C C Patterson

Queen's University Belfast, Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom

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Publications (244)1342.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Severe refractory asthma poses a substantial burden in terms of healthcare costs but relatively little is known about the factors which drive these costs. This study uses data from the British Thoracic Society Difficult Asthma Registry (n=596) to estimate direct healthcare treatment costs from an National Health Service perspective and examines factors that explain variations in costs. Annual mean treatment costs among severe refractory asthma patients were £2912 (SD £2212) to £4217 (SD £2449). Significant predictors of costs were FEV1% predicted, location of care, maintenance oral corticosteroid treatment and body mass index. Treating individuals with severe refractory asthma presents a substantial cost to the health service.
    Thorax 06/2014; · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma management guidelines advocate a stepwise approach to asthma therapy, including the addition of a long-acting bronchodilator to inhaled steroid therapy at step 3. This is almost exclusively prescribed as inhaled combination therapy. To examine whether asthma prescribing practice for inhaled combination therapy (inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA)) in primary care in Northern Ireland is in line with national asthma management guidelines. Using data from the Northern Ireland Enhanced Prescribing Database, we examined initiation of ICS/LABA in subjects aged 5-35 years in 2010. A total of 2,640 subjects (67%) had no inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy (ICS) in the study year or six months of the preceding year (lead-in period) and, extending this to a 12-month lead-in period, 52% had no prior ICS. 41% of first prescriptions for ICS/LABA were dispensed in January to March. Prior to ICS/LABA prescription, in the previous six months only 17% had a short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) dispensed, 5% received oral steroids, and 17% received an antibiotic. ICS/LABA therapy was initiated in the majority of young subjects with asthma without prior inhaled steroid therapy. Most prescriptions were initiated in the January to March period. However, the prescribing of ICS/LABA did not appear to be driven by asthma symptoms (17% received SABA in the previous 6 months) or severe asthma exacerbation (only 5% received oral steroids). Significant reductions in ICS/LABA, with associated cost savings, would occur if the asthma prescribing guidelines were followed in primary care.
    Primary care respiratory journal: journal of the General Practice Airways Group 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the methodology, results and limitations of the 2013 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Atlas (6th edition) estimates of the worldwide numbers of prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in children (<15 years). The majority of relevant information in the published literature is in the form of incidence rates derived from registers of newly diagnosed cases. Studies were graded on quality criteria and, if no information was available in the published literature, extrapolation was used to assign a country the rate from an adjacent country with similar characteristics. Prevalence rates were then derived from these incidence rates and applied to United Nations 2012 Revision population estimates for 2013 for each country to obtain estimates of the number of prevalent cases. Data availability was highest for the countries in Europe (76%) and lowest for the countries in sub-Saharan Africa (8%). The prevalence estimates indicate that there are almost 500,000 children aged under 15 years with type 1 diabetes worldwide, the largest numbers being in Europe (129,000) and North America (108,700). Countries with the highest estimated numbers of new cases annually were the United States (13,000), India (10,900) and Brazil (5000). Compared with the prevalence estimates made in previous editions of the IDF Diabetes Atlas, the numbers have increased in most of the IDF Regions, often reflecting the incidence rate increases that have been well-documented in many countries. Monogenic diabetes is increasingly being recognised among those with clinical features of type 1 or type 2 diabetes as genetic studies become available, but population-based data on incidence and prevalence show wide variation due to lack of standardisation in the studies. Similarly, studies on type 2 diabetes in childhood suggest increased incidence and prevalence in many countries, especially in Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities, but detailed population-based studies remain limited.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 12/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the dose-response effect of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in people who are overweight and at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 105 participants (mean age 56 years) followed a 4-week washout diet (one to two portions of F&Vs per day). Ninety-two participants completed the washout and were randomized to receive one to two, four, or seven portions of F&Vs per day for 12 weeks. IR was assessed at the start and end of this 12-week period by the two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Compliance was monitored using a combination of 4-day food diaries and plasma biomarkers of F&V intake.RESULTSA total of 89 participants completed the study. Participants attained self-reported F&V intakes of 1.8, 3.8, and 7.0 portions per day (P < 0.001) per group. There was a significant linear increase in serum lutein status across the groups, indicating good compliance (P < 0.001), and body weight was maintained (P = 0.77). No significant difference was found between groups in terms of a change in measures of whole-body, peripheral, or hepatic IR or adiponectin multimers.CONCLUSIONS Increased consumption of F&Vs, as advocated in public-health advice, has no effect on IR in overweight individuals who are at high risk of CVD when body weight is maintained. Recent evidence from systematic reviews indicates that particular classes or types of F&Vs may have particular antidiabetic properties; hence, it is possible that benefits may only be observed in response to a more specific fruit or vegetable intervention.
