Byung Soo Kim

University of Incheon, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (192)453.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment, the prognosis of elderly patients remains poor and no definitive treatment guideline has been established. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intensive chemotherapy in elderly AML patients and to determine which subgroup of patients would be most responsive to the therapy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 84 elderly patients: 35, 19, and 30 patients were administered intensive chemotherapy, low-dose chemotherapy, and supportive care, respectively. Results: Among those who received intensive chemotherapy, there were 17 cases of remission after induction chemotherapy; treatment-related mortality was 22.9%. The median overall survival was 7.9 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that the significant prognostic factors for overall survival were performance status, fever before treatment, platelet count, blast count, cytogenetic risk category, and intensive chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that intensive chemotherapy was markedly effective in the relatively younger patients (65-70 years) and those with de novo AML, better-to-intermediate cytogenetic risk, no fever before treatment, high albumin levels, and high lactate dehydrogenase levels. Conclusions: Elderly AML patients had better outcomes with intensive chemotherapy than with low-intensity chemotherapy. Thus, appropriate subgroup selection for intensive chemotherapy is likely to improve therapeutic outcome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Acta haematologica. 12/2014; 133(3):300-309.
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    ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a crucial factor sustaining human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We designed this study to search the substitutive factors other than bFGF for the maintenance of hPSCs by using human placenta-derived conditioned medium without exogenous bFGF (hPCCM-), containing CXCR2 ligands including IL-8 and GROα, which was developed on the basis of our previous studies. Firstly, we confirmed that IL-8 and/or GROα play independent roles to preserve the phenotype of hPSCs. And, we tried CXCR2 blockage of hPSCs in hPCCM- and verified the significant decrease of pluripotency-associated genes expression and the proliferation of hPSCs. Interestingly, CXCR2 suppression of hPSCs in mTeSR™1 containing exogenous bFGF decreased the proliferation of hPSCs with maintaining pluripotency characteristics. Lastly, we found that hPSCs proliferated robustly for more than 35 passages in hPCCM- on a gelatin substratum. As well, the higher CXCR2 expression of hPSCs cultured in hPCCM- than those in mTeSR™1 was observable. Our findings suggest that, CXCR2 and its related ligands might be novel factors comparable to bFGF supporting the characteristics of hPSCs and hPCCM- might be useful for the maintenance of hPSCs as well as for the accurate evaluation of CXCR2 role on hPSCs without the confounding influence of exogenous bFGF.
    Stem cells and development. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoma, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare in pregnancy. A 24-year-old pregnant woman was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, at 24 weeks' gestation, and was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy. After 4 cycles of R-CHOP, she delivered a healthy baby via cesarean section at 34 weeks and 5 days' gestation because of preterm contraction-related fetal distress. The patient was administered the remaining 2 cycles of R-CHOP after delivery. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography showed complete remission. Here, we report a rare case of DLBCL successfully treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy during pregnancy, we also performed a systematic review of literature for similar cases. There were 3 earlier reports of R-CHOP treatment for DLBCL. All cases, including our case, resulted in preterm birth. Together, these findings suggest that R-CHOP chemotherapy for DLBCL in pregnancy may be associated with preterm birth.
    Obstetrics & gynecology science. 11/2014; 57(6):526-529.
  • Won‐Moo Hur, Byung‐Soo Kim, Sung‐Jae Park
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between coworker incivility, emotional exhaustion, and organizational outcomes measured by job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention. Working with a sample of 286 retail bank employees in South Korea, structural equation modeling is employed to test four hypotheses drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory and affective events theory (AET). According to the analyses, while employee incivility positively affects emotional exhaustion, emotional exhaustion has a negative effect on job satisfaction and job performance. In addition, emotional exhaustion has a positive impact on turnover intention among organizational employees. These results imply that to better understand the relationship between coworker incivility and organizational outcomes, it is necessary to consider emotional exhaustion as an important mediating variable. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed, together with its limitations and future research directions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing 11/2014; · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL).
    The Oncologist 10/2014; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a prospective randomized controlled study, the efficacy and safety of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique has been evaluated using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates a day. Eighty incident CAPD patients were randomized to two groups; GLU group continuously using four glucose-containing dialysates (n=39) and ICO group using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates (n=41). Variables related to residual renal function (RRF), metabolic and fluid control, dialysis adequacy, and dialysate effluent cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The GLU group showed a significant decrease in mean renal urea and creatinine clearance (-Δ1.2±2.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.027) and urine volume (-Δ363.6±543.0 mL/day, P=0.001) during 12 months, but the ICO group did not (-Δ0.5±2.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.266; -Δ108.6±543.3 mL/day, P=0.246). Peritoneal glucose absorption and dialysate calorie load were significantly lower in the ICO group than the GLU group. The dialysate CA125 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the ICO group than the GLU group. Dialysis adequacy, β2-microglobulin clearance and blood pressure did not differ between the two groups. The CAPD technique using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates tends to better preserve RRF and is more biocompatible, with similar dialysis adequacy compared to that using four glucose-containing dialysates in incident CAPD patients. [Clincal Trial Registry, ISRCTN23727549].
