[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which adrenomedullin (AM) blockade suppresses tumor neovessels are not well defined. Herein, we show that AM blockade using anti-AM and anti-AM receptors antibodies targets vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and induces regression of unstable nascent tumor neovessels. The underlying mechanism involved, and shown in vitro and in vivo in mice, is the disruption of the molecular engagement of the endothelial cell-specific junctional molecules vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin)/β-catenin complex. AM blockade increases endothelial cell permeability by inhibiting cell-cell contacts predominantly through disruption of VE-cadherin/β-catenin/Akt signalling pathway, thereby leading to vascular collapse and regression of tumor neovessels. At a molecular level, we show that AM blockade induces tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin at a critical tyrosine, Tyr731, which is sufficient to prevent the binding of β-catenin to the cytoplasmic tail of VE-cadherin leading to the inhibition of cell barrier function. Furthermore, we demonstrate activation of Src kinase by phosphorylation on Tyr416, supporting a role of Src to phosphorylate Tyr731-VE-cadherin. In this model, Src inhibition impairs αAM and αAMR-induced Tyr731-VE-cadherin phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Tyr731-VE-cadherin phosphorylation state is dependent on Src activation. We found that AM blockade induces β-catenin phosphorylation on Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 sites in both ECs and VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo in mice. These data suggest that AM blockade selectively induces regression of unstable tumor neovessels, through disruption of VE-cadherin signalling. Targeting AM system may present a novel therapeutic target to selectively disrupt assembly and induce regression of nascent tumor neovessels, without affecting normal stabilized vasculature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is one of the key features of glioblastoma (GBM). Our objective was to explore the potential changes of angiogenic factors in GBM between initial diagnosis and recurrence after radiotherapy-temozolomide (RT/TMZ). Paired frozen tumors from both initial and recurrent surgery were available for 29 patients. Screening of genes expressions related to angiogenesis was performed using RT- PCR arrays on 10 first patients. Next, RNA expressions of the selected genes were analyzed on all samples. Protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. The anti-tumor effect of AMD3100 (anti-CXCR4) was tested in GBM explants. In the screening step, the initial-recurrence expression changes contributed to a selection of seven genes (VEGFA, VEGFR2, VEGFR1, CXCL12, CXCR4, uPA HIF1α). By quantitative RT-PCR, RNA expressions of CXCR4 (p = 0.029) and CXCL12 (p = 0.107) were increased while expressions of HIF1α (p = 0.009) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.081) were decreased at recurrence. Similarly, CXCL12 protein expression tended to increase (p = 0.096) while VEGFR2 staining was decreased (p = 0.004) at recurrence. An increase of anti-tumoral effect was observed with the combination of AMD3100 and RT/TMZ versus RT/TMZ alone in GB explants. Recurrence of GB after chemo-radiation could be associated with a switch of angiogenic pattern from VEGFR2-HIF1α to CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway, leading to new perspectives in angiogenic treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and is among the deadliest of human cancers. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression is an important step in tumor progression as miRNAs can act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and may affect cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. Whereas the oncogenic miR21 has been shown to be overexpressed in gliomas, the expression and function of the tumor-supressor miR200a in GBMs remains unknown. In this study, we show that miR21 is upregulated in grade IV (GBMs) vs. grade II-III (LGs) gliomas, confirming that miR21 expression level is correlated with tumor grade, and that it may be considered as a marker of tumor progression. Conversely, miR200a is demonstrated for the first time to be downregulated in GBMs compared with LGs, and overexpression of miR200a in GBM cells is shown to promote TMZ-sensitivity. Interestingly, miR200a but not miR21 expression level is significantly higher in TMZ-responsive vs. -unresponsive tumoral glial cells in primary culture. Furthermore, miR200a appears negatively correlated with the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O (6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), and the inhibition of MGMT activity results in an increase of miR200a expression in GBM cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that miR200a is likely to act as a crucial antitumoral factor regarding glioma progression. Interplay between miR200a and MGMT should be considered as potential mechanism involved in therapeutic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of Adrenomedullin (AM) system (AM and its receptors "AMR; CLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3") in cancer of prostate (CaP) androgen-independent growth. Experimental design: Androgen-dependent and independent CaP models were used to investigate the role and mechanisms of AM in CaP hormone-independent growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
AM and AMR were immunohistochemically localized in the carcinomatous epithelial compartment of CaP specimens of high-grade (Gleason score >7) suggesting a role of the AM system in the CaP growth. We used the androgen-independent Du145 cells for which we demonstrate that AM stimulated cell proliferation in vitro through the cAMP/CRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. The proliferation of Du145 and PC3 cells is decreased by anti-AM antibody (αAM) supporting that AM may function as a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor for CaP androgen-independent cells. In vivo, αAM therapy inhibits Du145 androgen-independent xenografts growth and interestingly LNCaP androgen-dependent xenografts growth only in castrated animals suggesting strongly that AM might play an important role in tumor regrowth following androgen ablation. Histological examination of αAM-treated tumors showed evidence of disruption of tumor vascularity, with depletion of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells and pericytes, and increased lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. Importantly, αAM potently blocks tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, but does not affect established vasculature and lymphatic vessels in normal adult mice.