    Diabetes care 10/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • E Morgan, C C Patterson, C R Cardwell
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether young people with Type 1 diabetes have an increased rate of depression and antidepressant use and whether their risk varies by age group, time from diabetes diagnosis, calendar period of diagnosis or complications status. A cohort of incident cases of patients with Type 1 diabetes diagnosed before 35 years of age (n = 5548) was identified within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and individually age and sex matched with up to two control subjects without diabetes (n = 10 657). Patients with depression were identified through general practice-recorded depression codes and antidepressant prescriptions. Cox regression models gave hazard ratios for depression in people with Type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects. People with Type 1 diabetes were twice as likely to have a record of antidepressant use and general practice-diagnosed depression as their matched control subjects (hazard ratio 2.08, 95% CI 1.73-2.50, P < 0.001). These associations varied by time from diagnosis, with marked increases observed within the first 5 years of diagnosis (hazard ratio 2.14, 95% CI 1.51-3.03, P < 0.001), and by age at diabetes diagnosis, with excesses noted even in the 10- to 19-year age group (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.98, P = 0.02). This population-based study shows that people with Type 1 diabetes have higher rates of general practice-recorded depression and antidepressant use. The excess is present within 5 years of diabetes diagnosis, suggesting psychological input for patients is warranted in the early years of their condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 09/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and attainment of therapeutic targets for HbA1c and blood pressure in a large UK-based diabetes population. The UK National Diabetes Audit provided data from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2008. Inclusion criteria were a documented urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and serum creatinine. Patients were stratified according to chronic kidney disease stage and albuminuria status. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) , albuminuria or both. The proportions of patients achieving nationally defined glycaemic and systolic blood pressure targets were determined. The cohort comprised 1 423 669 patients, of whom 868 616 (61%) met inclusion criteria. Of the patients analysed, 92.2% had Type 2 diabetes. A higher proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes (42.3%) had renal dysfunction compared with those with Type 1 diabetes (32.4%). Achievement of systolic blood pressure and HbA1c targets was poor. Among people with Type 1 diabetes, 67.8% failed to achieve an HbA1c < 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Of all people with diabetes, 37.8% failed to achieve a systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg. Blood pressure control was poor in advanced chronic kidney disease. For example, mean (standard deviation) systolic blood pressure rose from 128.6 (15.4) mmHg among people with Type 1 diabetes and normal renal function to 141.0 (23.6) mmHg in those with chronic kidney disease stage 5 and macroalbuminuria. The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease and poor attainment of treatment targets highlights a large subset of the diabetes population at increased risk of cardiovascular mortality or progressive kidney disease.
    Diabetic Medicine 09/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The phenotype of the antioxidant and pro-angiogenic protein haptoglobin (Hp) predicts cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in individuals with diabetes. Our objective was to determine whether Hp phenotype influences pre-eclampsia risk, or the efficacy of vitamins C and E in preventing pre-eclampsia, in women with type-1 diabetes. DesignThis is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in which women with diabetes received daily vitamins C and E, or placebo, from 8 to 22 weeks of gestation until delivery. SettingTwenty-five antenatal metabolic clinics across the UK (in north-west England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland). PopulationPregnant women with type-1 diabetes. Methods Hp phenotype was determined in white women who completed the study and had plasma samples available (n = 685). Main outcome measurePre-eclampsia. ResultsCompared with Hp 2-1, Hp 1-1 (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.30–1.16) and Hp 2-2 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.60–1.45) were not associated with significantly decreased pre-eclampsia risk after adjusting for treatment group and HbA1c at randomisation. Our study was not powered to detect an interaction between Hp phenotype and treatment response; however, our preliminary analysis suggests that vitamins C and E did not prevent pre-eclampsia in women of any Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1, OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.22–2.71; Hp 2-1, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.46–1.43; Hp 2-2, 0.67, 95% CI 0.34–1.33), after adjusting for HbA1c at randomisation. Conclusions The Hp phenotype did not significantly affect pre-eclampsia risk in women with type-1 diabetes.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 09/2013; 120(10). · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) now survive to adulthood but little is known regarding persisting respiratory impairment. We report respiratory symptoms, lung function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult BPD survivors compared with preterm (non-BPD) and full term (FT) controls.Respiratory symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and HRQoL [EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D)] were measured in 72 adult BPD survivors [mean(SD) study age 24.1(4.0)y; mean(SD) gestational age (GA)=27.1(2.1)wk; mean(SD) birth weight (BW)=955(256)g] cared for in the Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Belfast (between 1978 and 1993) were compared with 57 non-BPD controls [mean(SD) study age 25.3(4.0)y; mean(SD) GA 31.0(2.5)wk; mean(SD) BW 1238(222)g] and 78 FT controls [mean(SD) study age 25.7(3.8)y; mean(SD) GA=39.7(1.4)wk; mean(SD) BW=3514(456)g] cared for at the same hospital. Spirometry was performed on 56 BPD, 40 non-BPD and 55 FT participants.BPD subjects were twice as likely to report wheeze and three times more likely to use asthma medication than controls. BPD adults had significantly lower FEV1 and FEF25-75 than both the preterm non-BPD and FT controls (all p<0.01). Mean EQ-5D was 6 points lower in BPD adults compared to FT controls (p<0.05).BPD survivors have significant respiratory and quality of life impairment persisting into adulthood.
