Carita Eklund

University of Tampere, Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (35)105.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, suppressing T-cell activity. IDO activity and expression are increased in many malignant diseases, including hematological malignancies. IDO expression can mediate immunotolerance to tumors. IDO activity and expression have not previously been studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We measured IDO activity by calculating the kynurenine-tryptophan (kyn-trp) ratio. IDO and IDO2 gene expression was determined by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In patients with CLL, the serum kyn-trp ratio-reflecting increased IDO activity-was significantly higher compared with controls, but in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)-mainly representing malignant B cells-the expression of genes encoding IDO and IDO2 enzymes was reduced. Increased IDO activity in patients with CLL may affect disease progression, although it originates from cells other than malignant B cells.
    Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia 09/2012; 12(5):363-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity from childhood to adulthood is associated with adverse health later in life. Increased youth BMI is a risk factor for later obesity, but it is unknown whether identification of other risk factors, including recently discovered genetic markers, would help to identify children at risk of developing adult obesity. Our objective was to examine the childhood environmental and genetic predictors of adult obesity. We followed 2119 individuals of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study for up to 27 yr since baseline (1980, age 3-18 yr). We evaluated adult obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)]. The independent predictors (P < 0.05) of adult obesity included childhood BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP), family income (inverse), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes TFAP2B, LRRN6C, and FLJ35579. A risk assessment based on childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income was superior in predicting obesity compared with the approach using data only on BMI (C-statistics 0.751 vs. 0.772, P = 0.0015). Inclusion of data on childhood CRP and novel genetic variants for BMI did not incrementally improve C-value (0.779, P = 0.16). A nonlaboratory risk score (childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income) predicted adult obesity in all age groups between 3-18 yr (P always <0.001). Childhood BMI, CRP, family income (inversely), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes FLJ35779, TFAP2B, and LRRN6C are independently related to adulthood obesity. However, because genetic risk markers and CRP only marginally improve the prediction, our results indicate that children at high risk of adult obesity can be identified using a simple non-laboratory-based risk assessment.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2011; 96(9):E1542-9. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory protein that may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, its status as a causal risk factor is still controversial. CRP gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to associate with CRP concentration, but not convincingly with early atherosclerotic changes. We assessed whether CRP genotypes or their haplotypes associate with plasma CRP levels or carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) or carotid artery elasticity (CAE) in a Finnish middle-aged study population. We genotyped CRP gene polymorphisms -717A>G (rs2794521), -286C>T>A (rs3091244), +1059G>C (rs1800947), +1444C>T (rs1130864) and +1846G>A (rs1205) and measured CRP concentration in a sub-population (N=1332, mean age 58.2 ± 8.0, women n=727 and men n=605) of a large Finnish cross-sectional health examination survey, The Health 2000 Study, carried out in 2000-2001. Results. Significant association (both sexes p<0.0001, women p=0.015 and men p=0.029) was found between CRP rs1800947 genotype and CRP concentration. Multivariate analysis showed an independent effect of the genotype on CRP concentration after adjustment for risk factors (women p=0.036 and men p=0.009). Similar associations were seen at the haplotype level in haplotype ACCCA where +1059 C-carriers had lower median CRP values than non-carriers (p=0.008). One CRP genotype (rs1130864) was associated with one CAE parameter in men but no association was observed between CRP genotypes and carotid artery IMT. CRP gene allelic variation is associated with CRP levels in both sexes and with one CAE parameter (SI) in men in a population-based Finnish cohort of middle-aged subjects.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 03/2011; 71(5):353-61. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) leads to increased inflammation via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of ANS function. HRV has been shown to be associated with CRP levels. Currently, there are no studies addressing the relationship between HRV and SAA. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between HRV, CRP and SAA in healthy young adults. CRP and SAA concentrations and short-term HRV indices [high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), total spectral component of HRV, root mean square differences of successive R-R intervals, the standard deviation of all R-R intervals and ratio between LF and HF) were measured in 1601 men and women aged 24-39 taking part in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. A significant inverse correlation (P < 0·05) between HRV indices and inflammatory markers was observed. However, in linear regression analyses, only inverse association between HRV indices and CRP levels remained significant (P < 0·05), while association between HRV indices and SAA levels was attenuated to the null (P > 0·05) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, cholesterol levels, leptin and other common traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Reduced HRV indices are independently associated with increased CRP levels, but not with SAA levels. This association supports the hypothesis that dysregulation of the ANS may lead to increased inflammation early in adulthood.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2011; 41(9):951-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Old age is associated with increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, a phenomenon termed inflamm-aging. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with several age-associated diseases and with a shortened lifespan. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has immunomodulatory properties and its activity is elevated in inflammation, autoimmune disorders and malignancies. We have previously shown that IDO activity is increased in nonagenarians compared to young individuals and that high IDO activity is associated with mortality at old age. In this study our aim was to assess whether this difference in IDO activity in the plasma was due to the differential expression of either the IDO1 or IDO2 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results show that IDO1 and IDO2 are not differently expressed in nonagenarians compared to controls and that the expression of IDO genes is not associated with the level of IDO activity in the plasma. The level of IDO activity in the plasma is not regulated through the expression of IDO1 or IDO2 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
    Immunity & Ageing 01/2011; 8:9.
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    ABSTRACT: The human immune system, especially the adaptive branch, substantially declines with ageing. Several distinct immunosenescent events have already been described, yet data regarding to age-associated baseline alterations in immune cell function is limited. Therefore, by using the TaqMan Human Immune Arrays we conducted a preliminary gene expression profiling of immune-related genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of young individuals (aged 22–37 years, n = 13) and nonagenarians (n = 12), the latter being part of the Vitality 90+ Study. We also analysed the correlations between significantly regulated genes. The results revealed a significantly decreased expression of CCR7, CD19, CD28, CD40LG, ICOS, IL4, IL6 and LTA as well as significantly increased expression of FN1 in the nonagenarians as compared to the controls. Significant direct correlations were observed between the expression of CCR7 and CD19, CCR7 and ICOS, ICOS and CD19, ICOS and CD40LG, as well as CD40LG and CD28 in the nonagenarians but not in the controls. These results suggest that the key players of adaptive immunity i.e. the factors required for full lymphocyte activation are markedly and coordinately down-modulated in the very old individuals. Further research is, however, required to establish the relationship between these changes and the mechanisms of immunosenescence.
    Biogerontology 04/2010; 11(6):671-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of genetic risk factors to the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis is poorly understood. It is likely that multiple variants are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, but the subtle genotypic and phenotypic differences are beyond the reach of the conventional case-control designs and the statistical significance testing procedures being used in most association studies. Our objective here was to investigate whether an alternative approach--in which common disorders are treated as quantitative phenotypes that are continuously distributed over a population--can reveal predictive insights into the early atherosclerosis, as assessed using ultrasound imaging-based quantitative measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Using our population-based follow-up study of atherosclerosis precursors as a basis for sampling subjects with gradually increasing IMT levels, we searched for such subsets of genetic variants and their interactions that are the most predictive of the various risk classes, rather than using exclusively those variants meeting a stringent level of statistical significance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the predictive value of the variants, and cross-validation was used to assess how well the predictive models will generalize to other subsets of subjects. By means of our predictive modeling framework with machine learning-based SNP selection, we could improve the prediction of the extreme classes of atherosclerosis risk and progression over a 6-year period (average AUC 0.844 and 0.761), compared to that of using conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone (average AUC 0.741 and 0.629), or when combined with the statistically significant variants (average AUC 0.762 and 0.651). The predictive accuracy remained relatively high in an independent validation set of subjects (average decrease of 0.043). These results demonstrate that the modeling framework can utilize the "gray zone" of genetic variation in the classification of subjects with different degrees of risk of developing atherosclerosis.