We conclude that expression of AM upon androgen ablation in CaP plays an important role in hormone-independent tumor growth and in neovascularization by supplying/amplifying signals essential for pathological neoangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; 19(22). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0691 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide vasodilator that transduces its effects through calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein-2 and -3 (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3). In this study, real-time quantitative reverse transcription demonstrated a significant expression of AM mRNA in tumor samples from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in clinical stage II, III, and IV when compared with normal colorectal tissue. AM, CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 proteins were immunohistochemically localized in the carcinomatous epithelial compartment of CRC tissue. Tissue microarray analysis revealed a clear increase of AM, CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 staining in lymph node and distant metastasis when compared with primary tumors. The human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 expressed and secreted AM into the culture medium with a significant increase under hypoxia. Treatment of HT-29 cells with synthetic AM stimulated cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Incubation with anti-AM antibody (αAM), anti-AM receptors antibodies (αAMR), or AM antagonist AM22-52 inhibited significantly basal levels of proliferation of HT-29 cells, suggesting that AM may function as an autocrine growth factor for CRC cells. Treatment with αAM significantly suppressed the growth of HT-29 tumor xenografts in vivo. Histological examination of αAM-treated tumors showed evidence of disruption of tumor vascularity with decreased microvessel density, depletion of endothelial cells and pericytes, and increased tumor cell apoptosis. These findings highlight the potential importance of AM and its receptors in the progression of CRC and support the conclusion that αAM treatment inhibits tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that AM may be a useful therapeutic target.
Cancer Medicine 04/2013; 2(2):196-207. DOI:10.1002/cam4.51 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundCancer stem cells are thought to represent the population of tumorigenic cells responsible for tumor development. The CD133
antigen has been described as a putative stem cell marker in malignant brain tumor that could identify such a tumorigenic
population in a subset of glioblastoma. To date, the correlation between CD133 expression in primary glioblastoma and patient
prognosis is not clearly established. To address this question we investigated the relationship between CD133 mRNA expression
and patient outcome in a glioblastoma patient cohort.
Materials and MethodsThe quantitative expression of CD133 stem cell antigen mRNA using real-time QRT-PCR was assessed in a cohort of 48 consecutive
primary glioblastoma patients treated by chemoradiation with temozolomide.
ResultsOn multivariate survival analysis, high CD133 mRNA expression was a significant (P=0.007) prognostic factor for adverse progression-free and overall survival independent of extent of resection (P=0.012) and MGMT methylation status (P=0.002). Patient age was also an independent prognosticator of overall survival (P=0.037). Furthermore, according to the conjoined expression of CD133 mRNA and MGMT status, the patients were categorized
into 3 groups with homogenous prognosis.
