 7 days post-injury, and skin DCs were isolated from unburned healthy individuals as control. DCs from burned skin notably express low levels of HLA-DR and TLR-4 soon after cell isolation. In the post-burn period the ability of skin DCs to respond to bacterial stimuli is impaired. These changes in DC behaviour might contribute to the impaired host defences against bacteria during burn sepsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the incidence of and predisposing factors for an incisional hernia after kidney transplantation. Numerous techniques have been used to repair postoperative fascial dehiscences or simple incisional hernias, but no clear treatment exists for giant hernias. Our aim was to obtain (1) a safe procedure to repair a large abdominal defect and reinforce the surrounding, fragile zones and (2) a simple, rapid technique to reduce the operative time. Herein we have described the surgical repair of a giant incisional hernia using intraperitoneal Gore ePTFE dual-mesh plus (Gore-Tex; W. L. Gore, Flagstaff, Ariz, USA) in a 55-year-old man status-post renal transplantation. Total necrosis of distal graft ureter had caused a giant urinoma. The patient was reexplored on day 2 posttransplantation with a primary fascial approximation. Thirty days after transplantation we discovered a large incisional hernia and performed a repair. No drain was used. The patient continued immunosuppressive therapy (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisolone) and was discharged on postoperative day 4 with no complications. An ultrasonographic follow-up at 1 year revealed the prosthesis to be correctly positioned. Incisional hernia is not rare after renal transplantation but the real incidence is unknown. Immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged pretransplantation dialysis, obesity, and diabetes are probably the major causes of incisional hernias in these patients. Surgical complications of renal transplantation surgery, such as wound hematoma, urinoma, and lymphocele, are the most important predisposing factors for an incisional hernia. The use of intraperitoneal ePTFE dual-mesh is feasible, safe, and easy to repair a large incisional hernia in a kidney transplant patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of persistent hyperparathyroidism (HP) following kidney transplantation may prevent worsening of osteodystrophy and potential damage to the graft. We evaluated the utility of collagen pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) urinary cross-links beyond the common HP markers to evaluate 70 selected stable recipients between 1997 and 2006 who were divided into 2 group depending on the immunosuppressive protocol. All patients showed elevated levels of urinary cross-links even though calcemia and phosphoremia values were normal. Their mean creatinine level was slightly increased. Data were assessed as mean values +/- SD. All variables underwent a correlation matrix analysis and a stepwise regression, with posttransplant intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) as the dependent variable and other variables as regressors. A statistically significant correlation was observed between PYD and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; P = .0026, r = .41); PYD and DPD (P = .015, r = .34); pre- and posttransplant iPTH (P = .024, r = .31); and creatinine and ALP (P = .024, r = .31). Taking the groups separately, there were significant correlations between PYD and ALP (P = .0076, r = .42); PYD and DPD (P = .017, r = .38); ALP and posttransplant iPTH (P = .038, r = .33); osteocalcin (OC) and posttransplant iPTH (P = .048, r = .32); and pre- and posttransplant iPTH (P = .019, r = .37) among subjects in the first group, whereas subjects in the second group showed a correlation between posttransplant iPTH and age at transplantation (P = .032, r = .61). In conclusion, we showed that urinary cross-links may be helpful to reveal bone resorption in kidney recipients when usual bone metabolism parameters do not demonstrate hyperparathyroidism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to demonstrate a greater number of viable cells using a micro-surgical in-situ perfusion to collect rat pancreata compared with the pancreas after exsanguination. We used 3 groups of 20 rats. Perfusion was performed by selective cannulation of the left common iliac artery with administration of UW solution at 4 degrees C. Collected pancreata were digested and cells separated by Ficoll gradient were placed in culture to permit adhesion to dishes. Cells were characterized and tested for viability. We observed a gain of about 14% in the number of viable cells compared with those obtained after exsanguination (P < .001 by chi-square).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal injury is known to induce alterations in the immune system, but the precise mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It has been shown that thermal injury in more than 20% of the total body surface area (TBSA) leads to disturbances in the cortisol metabolism and the equilibrium of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated the temporal relationship between serum cortisol levels, C-reactive protein, and immunoglobulin levels in the post-burn period. Twenty-one adult burn patients (mean age, 52 ± 17 yrs) were included in the study (TBSA, 10-80%); nine developed sepsis and five died. The nonseptic group consisted of twelve patients. Thirty healthy blood donors served as controls. Our results suggest that increased cortisol and decreased immunoglobulin levels could be related to severe sepsis and clinical outcome.