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1217-25. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, it is shown that graphene oxide (GO) can be utilized as both a cell-adhesion substrate and a growth factor protein-delivery carrier for the chondrogenic differentiation of adult stem cells. Conventionally, chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells is achieved by culturing cells in pellets and adding the protein transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), a chondrogenic factor, to the culture medium. However, pellets mainly provide cell-cell interaction and diffusional limitation of TGF-β3 may occur inside the pellet both of these factors may limit the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. In this study, GO sheets (size = 0.5–1 μm) were utilized to adsorb fibronectin (FN, a cell-adhesion protein) and TGF-β3 and were then incorporated in pellets of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The hybrid pellets of hASC-GO enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs by adding the cell-FN interaction and supplying TGF-β3 effectively. This method may provide a new platform for stem cell culture for regenerative medicine.
    Advanced Functional Materials 08/2014; · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Total body irradiation (TBI) has traditionally been used in the conditioning regimen for allogenetic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) from an unrelated donor (u-HCT). However, patients are increasingly receiving a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen without TBI, as it seemed less toxic than TBI. We need to know the clinical results of non-TBI u-HCT treatments. We retrospectively investigated the clinical outcomes of allogenetic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) from an unrelated donor without TBI (non-TBI u-HCT) and compared the clinical outcomes of fludarabine-based (FLU group) and cyclophosphamide-ATG (Cy-ATG group) conditioning regimens. Sixty-one patients received the non-TBI conditioning regimen for u-HCT (32 in the FLU group and 29 in the Cy-ATG group). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at 30 days, platelet > 20 K/μL at 30 days, acute graft-versus host disease (aGvHD) at 100 days, and chronic GvHD (cGvHD) at 2 years were 87.01%, 65.57%, 35.20%, and 26.64%, respectively. However, transplantation outcomes and overall survival rates did not differ between the FLU and Cy-ATG groups. Only infused CD34+ cells >3 × 106/kg was identified as a favorable factor for survival in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, non-TBI u-HCT was feasible and there was no difference between the FLU and Cy-ATG groups in terms of transplantation outcomes.
    Leukemia Research 07/2014; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    Byung‐Soo Kim, Jiandong Ding
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, stem cell and regenerative medicine has emerged as a very important field in natural sciences and medicine. We have witnessed remarkable progress in this thriving field, as demonstrated by the research articles and reviews in this AFOB Special Issue.
    Biotechnology Journal 07/2014; 9(7). · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing concern about unwanted effects associated with the clinical use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) at high concentrations, including cyst-like bone formation and excessive fatty marrow formation. We therefore evaluated the induction of mineralized/adipose tissue formation and the bone-healing pattern associated with the controlled release of E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) by a heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) system using ectopic and orthotopic in vivo models, respectively. In the ectopic transplantation model, mineralized tissue formed at the most superficial layer of the transplanted area and on the surfaces of grafted materials, and most of the interstitial space within the transplanted area was filled with excessive adipose tissue specifically at sites that received ErhBMP-2. However, sites that received ErhBMP-2 and HCF showed significantly increased mineralized tissue formation and decreased adipose tissue formation compared to the normal fibrin system with ErhBMP-2. In the orthotopic (calvarial defect) model, controlled release of ErhBMP-2 induced by HCF significantly reduced adipose tissue formation within the defect area compared to the clinically approved absorbable collagen sponge. From these results it can be concluded that the use of a heparin-conjugated fibrin system loaded with ErhBMP-2 may reduce adipose tissue formation and enhance mineralized tissue formation.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating the clinical severity and treatment outcomes of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and identifying predictors associated with mortality in patients with malignancy. A retrospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital from January 2004 to June 2013. The subjects included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) receiving treatment for malignancy whose conditions were complicated by CDI. Clinical severity was determined using the guidelines from the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (SHEA/IDSA). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors independently associated with CDI-related mortality. Of the 5,594 patients treated for malignancy at the Division of Hematology/Oncology during the study period, 61 (1.1 %) had CDI complications. CDI-related mortality was 19.7 % (12/61). Twenty-seven (44.3 %) patients were diagnosed with neutropenia (ANC ≤500/mm(3)) at initial CDI presentation. Forty-one patients (67.2 %) received antimicrobial therapy for CDI. Based on the SHEA/IDSA guidelines, only 12 patients (19.7 %) presented with severe CDI, but 25 (61.0 %) patients experienced treatment failure. Multiple logistic regression modeling showed neutropenia to be an independent risk factor for CDI-related mortality (odds ratio, 5.17; 95 % confidence interval, 1.24-21.59). This study tracked poor CDI treatment outcomes in patients with malignancy and identified neutropenia as a previously unrecognized risk factor of CDI-related mortality. Alternative definitions of severe CDI that include neutropenia might be necessary to more accurately determine clinical severity.