ConclusionsThese findings constitute conclusive evidence that the measurement of the mRNA expression of CD133 stem cell antigen actually
impacts the survival of GBM patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic therapies are used for advanced clear-cell renal carcinomas (cRCC), but without curative possibilities, underlining the need for new therapeutic targets. Adrenomedullin (AM), a multifunctional peptide, is highly expressed in several tumors and plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth through its receptors: calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein 2 and 3 (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3). In this study, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR showed AM mRNA levels were higher in cRCC and in chromophobe renal carcinomas (chRCC) than in normal renal tissue. Interestingly, AM mRNA expression in cRCC correlated strongly with VEGF-A mRNA expression. Immunohistochemically, AM, CLR and RAMP2 were localized in the carcinomatous epithelial compartment of cRCC. Interestingly, RAMP3 immunostaining was found only in the inflammatory cells that infiltrated tumors, suggesting a cross talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment. We also observed that cRCC cells BIZ and 786-O expressed and secreted AM into the culture medium. In vitro, exogenous AM treatment stimulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, indicating the cell can respond to AM. The action of AM was specific and was mediated by the CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3 receptors. Clinical data showed the prognostic value of AM. High AM mRNA levels were associated with an increased risk of relapse after curative nephrectomy for cRCC. These findings highlight the implication of the AM pathway in the metastatic process and the prognostic relevance of AM in cRCC and point to a potential new therapeutic target.
International Journal of Cancer 11/2009; 125(10):2307-15. DOI:10.1002/ijc.24568 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I gliomas) that are circumscribed and cured by surgical resection, invasion is a hallmark of grades II-IV gliomas. Proteases play a major role in the invasion process and correlations between glioma grading, survival and protease expression have been demonstrated. In this study, we have chosen to study using different technical approaches (Q-RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry) the expression of five molecules involved in extracellular matrix degradation (cathepsin B, MMP2, MMP9, uPA and PAI-1) in glioblastomas in order to determine their prognostic impact among grade IV gliomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas were used as controls. Q-RT-PCR showed that transcripts of uPA, PAI-1, cathepsin B and MMP9 were significantly more expressed in glioblastomas (n = 52), in comparison to pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 17) (P = 0.049, P < 0.0001, P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively). On both univariate and multivariate analyses, cathepsin B and PAI-1 were strong predictors of overall survival among the group of glioblastomas (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin B further confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort of patients with glioblastoma. In situ hybridization showed that uPA is detected at the invasive edge of glioblastomas, whereas PAI-1 is more abundant in microvascular proliferation and pseudo-palisading cells than at the infiltrative edges. These results suggest that cathepsin B and PAI-1 are important biomarkers for the stratification of glioblastoma patients with respect to survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide vasodilator that transduces its effects through calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity modifying protein-2 and -3 (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3). Previously, we reported on the development of an anti-AM antibody that potently inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Here, we report the effect of anti-AM receptor antibodies (alphaAMRs) on angiogenesis and tumor growth. We demonstrate that alphaAMRs decrease in a dose-dependent manner the growth of U87 glioblastoma cells and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, but not A549 lung cancer cells, in vitro. In vivo, AM in Matrigel plugs induces angiogenesis by promoting recruitment of endothelial cells, pericytes, myeloid precursor cells, and macrophages and by promoting channel formation. Remarkably, systemic administration of alphaAMRs every 3 d markedly reduced neovascularization of Matrigel plugs in a dose-dependent fashion, as demonstrated by reduced numbers of the recruited cells and vessel structures. Several human tumor xenografts in athymic mice were used to examine the effect of alphaAMR treatment on tumor angiogenesis and growth. AlphaAMR treatment significantly suppressed the growth of glioblastoma, lung, and colon tumors. Histological examination of alphaAMR-treated tumors showed evidence of disruption of tumor vascularity with decreased microvessel density, depletion of endothelial and pericyte cells, and increased tumor cell apoptosis. These findings support the conclusion that alphaAMR treatment inhibits tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth and suggest that AMRs may be useful therapeutic targets.
