C De Felice

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (37)36.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by 3.0 Tesla diffusion-weighted imaging (3T DWI) varies with the prognostic factors Ki67 and grading in invasive breast cancer.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 01/2014; 35(4):408-14. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late seroma is a rare complication that may occur after a prosthetic breast augmentation. "Seroma" is a generic term used to indicate a serous clear fluid collection, which can develop in surgically dissected areas. A seroma can be defined as "late" if this complication occurs at least 4 months after surgery. Several possible etiologies have been proposed. A 39-year-old old woman with breast implants presented with a huge enlargement of her right breast. Clinical and instrumental evaluation ruled out infection. The swelling was attributed to the presence of fluid adjacent to her implant and aspirated. Nonremission of the fluid collection after aspiration led the authors to surgical removal of the prosthesis, fluid drainage, and capsulectomy. The serous fluid and a portion of the removed capsule was subjected to chemical, cytologic, microbiologic, and anatomopathologic analysis. At the chemical evaluation, the sample of the seroma appeared to be an exudate. Cytologic examination of the fluid showed a large number of neutrophil cells but no malignant cells. Microbiologic evaluation and pathologic findings of the serum sample showed neither the presence of infection nor that of neoplastic infiltration. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the woman experienced no recurrence within 21 months after surgery. This report describes a case of late-onset implant seroma associated with a postpartum breast pump. The authors believe this case could be useful in diagnosing this rare complication and understanding its management. It also may serve to make physicians and nurse practitioners aware of the need for prompt evaluation and treatment. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
    Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 07/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast tuberculosis is a rare disease in highly endemic countries, and it is even rarer in Western countries, where only occasionally the local population is affected. The rarity of the disease and particularly the lack of a typical clinical-radiological presentation may cause tuberculosis to be mistaken for breast cancer or a pyogenic abscess. The authors present a case of breast tuberculosis in a 27-year-old nulliparous woman, an Italian citizen of the Caucasian race, who has never resided in a tuberculosis endemic area. She presented with painful retroareolar and para-areolar swelling in the right breast associated with cutaneous hyperemia (without fistulization), resistant to antibiotic therapy. Histopathological examination revealed features of mastitis with epithelioid histiocytes, and Langhans giant cells and was characterized by the presence of caseous necrosis which suggested tuberculous inflammation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed the presence of acid fast bacilli. In countries where tuberculosis is non-endemic, breast tuberculosis should always be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of inflammatory breast lesions resistant to the usual antibiotic therapies. Early recognition may prevent both clinical progression and surgical excision, as breast tuberculosis usually regresses as a response to appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy.
    Breast disease 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is the basis for neoplastic growth in human tissues. Nevertheless, neovascularization may be present both in benign and malignant lesions. Although microvascular density assessment is a useful tool for the study of neoplastic vascularization, it cannot be used on a large scale because of the invasiveness of the method. When contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was introduced in clinical practice, the initial results in the field of breast lesions were disappointing because differentiation between benign and malignant masses was not possible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the microvascular features was therefore immediately accepted because of the higher diagnostic accuracy. However, in the last decade the sensitivity and specificity of CEUS have greatly improved due to the development of more sophisticated ultrasound (US) equipment, the introduction of second-generation contrast agents and the development of dedicated software able to perform quantitative analysis. This literature review compares the main results reported in the literature regarding the use of CEUS for the characterization of neoplastic lesions of the breast. All the authors agreed that malignant lesions show early wash-in with more intense enhancement and fast wash-out in comparison with benign masses. However, there is still no observer agreement regarding vascularization patterns, and different classifications are proposed. The conclusion of this literature review is therefore that the clinical role of CEUS in the diagnostic process and in follow-up is still to be clearly defined.
    Ultraschall in der Medizin 05/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The IGF system has recently been shown to play an important role in the regulation of breast tumor cell proliferation. However, also breast density is currently considered as the strongest breast cancer risk factor. It is not yet clear whether these factors are interrelated and if and how they are influenced by menopausal status. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density stratified by menopausal status. A group of 341 Italian women were interviewed to collect the following data: family history of breast cancer, reproductive and menstrual factors, breast biopsies, previous administration of hormonal contraceptive therapy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause and lifestyle information. A blood sample was drawn for determination of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels. IGF-1/ IGFBP-3 molar ratio was then calculated. On the basis of recent mammograms the women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). Student's t-test was employed to assess the association between breast density and plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and molar ratio. To assess if this relationship was similar in subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women, the study population was stratified by menopausal status and Student's t-test was performed. Finally, multivariate analysis was employed to evaluate if there were confounding factors that might influence the relationship between growth factors and breast density. The analysis of the relationship between mammographic density and plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/ IGFBP-3 molar ratio showed that IGF-1 levels and molar ratio varied in the two groups resulting in higher mean values in the DB group (IGF-1: 109.6 versus 96.6 ng/ml; p= 0.001 and molar ratio 29.4 versus 25.5 ng/ml; p= 0.001) whereas IGFBP-3 showed similar values in both groups (DB and NDB). Analysis of plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio compared to breast density after stratification of the study population by menopausal status (premenopausal and postmenopausal) showed that there was no association between the plasma of growth factors and breast density, neither in premenopausal nor in postmenopausal patients. Multivariate analysis showed that only nulliparity, premenopausal status and body mass index (BMI) are determinants of breast density. Our study provides a strong evidence of a crude association between breast density and plasma levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio. On the basis of our results, it is reasonable to assume that the role of IGF-1 and molar ratio in the pathogenesis of breast cancer might be mediated through mammographic density. IGF-1 and molar ratio might thus increase the risk of cancer by increasing mammographic density.
    Il Giornale di chirurgia 05/2012; 33(5):153-62.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate breast mammographic features, particularly mammographic density in a selected population of infertile women and to assess if these women should be considered at higher risk for breast cancer. The prevalence of female infertility in Western countries is approximately 10-15% and since causes affecting the female are involved in 35-40%, concerns have developed about the future health of these women, specifically whether infertility could represent a risk factor for future cancer development. Moreover, infertility is now often treated with medication and procedures that could modify the hormonal environment and be cofactors in the cellular changes towards cancer development. Mammographic breast density is a useful marker for breast cancer risk and breast density is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Breast density is associated with known breast cancer risk factors such as reproductive and menstrual factors including serum estrogen and progesterone concentrations. In Italy the National Federation for Breast Cancer (FONCAM) guidelines suggest the usefulness of mammography from 35 years of age for women who undergo infertility hormone therapy (FONCAM Guidelines, 2005). According to this recommendation 294 women aged > or = 35, with primary infertility, sent to our breast service before joining an IVF program were recruited and then underwent clinical examination and X-ray mammography. Women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). Univariate analysis was employed to evaluate if there was an association between mammographic density and other risk factors. Evaluation of mammographic features showed the presence of BI-RADs C and D in the sample of 200 (68%) patients with DB and in 94 (32%) patients with NDB BI-RADS A and B. Univariate analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups BD and NDB as regards age at mammography, age at menarche, BMI and family history for breast cancer, while ovulatory etiology of infertility was found to be associated with high mammographic density (p < 0.05). In conclusion, bearing in mind that 68% of our study sample had high breast density, we can assume that patients with primary infertility might represent a group at high risk for breast cancer, particularly if infertility is due to an ovulatory factor. We suggest breast screening from the age of 35 in infertile patients who undergo treatment with fertility drugs in accordance with FONCAM recommendations. This might allow the identification of higher risk patients who need more closely monitored breast examinations.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 01/2012; 33(1):51-5. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density and assess whether this relationship was similar in subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women. A group of 341 Italian women of childbearing age or naturally postmenopausal who had performed mammographic examination at the section of radiology of our department a maximum three months prior to recruitment were enrolled. A blood sample was drawn for determination of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. On the basis of recent mammograms the women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). To assess the association between mammographic density and IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and Molar ratio Student's t-test was employed before and after stratified by menopausal status. The analysis of the relationship between mammographic density and plasma levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio showed that IGF-1 levels and molar ratio varied in the two groups resulting in higher mean values in the DB group whereas IGFBP-3 showed similar values in both groups (DB and NDB). After stratification of the study population by menopausal status, no association was found. Our study provides strong evidence of a crude association between breast density, and plasma levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio. IGF-1 and molar ratio might increase mammographic density and thus the risk of developing breast cancer.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 01/2012; 33(1):74-8. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of presurgical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the surgical management of selected patients with early-stage breast cancer who were candidates for BCT. The sample was built up according to the EUSOMA (European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists) recommendations enrolling women with unifocal unilateral early-stage breast carcinoma diagnosed by mammography, ultrasound (US) examination and in some cases also by histological analysis; all were scheduled for wider local excision. All eligible patients underwent presurgical breast MRI and findings were classified according to the BI-RADS system. In the presence of additional foci classified as BI-RADS 3-4, a targeted second-look US study was performed. If second-look US confirmed the presence of foci, needle biopsy was performed. Possible changes in the therapeutic approach resulting from preoperative MRI findings were decided upon by a multidisciplinary team. Outcome of histological examination of the surgical specimen and particularly analysis of tumor infiltration of the resection margins was the standard for determining the appropriateness of surgical strategy. A total of 123 patients underwent presurgical breast MRI. Additional foci were detected in 41.6% of patients, a greater local extension of the index lesion in 6.4%, whereas MRI confirmed local staging established by conventional imaging in 52%. However, 13.8% of additional foci were not confirmed by second-look and needle biopsy. More extensive surgery as a result of MRI findings was performed in 34.2%. This decision proved to be appropriate in 29.3% thus resulting in an over-treatment rate of 4.9%. Presurgical breast MRI resulted in confirmation of planned surgical strategy in 65.8% with an appropriateness rate of 54.5%. Surgical resection margins were positive for malignancy in 11.3% and repeated surgery was therefore required. Therapeutic strategy established on the basis of MRI was appropriate in 83.8% of cases. This study confirms the utility of MRI in presurgical workup of selected breast cancer patients. The results obtained suggest the importance of a sensitive tool such as MRI in the local staging of breast cancer before treatment planning.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 01/2012; 33(2):193-9. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance hysterosalpingography (MR-HSG) to demonstrate fallopian tube patency in infertile women and to improve the MR-HSG technique. Sixteen consecutive infertile women were recruited for this trial. All subjects underwent clinically indicated MR-HSG: 10-15 ml of 1:10 solution of gadolinium and normal sterile saline (0.9%) was gently hand-injected intracervically through a 7 French balloon catheter while seven consecutive flash-3D dynamic (FL 3D DY) T1-weighted MR sequences were acquired. Two readers independently assessed image quality as well as anatomic and pathologic correlations. Patient comfort was evaluated using a specific score questionnaire. MR-HSG was successfully completed in all patients. In 14/16 (87.4%) patients, MR-HSG showed bilateral tubal patency with symmetric contrast agent diffusion and a regular tubo-ovarian relationship. One patient (6.3%) with monolateral hydrosalpinx presented no contrast agent diffusion in the affected side (monolateral tubal occlusion); in another patient (6.3%) the fallopian tube was displaced upward causing loss of the tubo-ovarian anatomical relationship resulting in asymmetric and inadequate contrast agent diffusion. Eight women (50%) were found to have abnormalities on MR imaging; these abnormalities included multi follicular ovaries (5 cases 31.1%), endometrioma (1 case, 6.3%), leiomyoma (1 case/6.3%) and endometrial polyp (1 case/6.3%). The average time required for the study was 25-30 minutes. Analysis of the questionnaires administered to the patients showed that 15/16 patients (93.7%) were fully satisfied with the procedure. All examinations were judged to be of high diagnostic quality and the two readers made similar diagnoses. In conclusion, MR-HSG is a feasible, useful and well tolerated tool for the assessment of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and extra-uterine structures. MR-HSG is a new promising imaging approach to female infertility.
    Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology 01/2012; 39(1):83-8. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of low-mechanical index contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the differentiation of a series of histologically proven bladder lesions identified via conventional cystoscopy and biopsied. 36 patients (mean age: 62 years; range 45 - 72 years) with bladder lesions previously detected by color power Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) were prospectively examined with low-mechanical index contrast-enhanced US after bolus administration of 2.4 ml of Sonovue (Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were evaluated in real-time continuous scanning for 2 minutes and the videos were registered. Two ultrasound (US) experts evaluated the videos by consensus and assigned a score to the enhancement pattern. Subsequently, a specific sonographic quantification software (Qontrast, Bracco, Milan, Italy) based on pixel by pixel signal intensity over time was used to obtain contrast-enhanced sonographic perfusion maps for each lesion. Time-intensity curves (TICs) of each lesion were then extracted from the region of interest positioned within the lesion and in the closest bladder wall. The sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and CEUS were compared using McNemar's test. All patients subsequently underwent conventional cystoscopy with biopsy or transurethral resection. 22 high-grade and 14 low-grade transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) were histologically diagnosed (mean diameter 2.1 cm; range: 1 - 4.5 cm). The sensitivity and specificity of CDUS were 86.4% (19 / 22; 95% CI = 66.7 - 95.3%) and 42.9% (6 / 14; 95% CI = 21.4 - 67.4%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS were 90.9% (20 / 22; 95% CI = 72.2 - 97.5%) and 85.7% (12 / 14; 95% CI = 60.1 - 95.9%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS using TICs were 95.4% (21 / 22; 95% CI = 78.2 - 99.2%) and 85.7% (12 / 14; 95% CI = 60.1 - 95.9%), respectively. There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of CDUS versus CEUS, CDUS versus TIC, and CEUS versus TIC (p > 0.05; McNemar's test). The specificity of CEUS and TIC was significantly higher than that of CDUS (p < 0.05; McNemar test). CEUS is a reliable noninvasive method for differentiating low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas since it provides typical enhancement patterns as well as specific contrast-sonographic perfusion curves. However, further studies involving larger patient populations is mandatory to confirm these promising results.
    Ultraschall in der Medizin 05/2010; 31(6):589-95. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A first prototype of optical scanner based on a CCD camera and the use of Fricke-agarose-XO has allowed us to reconstruct 3D dose maps, monitoring doses in the range 0.5–3 Gy. Measurements performed with laboratory tests and with clinical beams would indicate that the uncertainty involved in dose mapping are compatible with requirements of a 3D dosimetry for the verifications of treatment plans.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 06/2009; 164(1):012015.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of combined hysterosalpingography (HSG) and sonohysterography (SHG) in the study of infertile women. 208 women affected by primary (184) or secondary sterility (24) were divided in two random groups. Group 1 underwent only HSG and group 2 underwent simultaneous HSG and SHG. The results obtained in the two groups were correlated with the results of hysteroscopy or laparoscopy, considered Gold Standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values and likelihood ratio (LR) of HSG alone and combined HSG/SHG were calculated. Results were evaluated with t-test, Pearson's Chi square or Fisher exact test when appropriate and ROC analysis. In group 1, hysteroscopy revealed no pathology in the uterine cavity in 70/104 patients, but evidenced 47 abnormalities related to the uterine cavity in 34 women. HSG outcome was in accordance with hysteroscopy in 27/34 cases of abnormalities, and in 64/70 cases of normal outcome. Sensitivity 0.79, specificity 0.91, PPV 0.82, NPV 0.90, LR+ 9.26. In group 2, hysteroscopy revealed no pathology in the uterine cavity in 64/104 patients but 52 abnormalities related to the uterine cavity in 40 women. HSG and SHG outcomes were confirmed by hysteroscopy in 39/40 cases of abnormalities of the uterine cavity and in 60/64 cases of normal uterine cavity. Sensitivity 0.97, specificity 0.94, PPV 0.91, NPV 0.98, LR+ 15.60. Statistical analysis showed that combined HSG and SHG yielded elevated specificity and LR+ and therefore few cases of false positive outcome. Combined performance of HSG and SHG can shorten diagnostic investigation time and reduce the discomfort to the patient as the injector is fed into the cervix only once. This may also reduce the patient's anxiety level as one of the causes of infertility.
    Ultraschall in der Medizin 03/2009; 30(1):52-7. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes our experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of fetal anatomical structures and major fetal pathologies. The retrospective study included 128 pregnant women between the 22nd and 38th week of gestation. We used the following imaging protocol: T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo sequences for all foetuses and, in selected cases, gradient echo with steady-state free precession (SSFP), T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo [fast low-angle shot (FLASH)] with and without fat saturation, and T2 thick-slab sequences with multiplanar technique. In 32 cases, we performed diffusion-weighted sequences with apparent diffusion coefficient (ACD) maps on the brain, the kidneys and the lungs. We achieved diagnostic-quality images in 125 of 128 patients; MR image quality was unsatisfactory in three cases only. In 16 cases with previous negative ultrasound (US) findings, MRI confirmed the US diagnosis. MRI confirmed the positive US diagnosis in 67 of 109 cases (61.5%); in 11 cases it changed the US diagnosis, and in 31/109 the examination was negative. In addition, MRI identified other anomalies not recognised during US examination. With its ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI provides good detail of normal fetal anatomy and allows characterisation of suspected anomalies.
    La radiologia medica 04/2008; 113(2):225-41. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to assess the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with unilateral nipple discharge. Forty-four patients with bloody or serosanguineous nipple discharge and negative mammographic findings (35/44 cases) underwent MRI for evaluation of breast ducts. Ultrasonography, negative in 18 patients, identified 26 cases of ductal ectasia (12 simple, nine with solid intraductal echoes and wall thickening, five with inhomogeneous parenchyma). Galactography was negative in three patients and positive in nine. Nineteen patients were followed up by clinical examination, ultrasonography, and cytological evaluation of nipple discharge (6-12 months); three patients underwent excisional biopsy, ten core biopsy and 12 cytological biopsy (followed by excisional biopsy). MRI identified 25 enhancing lesions Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) 3 or 4) and confirmed the galactographic findings (ductal ectasia, intraluminal filling defects). Five papillomatoses appeared as patchy, homogeneous enhancing areas, 15 intraductal papillomas as areas with well-defined margins and type II time-intensity curves, and two atypical ductal hyperplasias as diffuse nodular enhancement. One micropapillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), one papillary carcinoma and one infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) were visualised as two segmental areas of enhancement and one mass-like enhancement with poorly defined margins (BI-RADS 4). The follow-up was negative, showing no pathological enhancement (BI-RADS 1) in 12 patients and benign enhancement (BI-RADS 2) in seven. Breast MRI can be considered a valuable examination in the diagnosis of suspected ductal disease and an alternative to galactography when the latter cannot be used.
    La radiologia medica 04/2008; 113(2):249-64. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on mammographic density using a qualitative and a semiquantitative method. Mammograms from 148 women treated for breast cancer before and after surgery were reviewed: 68 were administered tamoxifen; 80 did not receive tamoxifen. The mammograms were classified in one of the four BIRADS density categories by two radiologists blinded to the treatment and by a computer-assisted method after digitizing images. At mammographic one-year-follow-up density was reduced in both groups and remained stable in the following years. A comparison of mammograms performed before surgery and after one year showed a statistically significant difference in density reduction between the tamoxifen and the non-tamoxifen-treated group. Good agreement was obtained between the qualitative and semiquantitative method. Breast density reduction observed in women treated with tamoxifen may help in the detection of small tumors in dense breasts by means of reducing the masking effect of parenchyma.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 02/2008; 29(6):598-601. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • Radiologia Medica - RADIOL MED. 01/2008; 113(2):225-241.