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 03/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective multicenter study identifying the role of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory plasma cell myeloma (PCM) in bone resorption and formation via bone turnover markers. A total of 104 patients received at least 1 cycle of bortezomib. Most of them had advanced disease (n = 89). Among them, 75 patients completed 4 cycles of treatment. Most of the patients (81.7%) were treated in combination with steroid. After the 4th cycle treatment, 47 of 75 patients achieved CR, nCR, VGPR, and PR (64.4%), while 26 patients achieved less than PR (35.6%). The proportion of patients who achieved ≥ PR increased as patients received more treatment cycles, reaching 90% after the 8th cycle. DKK-1 levels decreased significantly posttreatment. Bone formation markers (bALP and OC) and osteoclast regulator such as sRANKL also decreased significantly. These findings were observed primarily in patients who received steroid and who had a longer disease duration. While sRANKL demonstrated significant reduction posttreatment, osteoprotegerin (OPG) level did not significantly change posttreatment, resulting in a decreased sRANKL/OPG ratio (P = 0.037). In conclusion, our clinical data suggest that treatment with bortezomib and steroid may rearrange the metabolic balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activities in PCM.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:245247. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).
    Journal of Korean medical science 01/2014; 29(1):61-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data about characteristics of hypertension subtypes in Asian hypertensive patients and their impacts on treatment of hypertension. This prospective, multi-center, observational study evaluated 2,439 hypertensive patients. (≥ 60 years) Inadequately controlled and drug-naïve patients were categorized into three hypertension subtypes (isolated systolic hypertension [ISH], combined systolic/diastolic hypertension [SDH], and isolated diastolic hypertension [IDH]) and proportions of each hypertension subtype were evaluated. After six-month strict treatments, we compared the characteristics of patients who did not achieve target BP with those who did. In overall population, ISH was the most common subtype (53.2%, 1297/2439). However, in drug-naïve patients, SDH was predominant hypertension subtype (59.6%, 260/436). Notably, the proportion of ISH was substantially lower than previously known data. Predictors associated with failure of reaching target BP were old age (>70 years), hypertension awareness, and baseline systolic BP (≥160 mm Hg) for total patients. In drug naïve patients, hypertension awareness, ISH, and microalbuminuria were associated with treatment failure. These findings might have an impact on the evaluations and antihypertensive treatments of elderly Korean patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 01/2014;
  • Cheol Min Joo, Byung Soo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Special vehicles called transporters are used to deliver heavy blocks from one plant to another in shipyards. Because of the limitation on the number of transporters, the scheduling of transporters is important for maintaining the overall production schedule of the blocks. This paper considers a scheduling problem of block transportation under a delivery restriction to determine when and by which transporter each block is delivered from its source plant to its destination plant. The objective of the problem is to minimize the penalty times that can cause delays in the overall block production schedule. A mathematical model for the optimal solution is derived, and two meta-heuristic algorithms based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and a self-evolution algorithm (SEA) are proposed. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated with several randomly generated experimental examples.
    Expert Systems with Applications 01/2014; 41(6):2851–2858. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transfusional iron overload and its consequences are challenges in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or aplastic anemia (AA). This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label study to investigate the efficacy of deferasirox (DFX) by serial measurement of serum ferritin (S-ferritin) level, liver iron concentration (LIC) level using relaxation rates magnetic resonance imaging, and other laboratory variables in patients with MDS or AA. A total of 96 patients showing S-ferritin level of at least 1000 ng/mL received daily DFX for up to 1 year. At the end of the study, S-ferritin level was significantly decreased in MDS (p = 0.02366) and AA (p = 0.0009). LIC level was also significantly reduced by more than 6.7 mg Fe/g dry weight from baseline. Hemoglobin level and platelet counts were significantly increased from baseline (p = 0.002 and p = 0.025, respectively) for patients showing significant anemia or thrombocytopenia. Elevated alanine aminotransferase was also significantly decreased from baseline. This study shows that DFX is effective in reducing S-ferritin and LIC level in transfusional iron overload patients with MDS or AA and is well tolerated. In addition, positive effects in hematologic and hepatic function can be expected with DFX. Iron chelation treatment should be considered in transfused patients with MDS and AA when transfusion-related iron overload is documented.