The FASEB Journal 07/2009; 23(10):3424-35. DOI:10.1096/fj.08-127852 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional regulatory peptide with important angiogenic and mitogenic properties. Here we identify a region of stable secondary structure in the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) of human AM mRNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of the 5' UTR consistently resulted, in addition to the product with the expected size of 155 base pair (bp), in a second product with an approximately 65-bp deletion from the central region of the 5' UTR, suggesting the presence of a secondary structure. The presence of a stem-loop structure was confirmed by probing the 5' UTR with RNases with selectivity for single- or double-stranded RNA. We investigated the role of this stem-loop structure in expression of luciferase reporter gene in cultured cell lines. Reporter assays using a chimeric mRNA that combined luciferase and the 5' UTR of AM mRNA demonstrated a dramatic decrease of the reporter activity owing to a decreased translation, whereas the deletion of the stem-loop structure localized between nt +31 and +95 from the cap site led to the recovery of activity. Gel migration shift assays using cytosolic extracts from mammalian cell lines demonstrate a specific binding of a cytosolic protein to riboprobes containing the 5' UTR of AM but not to riboprobes either corresponding to other areas of the message or containing the 5' UTR but lacking the region of secondary structure. Although we conclude that the 5' UTR of the human AM mRNA can modulate the translation of AM mRNA in vivo, and that the predicted stem-loop structure is necessary for this inhibition, the functional consequences of the cis element-binding activity remain to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After castration or therapeutic hormone deprivation, most cancer of the prostate (CaP) cells develop androgen-independent (AI) growth. In this work, we studied the effect of androgen depletion (castration) on the growth of experimental model LuCaP 23.1 xenograft. A total of 101 nude mice were implanted and analysed for their growth profile before experimental period 1 (11 weeks) and after castration experimental period 2 (15 weeks). For specific periods, tumors were harvested and assessed for molecular marker expression specific for CaP. Taking into account tumor dynamic growth, prior to castration we found 37 fast growing (FG) tumors (948.9+/-76.9 mm3) and 63 slow growing (SG) tumors (229.6+/-18.4 mm3). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that in comparison to SGs, FGs contained elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (HER1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and thymidilate synthase (TS) mRNAs expression and low levels of 5alpha-reductase 2 (5alpha-R2) mRNA. After castration all FG tumors progressed rapidly (by 5 weeks) to AI growth (FG-P). In SG castrated tumors, 66% of tumors showed retarded progression (by 12 weeks) to AI (SG-P), whereas 34% responded to castration (SG-R). Molecular analysis demonstrated distinct molecular profiles integrating different pathways associated with AI progression. The progressive tumors FG-P, and some tumors of SG-P subgroup, presented significantly high levels of HER1, epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), TS, uPA, TP, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 6 (FAS) and peptidylglycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PAM) mRNA all of which correlated with androgen receptor (AR) mRNA. The second subgroup of SG-P tumors showed a high expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. A third subgroup of SG-P tumors showed significant expression of hypoxia-related genes such as adrenomedullin (AM) after castration. LuCaP 23.1 xenograft represent a useful dynamic model to study pre-clinically new therapeutic molecules and evaluate non-randomized therapeutics protocols combining different target inhibition specific to each AI pathways.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 10/2005; 96(5):355-65. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.04.041 · 3.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. We have previously reported a putative regulatory RNA binding protein (PAM mRNA-BP) that binds specifically to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of PAM-mRNA. Here, the PAM mRNA-BP was isolated and revealed to be La protein using affinity purification onto a 3' UTR PAM RNA, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. We determined that the core binding sequence is approximately 15-nucleotides (nt) long and is located 471 nt downstream of the stop codon. Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3' UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, La protein overexpression caused a nuclear retention of PAM mRNAs and resulted in the down-regulation of endogenous PAM activity. Most interestingly, the nuclear retention of PAM mRNA is lost upon expressing the La proteins that lack a conserved nuclear retention element, suggesting a direct association between PAM mRNA and La protein in vivo. Reporter assays using a chimeric mRNA that combined luciferase and the 3' UTR of PAM mRNA demonstrated a decrease of the reporter activity due to an increase in the nuclear localization of reporter mRNAs, while the deletion of the 15-nt La binding site led to their clear-cut cytoplasmic relocalization. The results suggest an important role for the La protein in the modulation of PAM expression, possibly by mechanisms that involve a nuclear retention and perhaps a processing of pre-PAM mRNA molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we demonstrated that U87 glioblastoma xenograft tumors treated with anti-adrenomedullin (AM) antibody were less vascularized than control tumors, suggesting that AM might be involved in neovascularization and/or vessel stabilization. Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, is a multistep process that involves migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and functional maturation of the newly assembled vessels. In our study, we analyzed the role of AM on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) phenotype related to different stages of angiogenesis. Here we report evidence that AM promoted HUVEC migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The action of AM is specific and is mediated by the calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein-2 and -3 (CRLR/RAMP2; CRLR/RAMP3) receptors. Furthermore, AM was able to induce HUVEC differentiation into cord-like structures on Matrigel. Suboptimal concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and AM acted synergistically to induce angiogenic-related effects on endothelial cells in vitro. Blocking antibodies to VEGF did not significantly inhibit AM-induced capillary tube formation by human endothelial cells, indicating that AM does not function indirectly through upregulation of VEGF. These findings suggest that the proangiogenic action of AM on cultured endothelial cells via CRLR/RAMP2 and CRLR/RAMP3 receptors may translate in vivo into enhanced neovascularization and therefore identify AM and its receptors acting as potential new targets for antiangiogenic therapies.
International Journal of Cancer 04/2004; 108(6):797-804. DOI:10.1002/ijc.11663 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of thyroid cancer by thyroglobulin (Tg) assay in peripheral blood is useful in the absence of residual thyroid tissue, but it requires thyrotropin stimulation for maximal sensitivity and is affected by circulating antithyroglobulin antibodies. To avoid these drawbacks, thyroglobulin mRNA (Tg mRNA) assay in circulating blood has been proposed. Initial studies showed that Tg mRNA assay was more positive in patients with metastasis than in cured patients. Further studies showed controversial data. We measured Tg mRNA in 26 patients undergoing levothyroxine (LT(4)) suppressive therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and in 11 controls. The stage of the cancer was defined according to the findings of the latest whole-body (131)I scan and serum Tg performed under LT(4) withdrawal. Patients were classified as cured (negative scan, negative stimulated Tg, 8 patients), with metastasis (positive scan in extrathyroid bed regions, positive Tg, 7 patients), with thyroid remnants (positive scan in thyroid bed, positive Tg, 8 patients), and discordant cases (negative scan, positive Tg, 3 patients). RNA was extracted from blood and analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using two sets of primers and internal probes specific for Tg mRNA. This method allowed the detection of Tg mRNA in thyroid biopsies. Tg mRNA was undetectable in all control subjects and in all patients with cured cancer, positive in 1 of 8 patients with thyroid remnants, and in only 1 of 7 patients with metastasis. In conclusion, our data do not support the usefulness of Tg mRNA measurements in blood for monitoring thyroid cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presently, there is no effective treatment for glioblastoma, the most malignant and common brain tumor. Growth factors are potential targets for therapeutic strategies because they are essential for tumor growth and progression. Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase is the enzyme producing alpha-amidated bioactive peptides from their inactive glycine-extended precursors. The high expression of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase mRNA in glioblastoma and glioma cell lines points to the involvement of alpha-amidated peptides in tumorigenic growth processes in the brain. After screening of amidated peptides, it was found that human glioblastoma cell lines express high levels of adrenomedullin (AM) mRNA, and that immunoreactive AM is released into the culture medium. AM is a multifunctional regulatory peptide with mitogenic and angiogenic capabilities among others. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AM mRNA was correlated to the tumor type and grade, with high expression in all glioblastomas analyzed, whereas a low expression was found in anaplastic astrocytomas and barely detectable levels in low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. In the present study we also demonstrate the presence of mRNA encoding the putative AM receptors, calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein-2 and -3 (CRLR/RAMP2; CRLR/RAMP3) in both glioma tissues and glioblastoma cell lines and further show that exogenously added AM can stimulate the growth of these glioblastoma cells in vitro. These findings suggest that AM may function as an autocrine growth factor for glioblastoma cells. One way to test the autocrine hypothesis is to interrupt the function of the endogenously produced AM. Herein, we demonstrate that a polyclonal antibody specific to AM, blocks the binding of the hormone to its cellular receptors and decreases by 33% (P < 0.001) the growth of U87 glioblastoma cells in vitro. Intratumoral administration of the anti-AM antibody resulted in a 70% (P < 0.001) reduction in subcutaneous U87 xenograft weight 21 days after treatment. Furthermore, the density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumors. These findings support that AM may function as a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor for human glioblastomas and demonstrate that inhibition of the action of AM (produced by tumor cells) may suppress tumor growth in vivo.
