[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The INK4a/ARF locus which is frequently inactivated in human tumours encodes two different tumour suppressive proteins, p16(INK4a) and ARF. p16(INK4a) is a major component of the RB pathway. ARF is part of an ARF-mdm2-p53 network that exerts a negative control on hyperproliferative signals emanating from oncogenic stimuli. Among these is the transcription factor E2F1, a final effector of the RB pathway, that induces ARF expression. Recent data suggest that ARF function is not restricted to the p53 pathway. However, ARF target(s) implicated in this p53-independent function remains to be identified. We show that ARF is able to inhibit the proliferation of human cell lines independently of their p53 status. In this context, we demonstrate that ARF interacts physically with E2F1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Moreover, we show that mdm2 is required for the modulation of E2F1 activity by ARF. Beside the well-known p53 and mdm2 partners, these results identify E2F1 as a new ARF target. Thus, ARF can be viewed as a dual-acting tumour suppressor protein in both the p53 and RB pathways, further emphasizing its role in tumour surveillance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ARF gene (p19(ARF) in mouse and p14(ARF) in man) has become a central actor of the cell cycle regulation process as it participates to the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway and the Rb-E2F-1 pathway. By use of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting (IP/WB), we now show that ARF physically associates with topoisomerase I (Topo I). ARF-Topo I immune complexes were detected in SF9 insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses encoding the two genes as well as in 293 cells that express endogenously these proteins. Preparations of a GST-ARF recombinant protein stimulated the DNA relaxation activity of Topo I but, in contrast, had no effect on the decatenation activity of Topo II. The Topo I stimulation was also detected in cell extracts of SF9 cells expressing both proteins. A confocal microscopy study indicated that part of ARF and Topo I colocalized in the granular component structure of the nucleolus. As a whole, our data indicate that Topo I is a new partner of ARF and suggest that ARF is involved in cell reactions that require Topo I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivation of both the pRb (pRb-cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-p16) and p53 (p53-p21(WAF1)-p14(ARF)) pathways is thought to be essential for immortalization in vitro and malignant transformation in vivo. We identified different combinations of pRb and p53 pathway alterations in 12 invasive transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) and addressed the functional significance of the different combinations observed. Results showed four combinations of alterations including -pRb/-p53 (ie., pRb inactivated in the pRb pathway and p53 inactivated in the p53 pathway; four TCCs), -p16/-p53 (four TCCs), -p16/-p21(WAF1) (one TCC), and -p16/ -p14(ARF) (two TCCs). These groups include two new combinations (ie., -p16/-p53 and -p16/-p21(WAF1)) not reported previously for TCCs. An alteration in the key components of the p53 pathway was not detected in one invasive TCC that had inactivated p16. Note that all four TCCs with inactivated pRb had mutant p53; thus, the combinations of -pRb/ -p21(WAF1) and -pRb/-p14(ARF) were not observed. Only two of eight TCCs with altered p16 had concomitant p14(ARF) loss, demonstrating that simultaneous inactivation of these two 9p21INK4a tumor suppressor genes is not obligatory. To determine the biological phenotypes of TCCs with different combinations of pRb and p53 pathway alterations, their downstream responses to gamma radiation were studied in vitro. As expected, none of eight TCCs with mutant p53 responded to gamma radiation by elevation of p53, p21(WAF1), or mdm2 or by cell cycle arrest. Only two of four TCCs with wild-type p53 and wild-type pRb (the combination of -p16/-p14(ARF)) showed normal downstream responses to gamma radiation and underwent cell cycle arrest. Two TCCs with wild-type pRb and wild-type p53 (the combination of -pl6/-p21(WAF1) and one TCC with -p16) failed to show cell cycle arrest in response to radiation. This was attributed to the absence of p21(WAF1) in one TCC. In summary, these data support a model of invasive bladder cancer pathogenesis in which both the pRb and p53 pathways are usually inactivated and the biology of the tumor is impacted by the mechanism of their inactivations.
Cancer Research 08/2000; 60(14):3862-71. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p16IN4/CDKN2/MTS1 gene encodes two structurally different proteins: a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor called p16INK4a, which regulates retinoblastoma protein-dependent G1 arrest, and a cell cycle inhibitor designated p19ARF, which arrests cell growth in G1-S and also in G2-M. Whereas inactivation of p16INK4a has been described as a frequent event in lung cancer, the current function of p19ARF is still poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the human p19ARF (hp19ARF) protein in a large series of lung cancers using immunohistochemistry and showed that the protein was more frequently lost in high-grade neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors (large cell NE carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma; 51 of 78, 65%) than it was in non-small cell lung cancer (25 of 101, 25%). No deleterious mutation was found in exons 1beta and 2 of hp19ARF in those NE tumors with negative immunoreactivity, and a beta transcript was detected in the majority of them. Concomitant absence of hp19ARF and retinoblastoma proteins was frequently detected in high-grade NE lung tumors, whereas no relationship could be found between the status of hp19ARF and p53 proteins in those tumors. These results are consistent with an alternative growth suppressor function for hp19ARF in NE lung cancer that is distinct from that of p16INK4a. Moreover, the frequent uncoupling between the beta transcript and the hp19ARF protein suggests a novel mechanism of inactivation at the translational level.