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2010; 6(9). · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a sensitive marker of inflammation and its elevation has been implicated in obesity and in cardiovascular disease, yet data on its regulation in young adults or on its role in early atherosclerosis is scarce. We investigated which factors explain the variation in SAA and analysed whether SAA could be associated with preclinical atherosclerosis. Serum amyloid A levels were measured in participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 2280, n = 1254 women, n = 1026 men). Correlates and determinants of SAA were analysed and the effect of SAA on subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid artery compliance, was evaluated with risk-factor adjusted models. Serum amyloid A correlated directly and independently of BMI with C-reactive protein (CRP), waist circumference and leptin in both sexes, with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and ApolipoproteinA1 (ApoA1) in women and with triglycerides, insulin levels and insulin resistance in men. Use of combined oral contraceptives and intrauterine device was also associated with SAA levels. Determinants for SAA included CRP, leptin and ApoA1 in women, and CRP, leptin and HDL cholesterol in men. SAA levels correlated with carotid compliance in both sexes and with IMT in men, yet SAA had no independent effect on IMT or carotid compliance in multivariable analysis. Serum amyloid A was associated with several metabolic risk factors but was not an independent predictor of IMT or carotid artery compliance. Further longitudinal studies will show whether SAA holds a prognostic value as a risk marker, analogously to CRP.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 10/2009; 266(3):286-95. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence points to a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. The significance of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory and innate immunity molecule, has not been evaluated thoroughly in prostate cancer (PC). In this study of 739 Finnish patients with PC and 760 healthy men, we evaluated the associations of CRP genotypes and haplotypes with total PC risk and PC progression, using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of metastatic disease. Although the haplotype frequencies were similar in patients and controls, an association between haplotype ACCCA and patients' PSA levels was found. The carriers more often had a high PSA than non-carriers (P=0.0002) and the SNP rs2794521 A-allele and rs1800947 C-allele carriers had a higher PSA than non-carriers (P=0.009 and P=0.0004, respectively). A trend for a younger age at diagnosis was found among the carriers of ACCCA (P=0.07) and the rs1800947 C-allele (P=0.06), as well as a trend for the latter to have more likely metastases (P=0.06), but not after Bonferroni correction (alpha=0.00208). This is the first study to suggest association between PSA and CRP variants in PC and, therefore, further studies are warranted. CRP alleles previously found to protect against increased CRP levels are now suggested to be associated with metastatic PC, indicated by elevated PSA.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2009; 100(12):1846-51. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to analyze the CRP gene allelic variations in the Turkish adult risk factor (TARF) study and relate them with serum CRP levels as well as MetS and its components. We analyzed CRP gene polymorphisms (-286C>T>A [rs3091244], +1444C>T [rs1130864], +1059G>C [rs1800947], and +1846G>A [rs1205]) as well as their haplotypes, in addition to measuring CRP levels (n=1138) and collecting risk factor data from 1987 adults (mean age 54.3+/-11.9 years, 51.3% women) participating in the TARF Study. MetS was defined by using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program modified for pre-diabetes and in men for abdominal obesity. After adjustment for the major cardiovascular risk factors, four CRP SNPs (-286C>T>A, +1059G>C, +1444C>T, and +1846G>A) were significantly associated with serum CRP levels in women (p<0.05), whereas the -286C>T>A and +1444C>T polymorphisms were associated with CRP levels in men (p<0.05). The haplotype analyses revealed four common CRP haplotypes. The haplotype 1 (CGCA) in women and the haplotype 3 (TGTG) in men were associated with serum CRP levels and hypertension (p<0.05). However, no haplotype association was observed for MetS or its components. CRP gene allelic variation is associated with serum CRP levels as well as hypertension in Turkish adults.
    Atherosclerosis 05/2009; 206(2):474-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Carita M Eklund
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    ABSTRACT: Low-grade inflammation, a minor elevation in the baseline concentration of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), is nowadays recognized as an important underlying condition in many common diseases. Concentrations of CRP under 10 mg/1 are called low-grade inflammation and values above that are considered as clinically significant inflammatory states. Epidemiological studies have revealed demographic and socioeconomic factors that associate with CRP concentration; these include age, sex, birth weight, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI), fiber consumption, alcohol intake, and dietary fatty acids. At the molecular level, production of CRP is induced by proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and IL-17 in the liver, although extra hepatic production most likely contributes to systemic concentrations. The cytokines are produced in response to, for example, steroid hormones, thrombin, C5a, bradykinin, other cytokines, UV-light, neuropeptides and bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide. Cytokines exert their biological effects on CRP by signaling through their receptors on hepatic cells and activating different kinases and phosphatases leading to translocation of various transcription factors on CRP gene promoter and production of CRP protein. Genetic polymorphisms in the interleukin genes as well as in CRP gene have been associated with minor elevation in CRP. As minor elevation in CRP is associated with both inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions, it should be noticed that the elevation might just reflect distressed or injured cells homeostasis maintenance in everyday life, rather than inflammation with classical symptoms of redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
    Advances in clinical chemistry 01/2009; 48:111-36. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is characterized by a prominent inflammatory component and C-reactive protein (CRP) has been implicated to modulate the complement activity in atherosclerotic arteries via complement factor H (CFH) binding. In this study, we examined whether the gene-gene interactions between CRP haplotypes and CFH Tyr402His functional polymorphism exerted an effect on early atherosclerosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFH (Tyr402His) and CRP (-717A>G, -286C >T>A, +1059G>C, +1444C>T and +1846G>A) were genotyped in the participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n=1698, aged 24-39 years). The CRP SNPs were further constructed into haplotypes and their interactive effects with the CFH Tyr402His polymorphism on the early atherogenic vascular changes [i.e. carotid artery compliance (CAC) and intima-media thickness (IMT)] were examined. After risk factor adjustment, a significant gene-gene interaction (P=0.007) on CAC was observed between CRP haplotype ATGTG and CFH Tyr402His polymorphism in males. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis verified the risk-modifying interactive effect on CAC between these loci (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.37-10.02, P=0.010). No effects on CAC were observed in females and no effects on IMT were detected in either sex. We conclude that the combined presence of CRP haplotype ATGTG and CFH 402His allele may be disadvantageous to carotid artery elasticity in males.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2009; 155(1):53-8. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the inflammatory mediator C-reactive protein (CRP) in atherosclerosis is recognized although its specific functions are not entirely clear. CRP binds to the Fcgamma receptor2A (FcgammaR2A) and its polymorphism, FCGR2A (Arg131His), strongly influences the binding. We wanted to evaluate the CRP-mediated proatherogenic process on early atherosclerosis and investigated whether CRP and FCGR2A show an interactive effect on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Polymorphisms of FCGR2A (Arg131His) and CRP (-717A > G, -286C > T > A, +1059G > C, +1444C > T and +1846G > A) were genotyped and their effects on IMT were analyzed in 2260 young adults participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. CRP haplotypes were constructed based on the CRP polymorphisms. The FCGR2A(Arg131His) polymorphism did not have an independent effect on IMT but a significant gene-gene interaction, epistasis, between FCGR2A and CRP genetics on IMT was found. The epistatic effect was seen in men at haplotype and genotypic level; both CRP haplotype GCGCG (-717, -286, +1059, +1444 and +1846) and CRP-717A > G polymorphism interacted with FCGR2A(Arg131His) on IMT. After adjustment with classical risk factors the P-values for interaction were P = 0.013 and P = 0.010, respectively. No associations were observed in women. In conclusion, this study showed that the effect of CRP genetics on early atherosclerotic changes is modulated by the FCGR2A genetics.