    European Respiratory Journal 07/2013; · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research demonstrates various associations between depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, possibly as a result of the different methodologies used to measure depression and analyse relationships. This analysis investigated the association between depression, CVD incidence (CVDI) and mortality from CVD (MCVD), smoking related conditions (MSRC), and all causes (MALL), in a sample data set, where depression was measured using items from a validated questionnaire and using items derived from the factor analysis of a larger questionnaire, and analyses were conducted based on continuous data and grouped data. Data from the PRIME Study (N=9798 men) on depression and 10-year CVD incidence and mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Using continuous data, both measures of depression resulted in the emergence of positive associations between depression and mortality (MCVD, MSRC, MALL). Using grouped data, however, associations between a validated measure of depression and MCVD, and between a measure of depression derived from factor analysis and all measures of mortality were lost. Low levels of depression, low numbers of individuals with high depression and low numbers of outcome events may limit these analyses, but levels are usual for the population studied. These data demonstrate a possible association between depression and mortality but detecting this association is dependent on the measurement used and method of analysis. Different findings based on methodology present clear problems for the elucidation and determination of relationships. The differences here argue for the use of validated scales where possible and suggest against over-reduction via factor analysis and grouping.
    Journal of affective disorders 07/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Taking antiobesity medication can be a cost effective way to lose weight. Uptake is determined in part by a General Practitioner's decision to prescribe weight loss medication and, in part, by patient preference. It is probable that the latter may indicate a patient's readiness to lose weight. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data (from February 2003 to March 2011) from a population based prescribing database (∼1.75 million people) using an adjusted Poisson regression. RESULTS: The number of antiobesity medications increased from 23.4 per 1000 population in 2004 to 30.7 per 1000 population in 2010 and was three times higher in female than in male subjects. Against this background, a marked seasonal variation in the number of antiobesity medications dispensed was evident (p<0.001), peaking in June/July with a trough in December/January (±8.0% peak to trough). The seasonal component was stronger in female subjects, ±11.2% peak to trough, compared with ±3.5% for male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients, particularly women, increase their uptake of weight loss medication in the months leading up to the summer holiday period. The period prior to the summer may represent a time that health professionals could promote increased participation of obese patients in weight loss programmes.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 01/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Associations between the consumption of particular foods and health outcomes may be indicated by observational studies. However, intervention trials that evaluate the health benefits of foods provide the strongest evidence to support dietary recommendations for health. Thus, it is important that these trials are carried out safely, and to high scientific standards. Accepted standards for the reporting of the health benefits of pharmaceutical and other medical interventions have been provided by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. However, there are no generally accepted standards for trials to evaluate the health benefits of foods. Trials with foods differ from medical trials in issues related to safety, ethics, research governance and practical implementation. Furthermore, these important issues can deter the conduct of both medical and nutrition trials in infants, children and adolescents. This paper provides standards for the planning, design, conduct, statistical analysis and interpretation of human intervention trials to evaluate the health benefits of foods that are based on the CONSORT guidelines, and outlines the key issues that need to be addressed in trials in participants in the paediatric age range.