The Annals of Fires and Burn Disaster 03/2009; 22(1):3-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burns are associated with immune suppression and subsequent development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that serve as a critical link between the innate and acquired immune systems, and are essential in coordinating the host response to pathogens. Using multicolour flow cytometry, the percentages of LIN(-) DR(+) CD11c(+) myeloid (mDC) and LIN(-) DR(+) CD123(+) plasmacytoid (pDC) subsets were determined in peripheral blood from 32 people (15 septic and 5 non-septic burn victims and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, up to 20 days from injury). Analysis revealed significant reductions in circulating mDCs and pDCs in survivor as well as non-survivor septic cases compared with non-septic cases and controls (p<0.001). These findings suggest that deficiencies in mDCs and pDC subsets are related to sepsis following severe burn, and may contribute to immunosuppression among burn victims.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 03/2009; 35(4):513-8. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2008.05.027 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new kind of disposable surgical retractor in arteriovenous fistula (AVF) procedures in order to achieve an easier, faster and safer surgical intervention.
Between January and June 2008, 22 AVF procedures were performed using the 3PAWS ReeTrakt (Insightra Inc. - Irvine, Ca., USA) a self-retaining, low profile retractor. An equivalent patient sample, in which an AVF was performed using conventional retraction devices, was considered for comparison of the intra- and post-operative results.
In all of the 22 AVF procedures performed, the ReeTrakt system has simplified the performance of the surgical team. The retractors were very easy to place. The view of the operating field was always optimal. The introduction of the surgical instruments was at all times extremely easy and unrestricted. We also noted a reduction in the operating time (from an average of 67 min in controls to 43 min). There were no intra-operative complications. No post-operative complications related to the use of this kind of device occurred. Conversely, the amount of intra- and post-operative complications in the control group managed with conventional retraction devices was marginally higher than in the ReeTrakt patient group.
The ReeTrakt system is a very simple and useful low profile retractor for AVF procedures. Its ultra low profile allows a much improved view of the operating field, an unhindered insertion of the surgical instruments and a shortening of intervention time, avoiding the problems which arise as a result of standard retractors typically used during this kind of procedure. Due to absolute perpendicular retraction it offers a highly atraumatic performance, avoiding swelling and marks on the insertion sites. Therefore, in our opinion, it has the potential to reduce the risk of wound oedema, hematomas or infection associated with the AVF procedure. This is important as many patients are elderly with fragile tissues.
The journal of vascular access 01/2009; 10(1):33-6. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burn injury induces a suppression of the Th1 response, which is associated with an increased susceptibility to conditions of infection, morbidity, and mortality. It is well established that cytokines modulate the pathogenesis of burn injury. In this study, plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined in burn patients and correlated with the severity of sepsis. Sixty adult burn patients (total body surface area burned, 8-80%) were included in the study, of whom 34 developed sepsis and 14 died. The nonseptic group consisted of 26 patients. Thirty-one healthy blood donors served as controls. Patients were not treated with antibiotics until sepsis occurred. Plasma samples were collected immediately post-burn and after several days, and cytokine concentrations were determined by ELISA. Within three days, all the patients presented high levels of circulating IL-6, which were significantly higher in septic patients than in nonseptic patients (349 ± 278 vs 63 ± 56 pg/ml, p < 0.001).IL-10 levels were higher in septic patients than in nonseptic patients at all times in our study. The value of 60 pg/ml shows a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 93% in the differentiation of survivor from nonsurvivor septic patients. In this study the high value of circulating IL-10 on day 3 suggests that cytokine may discriminate between nonsurvivor septic and survivor septic patients.
The Annals of Fires and Burn Disaster 12/2008; 21(4):182-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burn injury is associated with immune suppression and the subsequent development of sepsis. Severe burn injury is associated with depressed immune response, including a functional impairment of Th1 lymphocytes and natural killer cells and a decrease in interferon-a production. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and play a key role in T cell activation; they are essential in coordinating the host response to pathogens. Using three-colour flow cytometry, we determined the percentage of lineage-negative LIN-DR+ DCs in burn patients and healthy subjects. The percentages of DCs were lower in the circulation of septic than in nonseptic patients and healthy subjects at all times examined (14 days) after burn injury. In contrast, the DC percentage in nonseptic patients was low at day 1, increased from day 3 to day 10, and reverted to normal levels at day 14. The data from the present study suggest that the DC percentage decreased early after burn injury. In addition, in the presence of severe sepsis, the DC percentage remained lower until day 14. This DC reduction may contribute to the immunosuppression observed after burn injury.
The Annals of Fires and Burn Disaster 12/2007; 20(4):199-202.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two kind of total intradermal suture techniques are described in the present report. These procedures allow an effective reduction of post-operative pain of surgical wound, prevent infections, cut down tissutal trauma, achieve better aesthetic results, making easier postoperative patient's management. From January 2001 to December 2007, 1,427 patients underwent surgical treatment and the wounds have been sewn with self-locking knots or intradermal skin closure with introflecting knots. This kind of procedures allow a sharp reduction of postoperative pain as well as the incidence of wound infections. Also the number of wound medication required after surgery is significantly reduced.