  • Radiologia Medica - RADIOL MED. 01/2008; 113(2):249-264.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping with the measurement of renal tissue ADC value of normal and pathological fetal kidneys at various gestational ages (GAs). Fifty pregnant women underwent magnetic resonance images (MRI) after ultrasound (US) for suspected fetal genitourinary disorders (16) or for suspected disorders in other organs (34). A multiplanar study of urinary system was obtained by using conventional T2-weighted sequences and echo planar imaging (EPI); Diffusion-weighted images and ADC maps were evaluated. The renal tissue ADC value was measured for all normal and abnormal fetuses and related to GA. MRI confirmed urinary anomalies in 15 fetuses [2 renal developmental variants, 2 nephropathies, 4 multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK), 7 renal tract dilatations] and detected normal kidneys in the remaining 35 fetuses. Normal renal parenchyma showed bright signal on diffusion-weighted images with ADC values ranging from 1,065 to 1,327 microm(2)/s with a tendency to decrease over GA. A pathological ADC was detected in cases of bilateral MCDK, huge dilatations and in cases of nephropathies. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with ADC mapping can be used in the evaluation of fetal renal parenchyma and may become a tool of assessing function of the fetal kidney by means of measurement of renal tissue ADC values.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 01/2008; 27(12):1104-11. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic utility and additional cost of combined breast ultrasonography and mammography in the evaluation of asymptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. Of 5108 asymptomatic women, who underwent mammography, 1754 had dense breasts (BI-RADS 3 or 4) and negative mammographic outcome. They were divided in 4 subgroups according to their age (<40 yrs; 40-49 yrs; 50-59 yrs; >59 yrs). Breast ultrasonography was performed immediately after mammography. Lesions detected at ultrasonography were examined cytologically/histologically. Mammograms from women, who were diagnosed carcinoma at ultrasonography, were reviewed by an external radiologist. Costs per diagnosed carcinoma and per examined woman were calculated on the basis of current regional charges. Mammographies (5108) were performed, 67 cancers were detected (cancer detection rate 13.1‰): mammography identified 55 carcinomas and ultrasonography performed in women with dense breasts identified 12 cancers (17.9% of all cancers detected, overall cancer detection rate 6.8‰). Ultrasonography identified a benign condition in 1567 out of 1754 women (89.3%) (in 925 absence of focal lesions; 438 simple cysts; 56 ductal ectasia; 148 benign solid lesions); 97 complex cysts, 52 lesions that could not be differentiated as liquid or solid lesions, and 38 solid lesions suspicious for malignancy in the remaining 187 out of 1754 patients (10.7%). Cytology/histology confirmed carcinoma in 12 women (overall biopsy rate 26.2‰, benign biopsy rate 19.4‰). The additional costs were: € 6,123.45 per detected cancer, € 41.89 per examined woman. Breast ultrasonography immediately after mammography in women with dense breasts is useful to avoid diagnostic delays and inconvenient medico-legal implications even though this procedure involves increased costs.
    Journal of Ultrasound 09/2007; 10(3):143-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the normal pattern of development and maturation of the foetal brain with respect to gestational age as assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to provide an overview of the possibilities of the technique. Foetal cerebral MRI was performed on 56 pregnant women between 19 and 37 weeks of gestation. Half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), true fast imaging with steady precession (FISP), T1-weighted fast low angle shot (FLASH) two-dimensional (2D) and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained. Biometric parameters and developmental areas of the cerebral cortex were correlated to gestational age by using the Spearman rank correlation test. We found a negative correlation between the germinal matrix/biparietal diameter ratio and gestational age and a positive correlation between the germinal and cortical matrix when expressed as external intraocular diameter ratio (R=0.452, p=0.02). The cortical mantle was correlated with biometric parameters, such as the biparietal diameter and the frontooccipital diameter, and with gestational age. The interhemispheric fissure, the parietooccipital fissure and the sylvian fissure were detectable by the 22nd week. In the grey matter, the mean ADC values varied from 1.76 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (at week 19) to 0.89 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (at week 37), whereas in the white matter, the values varied from 2.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (at week 19) to 1.25 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (at week 37). MRI provides a reliable valuation of brain maturation during pregnancy.
    La radiologia medica 05/2007; 112(3):444-55. · 1.46 Impact Factor