    World review of nutrition and dietetics 01/2013; 108:18-31.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, which is often low in older people, is associated with reduced chronic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether increased FV intake improves measures of immune function. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized controlled trial (The Ageing and Dietary Intervention Trial) in 83 healthy volunteers aged 65-85 y with low FV intakes (≤2 portions/d); 82 subjects completed the intervention. Participants were assigned to continue their normal diets or to consume ≥5 FV portions/d for 16 wk. At 12 wk, tetanus toxoid (0.5 mL intramuscular) and Pneumovax II vaccine (0.5 mL intramuscular; both vaccines from Sanofi Pasteur) were administered. FV intake was monitored by using diet histories, and biomarkers of nutritional status were assessed. The primary endpoint was the antibody response to vaccination. Specific antibodies binding to tetanus toxoid (total IgG) and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (total IgG and IgG2) were assessed at baseline and 16 wk. Participants were recruited between October 2006 and June 2008. RESULTS: The change in FV consumption differed significantly between groups [mean change in number of portions (95% CI): in the 2-portion/d group, 0.4 portions/d (0.2, 0.7 portions/d); in the 5-portion/d group, 4.6 portions/d (4.1, 5.0 portions/d); P < 0.001)] and also in micronutrient status. Antibody binding to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (total IgG) increased more in the 5-portion/d group than in the 2-portion/d group [geometric mean (95% CI) of the week 16:baseline ratio: 3.1 (2.1, 4.4) and 1.7 (1.3, 2.1), respectively; P = 0.005)]. There was no significant difference in the increases in antibody binding to tetanus toxoid. CONCLUSION: Increased FV intake improves the Pneumovax II vaccination antibody response in older people, which links an achievable dietary goal with improved immune function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00858728.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2012; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81-1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I(2) = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I(2) = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. CONCLUSIONS The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies.
    Diabetes care 07/2012; 35(11):2215-25. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between periodontitis and mortality from all causes in a prospective study in a homogenous group of 60- to 70-year-old West European men. A representative sample of 1400 dentate men, (mean age 63.8, SD 3.0 years), drawn from the population of Northern Ireland, had a comprehensive periodontal examination between 2001 and 2003. Men were divided into thirds on the basis of their mean periodontal attachment loss (PAL). The primary endpoint, death from any cause, was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and Cox's proportional hazards model. In total, 152 (10.9%) of the men died during a mean follow-up of 8.9 (SD 0.7) years; 37 (7.9%) men in the third with the lowest PAL (<1.8 mm) died compared with 73 (15.7%) in the third with the highest PAL (>2.6 mm). The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the men with the highest level of PAL compared with those with the lowest PAL was 2.11 (95% CI 1.42-3.14), p < 0.0001. After adjustment for confounding variables (age, smoking, hypertension, BMI, diabetes, cholesterol, education, marital status and previous history of a cardiovascular event) the HR was 1.57 (1.04-2.36), p = 0.03. The European men in this prospective cohort study with the most severe loss of periodontal attachment were at an increased risk of death compared with those with the lowest loss of periodontal attachment.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 06/2012; 39(10):940-6. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe 20-year incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in 23 EURODIAB centres and compare rates of increase in the first (1989-1998) and second (1999-2008) halves of the period. All registers operate in geographically defined regions and are based on a clinical diagnosis. Completeness of registration is assessed by capture-recapture methodology. Twenty-three centres in 19 countries registered 49,969 new cases of type 1 diabetes in individuals diagnosed before their 15th birthday during the period studied. Ascertainment exceeded 90% in most registers. During the 20-year period, all but one register showed statistically significant changes in incidence, with rates universally increasing. When estimated separately for the first and second halves of the period, the median rates of increase were similar: 3.4% per annum and 3.3% per annum, respectively. However, rates of increase differed significantly between the first half and the second half for nine of the 21 registers with adequate coverage of both periods; five registers showed significantly higher rates of increase in the first half, and four significantly higher rates in the second half. The incidence rate of childhood type 1 diabetes continues to rise across Europe by an average of approximately 3-4% per annum, but the increase is not necessarily uniform, showing periods of less rapid and more rapid increase in incidence in some registers. This pattern of change suggests that important risk exposures differ over time in different European countries. Further time trend analysis and comparison of the patterns in defined regions is warranted.
    Diabetologia 05/2012; 55(8):2142-7. · 6.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,342.97 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • • Centre for Public Health
      • • Institute of Clinical Sciences
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Bournemouth University
      Bournemouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Ulster
      • Northern Ireland Centre for Food & Health (NICHE)
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003–2005
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2003
    • Belfast Healthy Cities
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • Queens University of Charlotte
      Belfast, Maine, United States
  • 1995–2001
    • Hôpital Universitaire Robert Debré
      • Service d’Endocrinologie et de Diabétologie Pédiatriques
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • West Middlesex University Hospital NHS Trust
      TW9, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • Odense University Hospital
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark