[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study compares the impact of endurance- vs resistance-type exercise on subsequent 24 h blood glucose homeostasis in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes.
Fifteen individuals with IGT, 15 type 2 diabetic patients treated with exogenous insulin (INS), and 15 type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral glucose-lowering medication (OGLM) participated in a randomised crossover experiment. Participants were studied on three occasions for 3 days under strict dietary standardisation, but otherwise free-living conditions. Blood glucose homeostasis was assessed by ambulatory continuous glucose monitoring over the 24 h period following a 45 min session of resistance-type exercise (75% one repetition maximum), endurance-type exercise (50% maximum workload capacity) or no exercise at all.
Average 24 h blood glucose concentrations were reduced from 7.4 ± 0.2, 9.6 ± 0.5 and 9.2 ± 0.7 mmol/l during the control experiment to 6.9 ± 0.2, 8.6 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.5 mmol/l (resistance-type exercise) and 6.8 ± 0.2, 8.6 ± 0.5 and 8.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l (endurance-type exercise) over the 24 h period following a single bout of exercise in the IGT, OGLM and INS groups, respectively (p < 0.001 for both treatments). The prevalence of hyperglycaemia (blood glucose >10 mmol/l) was reduced by 35 ± 7 and 33 ± 11% over the 24 h period following a single session of resistance- and endurance-type exercise, respectively (p < 0.001 for both treatments).
A single session of resistance- or endurance-type exercise substantially reduces the prevalence of hyperglycaemia during the subsequent 24 h period in individuals with IGT, and in insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Both resistance- and endurance-type exercise can be integrated in exercise intervention programmes designed to improve glycaemic control.
The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw, the Netherlands).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structured exercise is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, adherence to combined resistance and endurance type exercise or medical fitness intervention programmes is generally poor. Group-based brisk walking may represent an attractive alternative, but its long-term efficacy as compared with an individualised approach such as medical fitness intervention programmes is unknown. We compared the clinical benefits of a 12-month exercise intervention programme consisting of either brisk walking or a medical fitness programme in type 2 diabetes patients.
We randomised 92 type 2 diabetes patients (60 +/- 9 years old) to either three times a week of 60 min brisk walking (n = 49) or medical fitness programme (n = 43). Primary outcome was the difference in changes in HbA1c values at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were differences in changes in blood pressure, plasma lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, body composition, physical fitness, programme adherence rate and health-related quality of life.
After 12 months, 18 brisk walking and 19 medical fitness participants were still actively participating. In both programmes, 50 and 25% of the dropout was attributed to overuse injuries and lack of motivation, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no important differences between brisk walking and medical fitness programme in primary or secondary outcome variables.
The prescription of group-based brisk walking represents an equally effective intervention to modulate glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in type 2 diabetes patients when compared with more individualised medical fitness programmes. Future exercise intervention programmes should anticipate the high attrition rate due to overuse injuries and motivation problems.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility and the benefits of combined resistance and interval exercise training on phenotype characteristics and skeletal muscle function in deconditioned, type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with polyneuropathy.
Short-term, single-arm intervention trial.
Eleven male T2D patients (age: 59.1+/-7.5 years; body mass index: 32.2+/-4.0 kg/m2) performed progressive resistance and interval exercise training thrice a week for 10 weeks. Besides primary diabetes outcome measures, muscle strength (MUST), maximal workload capacity (Wmax), whole-body peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and muscle oxidative capacity (MUOX), intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and glycogen (IMCG) storage, and systemic inflammation markers were determined before and after training. Daily exogenous insulin requirements (EIR) and historic individualized EIR were gathered and analysed.
MUST and Wmax increased with 17% (90% confidence intervals 9-24%) and 14% (6-21) respectively. Furthermore, mean arterial blood pressure declined with 5.5 mmHg (-9.7 to -1.4). EIR dropped with 5.0 IU/d (-11.5 to 1.5) compared with baseline. A decline of respectively -0.7 mmol/l (-2.9 to 1.5) and -147 micromol/l (-296 to 2) in fasting plasma glucose and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations were observed following the intervention, but these were not accompanied by changes in VO2peak, MUOX, IMCL or IMCG, and blood glycolysated haemoglobin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and/or cholesterol concentrations.
Short-term resistance and interval exercise training is feasible in deconditioned T2D patients with polyneuropathy and accompanied by moderate improvements in muscle function and blood pressure. Such a specific exercise regimen may provide a better framework for future exercise intervention programmes in the treatment of deconditioned T2D patients.
European Journal of Endocrinology 03/2008; 158(2):163-72. · 3.14 Impact Factor