C M Campero

Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina

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Publications (100)118.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY At present, bovine neosporosis is an important worldwide concern because of its wide geographic distribution and economic impact. Abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine neosporosis in both dairy and beef cattle. Ruminant challenge models are critical to evaluate potential vaccine candidates to help tackle bovine neosporosis and to study pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Several research groups have developed ruminant models of Neospora caninum infection independently of others, resulting in a high degree of variability due to the use of different species of animals, breeds, strains/isolates of N. caninum, doses, routes and times of inoculation. Standardization is greatly needed to advance research in a more collaborative, timely and efficient manner. In the absence of widely accepted international guidelines, this manuscript serves to summarize and discuss the different models and parameters currently in use. Parameters essential for the development of non-pregnant and pregnant ruminant models are outlined and the main knowledge gaps are identified. This information could act as the basis to develop a consensus for international standard guidelines for ruminant models of neosporosis that would be helpful for researchers in this field worldwide.
    Parasitology 06/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low pathogenicity that N. caninum seems to have in water buffaloes, this study reinforces the importance of this specie as maintenance of the disease.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Recent work has highlighted and enumerated the economic annual losses due to Neospora caninum abortions worldwide, which should provide strong motivation for the control of bovine neosporosis. However, with the recent withdrawal from sale of the only commercially available vaccine, control options for N. caninum have become more restricted. While researchers continue to work on developing alternative efficacious vaccines, what are the control options presently available for the cattle industries? At the practical level, recommendations for 'Test-and-cull', or 'not breeding from seropositive dams' stand diametrically opposed to alternative options put forward that suggest a primary producer is better advised to keep those cows in the herd that are already seropositive, i.e. assumed to be chronically infected, and indeed those that have already aborted once. Treatment with a coccidiostat has been recommended as the only economically viable option, yet no such treatment has gained official, regulatory approval. Dogs are central to the life cycle of N. caninum and have repeatedly been associated with infection and abortions in cattle by epidemiological studies. Knowledge and understanding of that pivotal role should be able to be put to use in control programmes. The present review canvasses the relevant literature for evidence for control options for N. caninum (some of them proven, many not) and assesses them in the light of the authors' knowledge and experience with control of N. caninum.
    Parasitology 03/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of C. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. We report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar.
    Genome announcements. 01/2014; 2(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate how N. caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1,350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle) or age and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1,350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p = 0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p < 0.05). Even though the low pathogenicity that N. caninum seems to have in water buffaloes, this study reinforces the importance of this specie as maintenance of the disease.
    Veterinary Parasitology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neospora caninum infection in cattle stimulates host immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to abortion. Susceptibility of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to neosporosis is not well understood, although vertical transmission and fetal death have been documented. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in the placentome of water buffalo following experimental infection in early gestation with the Nc-1 strain of N. caninum. Placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for T-cell subsets, natural killer cells and CD79αcy cells. Placental inflammation was characterized by the infiltration of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells and T cells expressing the γδ T-cell receptor. The distribution of these cellular subsets in buffalo placentomes was similar to that previously described in cattle infected with N. caninum in early gestation, but the lesions were milder, which may explain the lower number of abortions observed in this species after infection.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology 12/2013; In press. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO.-[Infeção simultânea de Neospora caninum e Herpesvirus bovino tipo 5 em casos espontâneos de aborto bovino.] Não está demonstrado até ao momento, que o Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) seja um agente causal de aborto bovino. Uma vez que as lesões cerebrais tanto de Neospora caninum como de Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1(BoHV-1) têm características similares, é necessária uma avaliação microscópica cuidadosa, bem como exames laboratoriais adicionais, para obter um diagnóstico final preciso. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a presença de infeções por BoHV-1, BoHV-5 e N. caninum em ABSTRACT Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) has not been conclusively demonstrated to cau-se bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diag-nosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which sho-wed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identi-fication of 4 (5.9%) fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5%) cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion. 68 casos de aborto espontâneo, nos quais se verificaram lesões microscópicas no sistema nervoso central. Foram encontrados 4 (5,9%) fetos com infeção simultânea de BoHV-5 e N. caninum e 33 (48,5%) casos com infeção exclusiva de N. caninum. Todos os casos foram negativos a BoHV-1. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que a infeçao dual por BoHV-5 y N. caninum está presente durante a gestçao dos bovinos. Apesar disso, o papel de BoHV-5 como agente primário causal de aborto, carece de mais investigaçao. O diagnóstico molecular de BoHV-5 e N. caninum confirmou a importância de se aplicar ensaios complementares para melhorar a sensibilidade do diagnóstico de aborto bovino.
    · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Neospora caninum tachyzoites (Nc-1) inoculated by the conjunctival route in pregnant cows were able to generate infection in their fetuses. Group 1 contained 2 naturally infected cows; group 2 contained two cows inoculated intravenously with 2.5×10(8) tachyzoites, group 3 contained two cows inoculated with 2.5×10(8) tachyzoites by the conjunctival route, and group 4 contained two uninfected control cows. The four inoculated cows from groups 2 and 3 were challenged at 23 weeks of gestation. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), recombinant NcGRA7-based ELISA, ELISA for IgG subisotypes and Western blot analysis were assessed to characterize the humoral immune response in dams. Sera from their fetuses were tested also using Western blot analysis. Routine microscopic evaluation of H&E stained fetal tissues was made and any fetal tissues and placentas with lesions compatible with Neospora-infection were processed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). DNA extraction from fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal tissues were tested by nested PCR. All dams from groups 1, 2 and 3 were seropositive by IFAT, rNcGRA7-based-ELISA and Western blot. IgG1/IgG2 ratios were ≤1 at weeks 27 and 29 of gestation. Only fetuses from groups 1 and 2 developed N. caninum specific antibodies by Western blot. Histopathological lesions compatible with those caused by N. caninum were observed in fetuses from groups 1 and 2. N. caninum cysts and tachyzoites were observed by IHC on fetal tissues from groups 1 and 2. Only fetal samples from group 2 were positive by PCR. Further work is needed not only to characterize the cellular immune response but also to clarify the consequences on the dam after conjunctival inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites. This study shows that N. caninum tachyzoites inoculated by the conjunctival route were not vertically transmitted in pregnant cows.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of live tachyzoites and native antigen extract obtained from the NC-6 Argentina strain against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum, following experimental challenge in pregnant heifers with the NC-1 strain. Sixteen pregnant heifers were divided in 4 groups of 4 animals, each receiving different inoculation before mating: group A animals were intravenously (iv) inoculated with 6.25×10(7) live tachyzoites of the NC-6 strain, group B heifers were inoculated twice subcutaneously (sc) with N. caninum native antigen extract formulated with ISCOMs, group C heifers were sc injected with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and group D heifers received sc ISCOM-matrix (ISCOMs without antigen). All groups were iv challenged with the NC-1 strain at 70 days of gestation. Serum and heparinized blood samples were collected eight times on weeks 0, 2, 3, 5, 9, 13, 16 and 17 post-inoculation. Dams were slaughtered at the 17th week of experiment (104 days of pregnancy) and placental and fetal tissue samples were collected. Specific antibody responses in heifers were tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The cellular immune response in dams was assessed by quantifying IFN-γ production and the percentages of T-cells (CD4(+), CD8(+) and γδ(+)) and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Fetal fluids and tissue samples were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test, western blot, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and nested-PCR. A significant increase in N. caninum antibody response was detected in heifers of groups A and B from week 3 after inoculation (P<0.001). IFN-γ production was similar in groups A and B at week 13 (P>0.05). All fetuses were viable at necropsy. Specific IgG against N. caninum was detected in 1/4 fetal fluids recovered from groups A, C and D heifers and 3/4 fetal fluids from group B. Transplacental transmission could be determined in one fetus from group A and three fetuses from group B by nPCR. All fetuses from groups C and D were positive by nPCR. It is noteworthy that dams with higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios in PBMC, regardless of the experimental group, had lower pathology scores. The results of this study confirm that inoculation with live parasites pre-mating may provide at least partial protection against vertical transmission of N. caninum following challenge in heifers at early gestation.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the Northeast of Argentina (NEA). However, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the NEA. Serum samples were tested for B. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test, and N. caninum, T. gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Overall, the proportion of seropositive animals was 6.4, 22.2, 42.2, 25.4, and 50.8 % for brucellosis, leptospirosis, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis, respectively. The proportion of seropositive animals for all diseases was statistically different among herds (p < 0.05). Statistical differences were also detected among age groups for brucellosis and neosporosis (p < 0.05). The detection of specific antibodies to B. abortus, Leptospira spp., and several Apicomplexa protozoans in water buffaloes in the NEA is reported in this study.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 06/2013; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neospora caninum infection is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The objectives of this study were to genetically characterize the N. caninum NC-6 Argentina isolate using a multilocus microsatellite analysis approach and to study its biological behavior by experimental inoculations into seronegative and seropositive pregnant cattle, evaluating the humoral and cellular immune response elicited and the occurrence of transplacental transmission and fetopathy. Pregnant cows (65 days of gestation) seropositive and seronegative to N. caninum were intravenously inoculated with tachyzoites of the NC-6 Argentina N. caninum strain and slaughtered at 108 ± 2 days of gestation. Serum samples were analyzed for N. caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test. The cellular immune response was analyzed by detection of gamma interferon (γIFN) production in blood cells. Tissue samples from dams, fetuses, and placental cotyledons were processed by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques and examined for N. caninum DNA by PCR. Positive DNA samples were further analyzed by multilocus microsatellite typing for N. caninum. Inoculated animals had significantly higher N. caninum antibody titers and γIFN production than control animals. One seropositive inoculated cow aborted, one seronegative cow had a non-viable fetus, and the remaining fetuses from the experimentally inoculated dams had histopathologic lesions. The PCR was positive in 3/4 fetuses from seronegative inoculated cows and in 2/3 fetuses from seropositive inoculated cows. Multilocus microsatellite analysis revealed that the N. caninum DNA present in fetuses and placentas had an identical pattern to NC-6 Argentina strain. The NC-6 Argentina strain proved to be able to cross the placenta and to induce fetopathy in both the seropositive and seronegative dams.
    Parasitology Research 05/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to study the effect of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on the reproductive female tract by means of analyzing the ovarian follicular population of persistently infected (PI) heifers, and evaluating the performance of oocytes procured form those heifers in in vitro fertilization procedures. Seven BVDV PI Aberdeen Angus and British crossbred heifers ranging from 18 to 36months of age were spayed and their ovaries used for viral isolation, microscopic examination, and in vitro fertilization procedures. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus was detected from the follicular fluid and sera of all PI heifers. Microscopic examination of the ovaries from PI heifers showed a significant drop in the number of follicles cortical regions, compared with controls. A comparative analysis of the stages of follicular development showed a significant decrease in the number of primordial and tertiary follicles in the cortical regions of ovaries from PI heifers. Viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and was widely distributed throughout the ovarian tissues. There were differences in the rate of cleavage and embryo development between oocytes obtained from the ovaries of control animals and PI heifers. Furthermore, two developed embryos obtained from oocytes from one of the PI heifers were positive to BVDV, as well as two media from in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. The results of this study demonstrate that BVDV PI heifers exhibit alterations in follicular population through of the early interaction between the virus and germ cell line affecting directly the mechanisms involved in the ontogenesis of the ovary.
    Veterinary Microbiology 05/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy sheep from the Humid Pampa region, Argentina. Blood samples from 704 dairy sheep belonging to six flocks were collected. Using a cut off titer of 1:50, an indirect fluorescence antibody test was used. Antibodies to T. gondii or N. caninum were detected in 17.3 % (n = 122) and 3 % (n = 21), respectively. All the flocks had at least one seropositive animal to T. gondii but two of them had no seropositive sheep to N. caninum. Fifty-two of 122 (42.6 %) positive samples to T. gondii had antibody titers higher than 1:400. There was a significantly higher proportion of T. gondii seropositive animals in females and older sheep (p < 0.05). Ten of 21 (52.3 %) positive samples to N. caninum had antibody titers higher than 1:400. This is the first report of seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dairy sheep from Humid Pampa, Argentina. Further research is required for a better understanding of the role of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in dairy sheep in Argentina.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 03/2013; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work estimates the economic losses due to Neospora abortions in the humid pampa region of Argentina. The total dairy and beef cattle population at risk of abortion is 1,771,326 and 9,726,684 head, respectively. In dairy cattle, there was an 8 % risk of experiencing abortion due to a variety of causes, but 16.5 % of them were due to Neospora caninum. The economic losses were estimated at US$1,865 (range, 1,400-2,331) per abortion, which equates to a total loss of US$43,607,430 (range, 15,622,600-194,412,390) for the dairy industry at the humid pampa region of Argentina. In beef cattle, the overall risk of abortion was estimated to be 4.5 % for all pregnancies, whereas 6.7 % are specifically due to N. caninum, with an economic loss of US$440 (range, 150-730) per abortion. This amounts to an annual loss to the beef industry of US$12,903,440 (range, 1,130,700-42,070,630) in the same area. The results of this study show that Neospora infections and thus abortions cause severe economic impacts in the dairy and beef industries in the humid pampa region of Argentina, which is one the most important areas of cattle production in the world.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 01/2013; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO.-[Actinobacilose atípica em touros na Argenti-na: dermatite granulomatosa e linfadenite.] A actinoba-cilose é causa comum de infecções esporádicas em bovinos. Esta afeção tem sido caracterizada como uma infecção piogra-nulomatosa não somente da língua como também de tecidos moles tais como linfonodos, ou outras localizações no trato digestivo e na pele. O objetivo do presente trabalho é descre-ver um episódio de dermatite piogranulomatosa e linfadenite que afetou um rebanho de touros na Argentina em 2010. As amostras recolhidas de um dos animais afetados permitiram o isolamento de Actinobacillus lignieresii. Observaram-se as lesões características da doença. Habitualmente não são co-muns outras lesões para além das descritas como "língua de pau", no entanto, a actinobacilose deve ser incluída como um possível diagnóstico diferencial de doenças cutâneas. TERMOS DE INDEXAÇÃO: Actinobacilose, dermatite, linfadenite, bovinos.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 01/2013; 33(1):1-4. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Se evaluó el efecto de la suplementación oral con Mg sobre la concentración intra y extracelular de macroelementos en vacas de cría con restricción nutricional durante el último tercio de gestación y 45 días posparto y determinar su influencia sobre parámetros bioquímicos y el estado clínico y productivo de los animales. Se utilizaron tres grupos de 15 vacas Abeerden Angus, preñadas. El grupo 1 fue suplementado con óxido de magnesio con libre acceso a una pastura de agropiro y festuca; el grupo 2 no recibió suplementación mineral y tuvo acceso a las pasturas; en el grupo 3, los animales fueron sometidos a restricción alimentaria en el preparto, con acceso sólo a heno de agropiro. Se realizaron 6 muestreos de sangre, forraje y uno de agua de bebida. En suero sanguíneo, eritrocitos y forraje se midió Mg, Ca, Na y K por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. En suero y pasto P por colorimetría. En agua Ca, Mg, Na por espectro-fotometría de absorción atómica y sales totales por gravimetría. Los datos fueron analizados mediante ANOVA y comparados por el test de Duncan para cada grupo según muestreos. Las concentraciones de Mg en las pasturas y en heno fueron inferiores al 0,20% sobre materia seca. No existieron diferencias significativas en los valores del Mg sérico entre los 3 grupos de animales si bien el grupo 1 presentó valores más elevados. La concentración de Mg intracelular fue menor que la del extracelular en todos los grupos y durante el posparto se observó un aumento de los valores de Mg eritrocitario en todos los animales. Durante el último muestreo, los animales de los grupos 1 y 2 mantenían una condición corporal de 6 mientras que los del grupo 3 tenían una condición de 4. Los animales de los grupos 1 y 2 ganaron 26 y 16 kg respectivamente, mientras que los del grupo 3 perdieron 44 kg. Los porcentajes de destete fueron de 93,3% para los grupos 1 y 2 y 66,6% para el grupo 3. El peso al nacer de los terneros del grupo 3 fue de 4 kg menos que el de los grupos 1 y 2 (p<0,05). La caída de Mg sérico fue más rápida que la del eritrocitario por lo que es mejor indicador para detectar la deficiencia de Mg. Si bien, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre los parámetros bioquímicos analizados, el grupo de animales bajo restricción alimentaria tuvo mayores pérdidas productivas que los animales sin restricción. Aunque no se observaron signos clínicos vinculantes a la hipomagnesemia en los animales en restricción este tipo de manejo alimenticio puede predisponer a pérdidas productivas que deberán ser evaluadas al momento de definir dicha estrategia.
    Archivos de Zootecnia 12/2012; 61(236):525-536.