Cancer Research 10/1998; 58(17):3926-31. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p16/MTS1/CDKN2 gene on human chromosome band 9p21 encodes two unrelated proteins: p16INK4a, a specific inhibitor of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CKD4 and CDK6, and the structurally unrelated p19ARF protein that arrests cell growth in G1/S and also in G2/M. By use of polyclonal antibodies, the human p19ARF (hp19ARF) protein has been identified in the nucleus of various cells including normal cultured fibroblasts. The level of this protein did not fluctuate throughout the cell cycle and was more elevated in fibroblasts with limited or arrested growth, suggesting that p19ARF accumulated in presenescent or senescent cells. Interestingly, hp19ARF was not detected in several hemopoietic tumor cell lines (mainly of B-type lymphoid origin) that expressed abundant amounts of the p16beta transcript. This finding indicates that in certain tumors, the expression of hp19ARF RNA and protein may be uncoupled. Furthermore, it suggests that disruption of a translational mechanism may be involved in the inactivation of hp19ARF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p), resulting in the loss of the p16INK4a/MTS1 gene, now called CDKN2, has been found to occur frequently in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, even in the absence of a microscopically visible deletion. In this study, we have used YAC probes encompassing the CDKN2 locus to analyze by fluorescence in situ hybridization patients with leukemia and lymphoma and translocations involving 9p in order to establish the CDKN2 status in relation to the karyotype. We found that, in leukemic cells exhibiting loss of heterozygosity at the CDKN2 locus, the deleted allele was from the cytogenetically normal chromosome 9, whereas the other allele was located on a rearranged chromosome. This finding suggests that CDKN2 gene loss is nonrandomly associated with 9p translocation in lymphoid proliferations. Genes Chromosom.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/1997; 19(4):273-7. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, heterogeneous nuclear RNA is associated with a set of abundant nuclear proteins to form complex ribonucleoprotein structures (hnRNP). Autoantibodies to hnRNP G protein have been previously reported in German shepherd dogs with lupus-like syndrome. In the present study, we describe the characterization of a novel antigen recognized by a serum from a schnauzer dog with a non-erosive polyarthritis. The autoantibodies give, by indirect immunofluorescence, a nuclear pattern with staining close to one of the nucleoli. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation data reveal that the autoantigens are in fact two closely related basic proteins (average pI 8.7) with apparent molecular weights of 56 kDa (p56) and 59 kDa (p59). The results of immunoprecipitation with anti-hnRNP antibodies and DNA affinity column chromatography strongly suggest that these autoantigens correspond to hnRNP I proteins. This point was confirmed by cloning and sequencing a cDNA clone encoding the complete sequence of the antigens. In addition, we found that anti-hnRNP I antibodies preferentially stain certain loops of the Pleurodeles waltl lampbruch chromosomes. These data, added to previous ones on anti-p43/hnRNP G protein in German shepherd dogs with lupus-like syndrome, confirm the interest of this category of antibodies to hnRNP proteins in autoimmune disorders.
Journal of Autoimmunity 11/1996; 9(5):599-608. · 8.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA probe representative of the human hnRNP I/PTB gene was used to perform fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphases of human chromosomes. A new localization was found on band 19p13.3 in addition to the previously reported localization to band 14q23. Identical results were obtained when FISH analysis was repeated with probes covering different parts of the hnRNP I cDNA clone. This supported the notion that most, if not all, of the sequences of the different parts of this clone are present on both chromosomes. Moreover, Southern blot analysis of DNAs from interspecies somatic hybrids containing chromosomes 19 and 14 revealed that the whole hnRNP I cDNA probe generated very similar patterns in each hybrid DNA. These data suggest that two closely related copies of the hnRNP I gene exist in the human genome.
Human Genetics 09/1996; 98(2):210-3. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported previously a preliminary study of a t(9;14)(p21-22; q11) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This translocation had rearranged the TCRA/D locus on chromosome band 14q11 and the locus encoding the tumor suppressor gene P16INK4/MTS1 (P16) on band 9p21 (D. Duro et al., Oncogene, 11: 21-29, 1995). In the present report, the breakpoints were precisely localized on each chromosome partner. On the 14q- derivative, the sequence derived from chromosome 9 was interrupted at 1.0 kb upstream of the first exon of P16, close to a consensus recombination heptamer, CACTGTG. In addition, the chromosome 14 breakpoint was localized at the end of the TCRD2 (delta 2) segment, and 22 residues with unknown origin were present at the translocation junction. On the 9p+ derivative, chromosome 9 sequences were in continuity with those displaced onto chromosome 14, and the 14q11 breakpoint was located within TCRJA29 segment. These features are consistent with aberrant activity of the TCR gene recombinase complex. Although all three coding exons of P16 were displaced onto the chromosome 14q-derivative, no P16 transcript was detected in the leukemic cells. Because the region spanning the P16 exon 1 was not inactivated by methylation and because the other P16 allele was deleted, the implication is that the chromosome breakpoint was likely to disrupt regulatory elements involved in the normal expression of the gene. As a whole, then, our results show that translocations affecting band 9p21 can participate to the inactivation of P16, thus justifying a systematic survey of translocations of the 9p21 band in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Research 03/1996; 56(4):848-54. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A complex chromosomal abnormality associating three recurrent rearrangements, t(2;3)((p12;q37), del (8)(q24) and t(14;18)(q32;q21), was detected in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia of the Burkitt type. Southern blot studies showed rearrangements of the MYC, BCL2, and JH genes, thus confirming the cytogenetic data. However, no rearrangement of the LAZ3/BCL6 gene, normally localized on band 3q27, could be detected. The simultaneous presence of three recurrent rearrangements specific for lymphoid malignancies addresses the question of their timing in the malignant process and the prognostic significance of the association of such anomalies.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 02/1996; 86(1):76-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome band 9p21-22 is frequently altered by nonrandom abnormalities, mainly deletions, in hemopoietic malignancies of the lymphoid lineage. We have analysed a translocation t(9;14)(p21-p22;q11) in a B-cell type acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Location of the 14q11 breakpoint within the TCR-alpha/delta locus allowed the isolation of a fusion transcript composed of a 3' segment containing part of the constant region of the TCR-alpha gene and a 5' segment from chromosome 9, designated 0.18. This 0.18 segment was also part of cDNAs isolated from two tumoral B-cell lines (RPMI-8226, Raji). In both cases, 0.18 was juxtaposed 5' to a sequence corresponding to exons 2 and 3 of the p16INK4/MTS1 gene which is located on band 9p21-22. Unexpectedly, none of the two ATG codons found in 0.18 was in phase with that of the exons 2 and 3 of p16INK4/MTS1. Furthermore, in vitro translation product of a RPMI-8226 cDNA clone generated a product that was not immunoprecipitated by antibodies specific of the C-terminal end of the p16INK4/MTS1 protein. Evidence for similar transcripts in non tumoral lymphoid B cells (unstimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines) were obtained by using amplimers representative of the 0.18 segment and the p16INK4/MTS1 exon 2. Altogether, these data are consistent with the existence of a new type of p16INK4/MTS1 transcript whose significance is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patient with acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) and t(6;11)(q27;q23) developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and t(4;11)(q21;23), 10 months after complete remission of the AMoL. The MLL gene, normally located at band 11q23, appeared differently rearranged in the cells of these two leukemias, showing a different origin for the two malignant clones. The responsibility of etoposide, used in treatment of the AML, in the occurrence of the ALL is probable in this patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chromosome band 9p21-22 is frequently rearranged or deleted in a variety of tumors including hematological malignancies. This supports the notion of a tumor suppressor gene in this chromosome region. Indeed, the p16/MTS1 gene encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor has been shown to be frequently deleted and/or inactivated by nonsense mutations in a number of tumors. We have examined 98 DNA samples from blood, bone marrow cells and lymph node biopsies of patients with leukemia (ALL and AML) or lymphoma (follicular lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma), using Southern blot hybridization and a p16/MTS1-specific probe. Molecular abnormalities, mainly homozygous deletions, were found principally in ALL (8 out of 22 patients), much less frequently in AML (2/32) and lymphoma (2/32). While these data argue in favor of a large involvement of p16/MTS1 in ALL, AML and lymphomas appear to be less frequently implicated.
Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 11/1994; 317(10):913-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tal-1 gene, which is frequently activated in human T cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs), codes for a protein of the basic helix-loop-helix family (b-HLH) and potentially a transcription factor. In human and murine hematopoiesis tal-1 is expressed during the differentiation of the erythroid, megakaryocytic and mastocytic cell lineages. The expression of tal-1 appears to be comodulated with that of the transcription factor GATA-1 gene, suggesting that the GATA-1 protein may regulate the tal-1 gene activity in these hematopoietic lineages. To get further insights into the molecular mechanisms that control tal-1 expression, we have isolated 5' sequences of the murine gene and compared them to their human counterparts. The 5' flanking sequences from the two genes show several regions of high homology. The alignment of both sequences enabled us to predict that similarly, to the human, the mouse gene contains two alternative first exons (Ia and Ib). Remarkably, in both species, the proximal region of the tissue-specific exon Ia (i.e. gene segment -122 to +1) contains two GATA-motifs (at -65 and -33) and one SP-1 consensus binding site (-59). Mobility shift assays demonstrate that GATA proteins are able to interact with both GATA-motifs in a sequence specific fashion, but with different efficiencies. Moreover transfection studies show that the GATA-1 protein directly mediates tal-1 transcription by interacting with the -122/+1 fragment, defined as a minimal promoter in erythroid cells. Mutagenesis of the promoter establishes that the -33 GATA-binding site present in this fragment is critical for tal-1 expression in erythroid cells, but by itself does not lead to full promoter activity. Indeed, further mutations show that the second -65 GATA-binding site and the binding motif for SP1 (-59) significantly contribute to the overall activity of the proximal tal-1 promoter. Altogether, our data provide evidence that GATA-1 cooperates with the transcription factor SP1 to mediate the erythroid-specific expression of the tal-1 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study of a t(4;16)(q26;p13) translocation, found in a human malignant T-cell lymphoma the BCMA gene, located on chromosome band 16p13.1, has been characterized. In this study we show that the BCMA gene is organized into three exons and its major initiation transcription site is located 69 nucleotides downstream of a TATA box. RNase protection assays demonstrated that the BCMA gene is preferentially expressed in mature B cells, suggesting a role for this gene in the B-cell developmental process. A cDNA complementary to the BCMA cDNA was cloned and sequenced and its presence was assessed by RNase protection assay and anchor-PCR amplification. This antisense-BCMA RNA is transcribed from the same locus as BCMA, and exhibits mRNA characteristic features, e.g. polyadenylation and splicing. It also contains an ORF encoding a putative 115 aa polypeptide, presenting no homology with already known sequences. RNase protection assays demonstrated the simultaneous expression of natural sense and antisense-BCMA transcripts in the majority of human B-cell lines tested.
Nucleic Acids Research 05/1994; 22(7):1147-54. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two rearrangements affecting the same allele of the BCL2 gene were characterized by molecular analysis of an untreated follicular lymphoma. The first rearrangement interested the major breakpoint region (mbr) on chromosome 18 and a JH segment on chromosome 14. The other one was located at the 5' end of the BCL2 gene, in the so called variant cluster region (vcr), and consisted of a series of deletions that removed part of a DNA region where initiation of transcription normally occurs. Interestingly, both rearrangements involved the same BCL2 allele. The simultaneous presence of mbr (or mcr) translocations and of minor rearrangements in vcr has been previously suggested by restriction map analysis in a significant number of follicular lymphomas. The significance of these abnormalities on the oncogenic process is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a patient with stage IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and a t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. He presented with a gastric small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma, expressing IgAL immunoglobulins without expression of CD10, CD5, and CD23 antigens. The lymphoma was the final development of a 6-year history of a monoclonal IgAL increase complicated by severe renal failure due to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The clinical, histological, immunologic, and cytogenetic features of this patient are very similar to those observed in the five other patients with t(11;18) reported to date. This translocation therefore seems to delineate a new subtype of diffuse small B-cell lymphoma with involvement of mucosal sites. Involvement of the BCL2 oncogene on 18q21 could not be detected using molecular techniques with 5' as well as 3' BCL2 probes, indicating that other, so far unknown, genes relevant to lymphoid differentiation could be located in 18q21 and 11q21.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/1993; 7(1):54-6. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rearrangements of the BCL2 gene and expression of bcl-2 protein were analyzed in a series of 64 cases of follicular lymphomas in order to establish a relationship between the rearrangements and the protein overexpression. Of the 64 cases, 41 showed BCL2 rearrangement involving one of the three breakpoint clusters: 30 in mbr, eight in mcr, and three in vcr. A double rearrangement mbr+vcr was detected in two cases. Twenty cases with bcl-2 protein expression in tumor cells exhibited no apparent rearrangement, suggesting the possible existence of other mechanisms activating the gene. Interestingly, expression of the LMP1 protein, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded gene, whose capacity to induce BCL2 has been recently demonstrated, was only found in 2/41 cases in which BCL2 was rearranged. These data suggest that EBV infection is not an important mechanism in the activation of BCL2 in follicular lymphoma.