    Transfusion 12/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Blood research. 09/2013; 48(3):226-228.
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    ABSTRACT: The increased use of bypass surgery in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases requires a better understanding of the superficial temporal artery (STA) anatomy. This study is to describe the gross anatomy of STA in adult Korean population with respect to cranial surgery and to provide basic anatomic data for bypass surgery. The study evaluated retrospectively 35 patients who visited the neurosurgery department at a single institution. For each patient, both the left and right STA (70 vessels) were evaluated by a 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiogramfor diameter and anatomic relationships to external landmarks. Of 70 STAs, 69 had a bifurcation. Among these, 57 (82.6%) were above the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The STA bifurcation was 53.2 ± 5.9 mm posterior to the keyhole, 9.5 ± 5.3 mm anterior to the posterior margin of condylar process of the mandible, and 21.7 ± 15.8 mm superior to the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The inner diameter of the STA was 1.8 ± 0.5 mm at the superior margin of the zygomatic arch, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm for frontal and parietal branches, respectively. The 75.7% of frontal and 66.7% of parietal branches were suitable for microvascular anastomosis. This present study demonstrated the STA in Korean adults, which may benefit the clinician in dealing with the surgical procedures related to this STA.
    Journal of cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgery. 09/2013; 15(3):145-51.
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of SOS (sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; previously veno-occlusive disease [VOD]) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in aplastic anemia. Two hundred and sixty patients were included in the analysis. SOS developed in 7.3% (n=19/260) of patients. Classical Cy (200mg/m(2))-ATG was the most common conditioning regimen (84.2%) in the SOS group. The SOS mortality rate was 4/19 (21.1%). Univariate analyses revealed that Cy 200mg/m(2) conditioning (p=0.035), classical Cy-ATG conditioning (p=0.007), and horse ATG conditioning (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for developing SOS. Multivariate analysis revealed that only horse ATG conditioning was a poor prognostic factor (HR=3.484; 95% CI 1.226-9.904; p=0.002). Rabbit ATG (HR 12.719; 95% CI 2.332-69.373; p=0.003) and weight gain>10% (HR 35.655; 95% CI 2.208-575.805; p=0.012) were risk factors in the overall SOS group. Both rabbit ATG conditioning and weight gain of more than 10% were associated with poor overall survival with a median of 1.2 months (5Y survival rate, any risk factor vs. none: 74.6% vs. 0.0%; p<0.001; Fig. 2) in the SOS group. In conclusion, SOS is a relatively rare (7.3%) but highly fatal (21.1%) acute complication of alloHSCT in AA, and the horse ATG conditioning regimen was a significant risk factor for developing SOS.
    Leukemia research 07/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Cheol Min Joo, Byung Soo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the integration of two emerging classes of scheduling problems, the class of scheduling problems with time-dependent deterioration and the class of scheduling problems with rate-modifying activities, are addressed. The scheduling problems have been studied independently. However, the integration of these classes is motivated by human operators of tasks who have fatigue while carrying out the operation of a series of tasks. This situation is also applicable to machines that experience performance degradation over time due to mal-position or mal-alignment of jobs, abrasion of tools, and scraps of operations, etc. It requires maintenance in order to sustain acceptable production rates. We consider the single machine scheduling problem with time-dependent deterioration and multiple RMAs. A mathematical model for an optimal solution to minimize the makespan is derived and genetic algorithms are proposed. The performance of the genetic algorithms is evaluated using randomly generated examples.
    Expert Systems with Applications 06/2013; 40(8):3036–3043. · 1.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
453.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Incheon
      • Department of Industrial and Management Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2014
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Molecular and Life Science
      • • Division of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Internal medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2014
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sejong University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      • • Department of Statistics
      • • School of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Pukyong National University
      • Department of Polymer Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Ajou University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inha University
      • Department of Information and Communication Engineering
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2005–2013
    • Korea University
      • • Graduate School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Auburn University
      • Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering
      Auburn, AL, United States
    • Gwangju OK Hospital
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2007–2011
    • The Seoul Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1997–2011
    • Kyungpook National University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1989–2011
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–2010
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Applied Statistics
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2009
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States