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    ABSTRACT: The current study describes a naturally occurring cluster of cases of Wedelia glauca intoxication. Seven of 14 axis deer (Axis axis) and 1 of 8 llamas (Lama glama) in a zoo of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, died suddenly after ingestion of a new batch of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay bales contaminated with the hepatotoxic plant W. glauca. Necropsies of 1 deer and 1 llama were performed. Pathological findings in both animals included severe diffuse acute centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and hemorrhage, and clear yellowish translucent gelatinous edema on the wall of the gall bladder and the serosa of the choledochoduodenal junction. Fragments of W. glauca plants were identified in the hay based on the botanical characteristics of the leaves. Samples of gastric contents were examined by microhistological analysis, which identified epidermal fragments of W. glauca based on the presence of characteristic uniseriate glandular hairs (trichomes), confirming recent ingestion of W. glauca in both cases. The fragments were quantified and represented 5% of all examined vegetal fragments in the deer and 10% in the llama.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 09/2012; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in the development of vaccines for bovine neosporosis. Neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. The severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. Apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with T helper 1 immune response mediated by CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin G2. The reduction of vertical transmission in subsequent pregnancies and the low levels of abortion repetition suggests the existence of protective immune mechanisms. Inoculation with live tachyzoites before mating protects against infection and abortion. Antecedents of the development of live vaccines against other protozoa stimulate research to develop a live vaccine against N. caninum. On the other hand, an inactivated vaccine with low efficacy against neosporosis is useful in the prevention of abortion in farms with epizootic disease. A neosporosis vaccine should avoid abortion, transplacental transmission and infection persistence. In the present work, advances in vaccine development including lysate of tachyzoites, live parasites, recombinant antigens and vaccine vectors are reviewed.
    Revista Argentina de microbiología 09/2012; 44(3):216-230. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current report was prompted by an atypical outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred in a beef herd in the southwestern part of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, where a total of 9/41 (21.9%) yearling bulls died. Blood samples from 73 bulls and 189 heifers were tested for evidence of persistent BVDV infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 7 (9.6%) 24- to 36-month-old bulls, and 3 (1.6%) 36-month-old heifers. Non-cytopathic BVDV was also detected in the seminal plasma of three of six persistently infected (PI) bulls. Furthermore, a 171 bp genomic fragment of BVDV was consistently detected by nested RT-PCR in one of the two samples of the commercial semen used for artificial insemination, indicating that this semen could be a possible source of infection for the whole herd. To evaluate the possible reproductive consequences of PI heifers and bulls, ovaries and semen were obtained from PI cattle for in vitro assays. The in vitro fertilization of oocytes with semen from PI bulls was associated with decreased cleavage and embryo development rates. Additionally, non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from the follicular fluid of PI heifers. Genetic typing revealed that all isolates BVDV from the present study had a high percentage of homology and that all of the fragments from the RT-PCR clearly fit with the BVDV 1b cluster. These findings confirm the negative impact that BVDV can have on the reproductive performance of cattle and the importance of applying the proper sanitary controls to minimize the risk of BVDV infection.
    Animal reproduction science 07/2012; 133(3-4):146-52. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. The severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. Apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with T helper 1 immune response mediated by CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin G2. The reduction of vertical transmission in subsequent pregnancies and the low levels of abortion repetition suggests the existence of protective immune mechanisms. Inoculation with live tachyzoites before mating protects against infection and abortion. Antecedents of the development of live vaccines against other protozoa stimulate research to develop a live vaccine against N. caninum. On the other hand, an inactivated vaccine with low efficacy against neosporosis is useful in the prevention of abortion in farms with epizootic disease. A neosporosis vaccine should avoid abortion, transplacental transmission and infection persistence. In the present work, advances in vaccine development including lysate of tachyzoites, live parasites, recombinant antigens and vaccine vectors are reviewed.
    Revista Argentina de microbiología 07/2012; 44(3):216-230. · 0.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

583 Citations
118.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria
      • Estación Experimental Agropecuaria
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine (1)
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • National Scientific and Technical Research Council
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2012
    • Moredun Research Institute
      Penicuik, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2008
    • University of California, Davis
      • • Department of Population Health and Reproduction (VM)
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
    • Corporación Patología Veterinaria
      Μπογκοτά, Bogota D.C., Colombia
  • 2005
    • Naval Medical Center San Diego
      • Department of Pathology
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial
      San Martín, San Juan, Argentina