C E Lewis

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

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Publications (3)10.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Lifestyle interventions produce shortterm improvements in glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but no long-term data are available. We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors during a 4-year study. Methods: The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial is a multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE; the control group) on the incidence of major CVD events in 5145 overweight or obese individuals (59.5% female; mean age, 58.7 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. More than 93% of participants provided outcomes data at each annual assessment. Results: Averaged across 4 years, ILI participants had a greater percentage of weight loss than DSE participants (-6.15% vs -0.88%; P < .001) and greater improvements in treadmill fitness (12.74% vs 1.96%; P < .001), hemoglobin A1c level (-0.36% vs -0.09%; P < .001), systolic (-5.33 vs -2.97 mm Hg; P < .001) and diastolic (-2.92 vs -2.48 mm Hg; P=.01) blood pressure, and levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.67 vs 1.97 mg/dL; P < .001) and triglycerides (-25.56 vs -19.75 mg/dL; P < .001). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were greater in DSE than ILI participants (-11.27 vs -12.84 mg/dL; P=.009) owing to greater use of medications to lower lipid levels in the DSE group. At 4 years, ILI participants maintained greater improvements than DSE participants in weight, fitness, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions: Intensive lifestyle intervention can produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness, glycemic control, and CVD risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences in risk factors translate to reduction in CVD events will ultimately be addressed by the Look AHEAD trial. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953
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    ABSTRACT: To identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without type 2 diabetes and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Overweight and obese (body mass index, BMI > or = 25 kg m(-2)) Black, White and Hispanic men (490) and women (825) with type 2 diabetes ((mean+/-s.d.) age 58.5+/-6.6; BMI 35.3+/-5.3) who had a baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry whole-body scan at the time of enrollment in the Look AHEAD clinical trial, and 242 healthy controls, 91 males and 151 females (age 55.3+/-8.6 years, BMI 30.7+/-4.2 kg m(-2)) who were participating in unrelated research and were scanned on the same densitometers. Adjusted for gender, age, race, clinical site and body size, total fat mass was smaller in persons with type 2 diabetes than in controls (-1.4+/-0.3 (s.e.); 34.5 vs 35.8 kg, P<0.001) while trunk fat was larger (1.3+/-0.2 (s.e.); 19.9 vs 18.6 kg, P<0.001) and leg fat was smaller (-1.5+/-0.2 (s.e.); 10.7 vs 12.3 kg, P<0.001). The arms of subjects with type 2 diabetes did not have significantly less fat compared to controls. Adjusted trunk lean mass was larger in type 2 diabetes by 0.6 kg (28.4 vs 27.8 kg, P<0.001) while leg lean was smaller by 0.5 kg (18.1 vs 18.6 kg, P<0.001). Type 2 diabetes is associated with less total fat, leg fat and leg lean mass and more truncal fat and lean mass than controls. The physiological processes producing these deviations in tissue distribution and their metabolic significance warrant further investigation.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 06/2008; 32(5):780-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803802 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is widely recognized as conveying the highest health risk in humans among the currently measurable adipose tissue compartments. A recent study indicated that the traditionally measured VAT area at L(4)-L(5) is not the VAT area with the highest correlation with total VAT volume. At present, it is unknown whether the area with the highest correlation is also the most strongly associated with obesity-related health risk. The study aim was to establish which VAT slice area(s) are most strongly associated with obesity-related health risk indicators. The subjects were a convenience sample of healthy adults who completed whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The correlations, with appropriate adjustments, were examined between individual MRI slice VAT areas and fasting serum/plasma triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), glucose, insulin and blood pressure. The sample consisted of 283 healthy men (age (mean+/-s.d.) 41.9+/-15.8 years; BMI, 26.0+/-3.2 kg/m(2); VAT, 2.7+/-1.8 L) and 411 women (age, 48.1+/-18.7 years; BMI 27.0+/-5.4 kg/m(2); VAT, 1.7+/-1.2 L). After adjusting for age, race, menopause status, scan position and specific blood analysis laboratory, VAT area at L(4)-L(5) had lower correlations with most metabolic risk factors including serum/plasma TG, HDL, glucose, insulin and blood pressure than VAT volume in both men and women. The VAT areas 10 and 15 cm above L(4)-L(5) in men had higher or equal correlations with health risk measures than VAT volume. In women, the VAT area 5 cm above or below L(4)-L(5) and total VAT volume had similar correlations with health risk measures. An appropriately selected single slice VAT area is an equally reliable phenotypic marker of obesity-related health risk as total VAT volume. However, in both men and women the VAT slice area at the traditional L(4)-L(5) level is not the best marker of obesity-related health risk.
    International Journal of Obesity 06/2007; 31(5):763-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803474 · 5.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

320 Citations
10.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Preventive Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States