American Journal Of Pathology 04/2002; 160(4):1279-92. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62555-2 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 126.96.36.199) is a bifunctional protein containing two enzymes that act sequentially to catalyse the alpha-amidation of neuroendocrine peptides. Previous studies have demonstrated that alpha-adrenergic stimulation results in an increase in intracellular volume and protein content of cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells. The present study examined the regulated expression of PAM during alpha-adrenergic stimulation. Alpha1-adrenergic stimulation activates the expression and release of PAM from myocytes. Following phenylephrine treatment, myocardial cells displayed a several fold increase in PAM activity, and a 2-4-fold increase in the steady state levels of PAM mRNA. This effect of alpha-adrenergic stimulation was dependent on the concentration and duration of exposure to the agonist, and displayed alpha1-adrenergic receptor specificity. The transcription rate experiments indicated that these alpha-adrenergic effects were not due to increased PAM gene activity, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism was involved. The most common mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation affects cytoplasmic mRNA stability. Cardiomyocytes cultures from atria and ventricles in the presence of 5,6 dichloro-1-beta ribofuranosyl benzamidazole (DRB) showed that phenylephrine treatment increased the half-life of PAM mRNA from 13 +/- 1 to 21 +/- 1 h in atrial cells and from 8 +/- 1 to 12 +/- 1 h in ventricle cells. Analysis of nuclear RNA with probes specific for PAM intron sequences shows that increased PAM expression after phenylephrine treatment was not due to intranuclear stabilisation of the primary transcript. Protein kinase C inhibitors H7 and GF109203x, completely blocked the phenylephrine stimulated PAM expression. These results suggest that alpha-adrenergic agonist induces PAM mRNA levels by increasing its stability in the cytoplasm. They indicate that PAM gene expression augments through a H7 and GF109203x sensitive pathway, involving the activation of protein kinase C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, high levels of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), which catalyzes the two-step formation of bioactive alpha-amidated peptides from their glycine-extended precursors, have been found in the uterus. Expression of PAM was evaluated in the uterus of intact cycling adult female rats and after experimental manipulation of the estrogen status of the rats. During the estrous cycle, PAM mRNA levels exhibited striking changes inversely related to the physiological variations of plasma estrogen levels. The levels of PAM transcripts changed markedly during the estrous cycle, reaching the highest levels at metestrus. There was a 15-fold increase in the abundance of PAM mRNA between metestrus and proestrus. Chronic treatment of ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol decreased PAM mRNA levels to values comparable with those found in intact rats at proestrus. Progesterone was without effect on PAM mRNA levels, indicating that the effect was specific for estradiol. In situ hybridization studies were conducted to determine the tissue disposition and cell types expressing PAM. High levels of PAM mRNA were localized in the endometrium at the level of luminal and glandular cells. A weak signal was observed in stromal cells, and the myometrium cells were negative. 17beta-Estradiol treatment induced an overall decrease of the hybridization signal, as compared with ovariectomized rats. These results demonstrate the presence of high levels of PAM in the uterus and indicate that estrogens are involved in regulating the expression of the enzyme in this tissue. However, the present study provides no information regarding whether this regulation takes place at the level of transcription or influences mRNA stability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1998; 95(12):7191-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.12.7191 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. Growing evidence suggests that the metabolism of PAM messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can be regulated within the cytoplasm. To understand the mechanisms controlling the metabolism of PAM mRNAs, we sought to identify cis elements of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PAM mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, one sequence element is shown to form a specific RNA-protein complex. The protein-binding site of the complex was determined by ribonuclease T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding site with antisense oligonucleotide, and by competition assays. Using 3'-end-labeled RNA in gel shift and UV cross-linking analyses, we detected in the 3'-UTR a novel 20-nucleotide cis element that interacted with a widely distributed cellular cytosolic protease-sensitive factor(s) to form a 60-kDa PAM mRNA-binding protein complex. The binding activity was redox sensitive. Tissue distribution of the protein in the rat showed a marked tissue-specific expression, with ovary, testis, lung, heart septum, anterior pituitary and hypothalamus containing large amounts compared with liver, ventricle, atrium, and neurointermediate lobe. No binding activity was detectable in pancreas, intestine, or kidney extracts. Northwestern blot analysis of AtT-20 (mouse corticotrope tumor cell line) cytoplasmic extracts revealed a protein of 46 kDa. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 3'-UTR of PAM mRNA from many animal species. Although these data suggest that cis element-binding activity could be a cytoplasmic regulator of PAM mRNA metabolism, the functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pituitary is a rich source of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). This bifunctional protein contains peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase catalytic domains necessary for the two-step formation of alpha-amidated peptides from their COOH-terminal glycine extended precursors. Expression of PAM was evaluated in the anterior pituitary of intact cycling adult female rat and after experimental manipulation of estrogen status. PAM messenger RNA (mRNA) levels showed changes inversely related to the physiological variations of plasma estrogen levels during the estrous cycle. Chronic treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) rats with 17 beta-estradiol decreased PAM mRNA levels to values comparable with those found in intact rats at proestrus. In situ hybridization of anterior pituitary sections using 35S-labeled full length RNA antisense transcripts of rat PAM-1 complementary DNA showed that 17 beta-estradiol treatment induced an overall decrease of the hybridization signal, as compared with OVX rats. Progesterone treatment did not change PAM mRNA levels both in OVX or OVX + E2 rats. Based on Northern blot analysis and amplification of fragments derived from rat PAM-1 by RT-PCR, it was found that estrogen status does not affect the distribution of PAM mRNA among its various alternatively spliced forms. In OVX 17 beta-estradiol treated rats, the specific activity of PAM in the anterior pituitary decreased in both soluble and particulate fractions compared with OVX animals. Western blot analysis demonstrated a 105-kDa PAM protein in particulate fractions prepared from OVX and OVX-17 beta-estradiol treated animals. The soluble fraction from OVX animals contained major PAM proteins of 105, 95, 84, 75, and 45 kDa, and 17 beta-estradiol treatment caused a decrease in the prevalence of these proteins. These results indicate that estrogens are involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating the expression of PAM in several cell types in the anterior pituitary gland.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 184.108.40.206) is a multifunctional protein containing two enzymes that act sequentially to catalyze the alpha-amidation of neuroendocrine peptides. The regulatory mechanism(s) involved in the tissue-specific induction of PAM messenger RNA (mRNA) by thyroid status have been investigated in rat anterior pituitary gland. In this tissue, cellular PAM mRNA increases in response to hypothyroidism (4- to 7-fold above basal levels). To gain further insight into this pretranslational control, nuclear in vitro run-on transcription assays were performed. Using PAM complementary DNAs and intronic probe, we showed that the transcriptional rate of rat pituitary PAM gene in isolated nuclei was not altered by thyroid status. Primary rat pituitary cells cultures from hypo- and euthyroid rats in the presence of actinomycin D showed that hypothyroidism increased the half-life of PAM mRNA from 9-10 h to 15-17 h. Taken together, these data suggest that hypothyroidism induces PAM mRNA levels by increasing its stability in the cytoplasm.