    International Journal of Immunogenetics 12/2008; 36(1):39-45. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ageing is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and the expected lifespan may be affected by several immunological and inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated whether the functional Tyr402His polymorphism (rs1061170) on complement factor H (CFH) gene, which is a key inflammatory downregulator, modulates the longevity of 491 nonagenarians in the Vitality 90+ study. Logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier method with the log rank test were used to examine the effect of the CFH Tyr402His polymorphism on 4-year mortality. After follow-up, we observed that risk factor-adjusted mortality was significantly higher among the carriers of CFH 402His allele compared to non-carriers (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.19-2.67, p=0.005) and that the survival curves of CFH 402His carriers and non-carriers deviated significantly (p=0.016). We propose that the increased mortality is inflammation-related and mediated by aberrant complement regulation by the CFH 402His variant.
    Experimental gerontology 11/2008; 44(4):297-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasoactive substance is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is, in turn, a key regulator of vascular NO production. The eNOS gene polymorphism at position 894 (G>T, Glu298Asp) resulting in T allele has been studied in the context of vascular diseases, but its role in sepsis has not yet been explored. We here studied the effect of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism on the clinical course of the disease in patients with bacteremia. The study comprised 147 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, or Escherichia coli. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and during 6 consecutive days. The polymorphism of eNOS gene, G894T, was genotyped. Carriage of the T allele was associated with low MAP (P = 0.004) and high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (P = 0.001) in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The effect on blood pressure was most prominent in the early stage of the disease (MAP on admission = 52 mmHg in T-allele carriers vs. 91 mmHg in noncarriers; P < 0.001). However, the same was not detected in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, or beta-hemolytic streptococci). The Glu298Asp polymorphism had no effect on case fatality in any pathogen. Carriage of the T allele of the eNOS gene is a risk factor for hypotension in patients with E. coli bacteremia but not in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 10/2008; 31(5):448-53. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) insufficiency caused by point mutations in the MBL2 gene has been associated with increased susceptibility to bacteraemic infections. We here investigated the effect of MBL2 polymorphisms on the susceptibility and clinical course of bacteraemia. The study cohort comprised 145 patients with bacteraemia and 400 controls. In the case of patients with bacteraemia, laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and during six consecutive days. MBL2 structural polymorphisms at codons 52 (CGT-->TGT; designated D or O), 54 (GGC-->GAC; B or O) and 57 (GGA-->GAA; C or O) in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene and promoter region polymorphisms at position -221 (G-->C, designated Y or X alleles) were determined. No difference in MBL2 genotype frequencies between the bacteraemic patients and controls was detected, and MBL2 genotype had no independent effect on mortality, nor disease severity. However, smoking proved a significant risk factor for Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae or beta-haemolytic streptococci) bacteraemia in patients carrying the variant O allele (53% current smokers in Gram-positive bacteraemia patients compared with only 21% in controls, odds ratios 4.2, 95% confidence intervals 2.0-9.0; P < 0.001), while it did not have an effect in those homozygous for the A allele. The same effect was not detected in Escherichia coli bacteraemia. In conclusion, MBL2 genotypes representing MBL insufficiency were not associated with the overall risk of bacteraemia or disease severity, but smoking in carriers of the structural variant O allele may have a deleterious effect increasing the risk of Gram-positive bacteraemia.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 68(4):438-44. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is known to increase concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory nature of the disease is well acknowledged. The aim of this study was to find out whether the metabolic, lifestyle and genetic determinants of CRP differ between women who use COCs and those who do not use any hormonal contraceptives (non-users). A total of 1,257 women (24-39 years) participated in the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, a population based cross-sectional follow-up study. Use of hormonal contraceptives was determined by questionnaire. Plasma CRP and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured; five CRP gene polymorphisms were genotyped (-717A>G, -286C>T>A, +1059G>C, +1444C>T and +1846G>A) and CRP haplotypes were constructed. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that BMI and leptin were the main determinants of CRP in non-users, whereas in COC users the main determinants were BMI, leptin and triglycerides. The median CRP and triglyceride values were significantly higher in COC users than in non-users. The correlations between triglyceride and CRP were tested separately in different COC users in accordance with progestagen content and dosage, the analysis revealing significant association only in women using a high dosage of progestagen or cyproterone. The haplotypes of CRP gene had no significant association with CRP concentration in COC users, while independent effects on CRP were found in non-users. Our study suggests that use of COCs alters the metabolic determinants and genetic regulation of CRP.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 10/2008; 69(2):168-74. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear when in the life course do social inequalities in inflammation emerge. We examined whether the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is determined at conception, in childhood, adolescence or adulthood in 1484 participants from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Five variants of the CRP gene were used to investigate whether SEP differences in CRP levels are determined at conception. SEP and serum CRP were assessed in childhood (age 3-9), adolescence (age 12-18) and in adulthood (age 24-39). SEP was measured using parental education and occupational status in childhood and adolescence, and participants' own education and occupational status in adulthood. Participants with CRP > 10 mg/l were excluded. All CRP gene variants were associated with circulating CRP concentrations in childhood, but there were no differences in the distribution of these variants by SEP. No strong evidence was found of associations between parental SEP and CRP. A graded association between higher SEP and lower CRP was observed in adulthood for education (P = 0.0005) but not for occupational status. Trajectories that led to high educational achievement both in the participants and their parents were associated with lower (P <or= 0.047) CRP levels in adulthood. Excluding participants with infectious diseases, pregnant or lactating women and women using oral contraceptives did not change the findings. In this cohort, SEP differences in CRP concentrations seen in adulthood appear not to be determined at conception or evident in childhood or adolescence.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 04/2008; 37(2):290-8. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to predict cardiovascular events, its status as a causal risk factor is still controversial. CRP gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to associate with CRP concentration, but no direct independent effect on early atherosclerotic changes has been demonstrated. We aimed to determine if CRP gene polymorphisms or haplotypes are associated with CRP concentration or carotid artery compliance (CAC), an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. We genotyped CRP gene polymorphisms -717A>G, -286C>T>A, +1059G>C, +1444C>T and +1846G>A and measured CRP concentration and CAC in 2283 young adults participating in The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A strong association was found between CRP genotypes and CRP concentration, which was also seen at the haplotype level. Linear regression analysis showed an independent effect of each SNP on CRP concentration after adjustment for risk factors, except for +1444 in males. Moreover, -286C>T>A, +1444C>T and +1846G>A were associated with CAC in males, but not in females. Men carrying the SNP -286 allele C had increased CAC after adjusting for risk factors. These data suggest that the presence of high producer CRP genotype is deleterious to carotid elasticity in men.
    Atherosclerosis 02/2008; 196(2):841-8. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are increased in inflammation, and both have been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to explore in a population-based sample whether the relation between leptin and CRP is independent of obesity level and whether genetic causes of CRP elevation contribute to leptin levels. This was a population-based study including 1862 young adults (971 women; 891 men) aged 24-39 yr. The study was conducted at five centers in Finland. Associations between leptin and CRP adjusted for obesity indices, risk factors, genetic variables, and lifestyle variables were measured. Women had 3.0-fold higher median concentrations of leptin (12.5 vs. 4.1 ng/ml) and 1.3-fold higher median concentrations of CRP (0.75 vs. 0.56 mg/liter) than men (P < 0.0001 in both comparisons). In univariate analyses, CRP and leptin were significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001 for women; r = 0.46, P < 0.0001 for men). In multiple regression analysis including age, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin, lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, smoking status, and use of oral contraceptives in women, leptin was the main determinant of CRP in men (P < 0.0001) and the second most important determinant in women (P < 0.0001). A Mendelian randomization test based on genetic variants in the CRP gene (five single nucleotide polymorphisms) provided no support for CRP as a causal agent for leptin. Leptin, obesity, and oral contraceptive use in women were the main factors related to CRP. The relation between leptin and CRP was independent of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 12/2007; 92(12):4753-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

423 Citations
105.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2012
    • University of Tampere
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Medical School
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Turku
      • Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Tampere University Hospital (TAUH)
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland