C Cooper

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States

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Publications (602)2851.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The worldwide uptake of FRAX is described. The aim of this report was to determine the usage of FRAX worldwide over a 1-year period from 1 May 2012. The number of FRAX calculations from each country was assessed over a 1-year period and expressed as calculations per million of the population aged 50 years or more. Countries were colour coded according to usage to populate a world map. Over the index year, there were estimated to be 2,391,639 calculations sourced from 173 counties. Uptake was high in North America, the Antipodes and most countries of Europe; intermediate in Latin America and the Middle East; and very low in Africa and much of South East Asia. It is expected that the comparative data will encourage the development of new FRAX models and the uptake of FRAX into assessment guidelines.
    Archives of Osteoporosis 12/2014; 9(1):166.
  • 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Investigators have suggested a link between birth weight and both hand and lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we sought to extend these observations by investigating relationships between growth in early life, and clinical and radiological diagnoses of OA at the hand, knee and hip, among participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Data were available for 222 men and 222 women. Clinical OA was defined based on American College of Rheumatology criteria. Radiographs were taken of the knees and hips, and graded for the presence of osteophytes and overall Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) score. Lower weight at year one was associated with higher rates of clinical hand OA (OR 1.396, 95% CI 1.05, 1.85, P=0.021). Individuals with lower birth weights were more likely to have hip osteophytes (OR 1.512, 95% CI 1.14, 2.00, P=0.004) and this remained robust after adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, a low weight at one year was also associated with a higher osteophyte number in the lateral compartment of the knee, after adjustment for confounders (OR 1.388, 95% CI 1.01, 1.91, P=0.043). We have found further evidence of a relationship between early life factors and adult OA. These findings accord with previous studies.
    Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 08/2014; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During growth, severe vitamin D deficiency in childhood can result in symptomatic hypocalcaemia and rickets. Despite the suggestion from some studies of a secular increase in the incidence of rickets, this observation may be driven more by changes in population demographics than a true alteration to age, sex and ethnicity-specific incidence rates; indeed, rickets remains uncommon overall and is rarely seen in fair-skinned children. Additionally, the impact of less severe vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has received much interest in recent years, and in this review, we consider the evidence relating vitamin D status to fracture risk and bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood and adolescence. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the suggestion that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] increases childhood fracture risk. Overall, the relationship between 25(OH)D and BMD is inconsistent across studies and across skeletal sites within the same study; however, there is evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation in children with the lowest levels of 25(OH)D might improve BMD. High-quality randomised trials are now required to confirm this benefit.
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    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This consensus article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in geriatric populations. Specifically, it reviews the risk assessment and intervention thresholds, the impact of nutritional deficiencies, fall prevention strategies, pharmacological treatments and their safety considerations, the risks of sub-optimal treatment adherence and strategies for its improvement.
    Osteoporosis International 07/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is variation in how services to prevent second fractures after hip fracture are organised. We explored this in more detail at 11 hospitals. Results showed that there was unwarranted variation across a number of aspects of care. This information can be used to inform service delivery in the future.
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls.
    Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society. 06/2014;
  • Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 06/2014; 5(3):161-3. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture risk in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). No association with risk of fracture was observed for GBS patients compared with controls. Only GBS patients using pain treatment had a doubled risk of fracture. Symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may vary from mild difficulty in walking to complete paralysis, which may increase the risk of fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate fracture risk in patients with GBS. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1987-2012). Each patient with GBS was matched by year of birth, sex, and practice, up to six patients without a history of GBS. Outcome measure was any fracture. There were no associations between GBS and any fracture, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.01 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.33), or osteoporotic fracture, AHR 0.76 (95 % CI 0.50-1.17), compared with controls. Stratification to gender, age, and duration since diagnosis did not show an association either. Only for GBS patients using pain treatment, risk of fracture was doubled AHR 1.97 (95 % confidence CI 1.21-3.21) compared with controls. The risk of fracture in GBS patients exposed to pain treatment was equivalent to risk of fracture among controls exposed to pain treatment. No association with risk of fracture was observed for GBS patients compared with controls. Only GBS patients using pain treatment had a doubled risk of fracture, but their risk was equivalent to fracture risk among controls exposed to pain treatment.
    Osteoporosis International 04/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a large population-based health care database to determine the impact of common co-morbidities on hip fracture risk amongst elderly men. We demonstrated that diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, HIV infection, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease are independent predictors of hip fracture, as is a Charlson score of ≥3. Risk factors for hip fractures in men are still unclear. We aimed to identify common co-morbidities (amongst those in the Charlson index) that confer an increased risk of hip fracture amongst elderly men. We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the SIDIAP (Q) database. SIDIAP(Q) contains primary care and hospital inpatient records of a representative 30 % of the population of Catalonia, Spain (>2 million people). All men aged ≥65 years registered on 1 January 2007 were followed up until 31 December 2009. Both exposure (co-morbidities in the Charlson index) and outcome (incident hip fractures) were ascertained using ICD codes. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of (1) each individual co-morbidity and (2) the composite Charlson index score, on hip fracture risk, after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, and use of oral glucocorticoids. We observed 186,171 men for a median (inter-quartile range) of 2.99 (2.37-2.99) years. In this time, 1,718 (0.92 %) participants had a hip fracture. The following co-morbidities were independently associated with hip fractures: diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), renal failure, HIV infection, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. A Charlson score of ≥3 conferred an increased hip fracture risk. Common co-morbidities including diabetes, COPD, cerebrovascular disease, renal failure, and HIV infection are independently associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in elderly men. A Charlson score of 3 or more is associated with a 50 % higher risk of hip fracture in this population.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) captures novel aspects of bone geometry that may contribute to fracture risk and offers the ability to measure both volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and a separation of trabecular and cortical compartments of bone, but longitudinal data relating measures obtained from this technique to incident fractures are lacking. Here we report an analysis from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, where we were able to study associations between measures obtained from pQCT and DXA in 182 men and 202 women aged 60-75 years at baseline with incident fractures over 6 years later. Among women, radial cortical thickness (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.16, 2.54, p=0.007) and cortical area (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.27, 2.85, p=0.002) at the 66% slice were both associated with incident fractures; these results remained significant after adjustment for confounders (age, BMI, social class, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, dietary calcium, HRT and years since menopause). Further adjustment for aBMD made little difference to the results. At the tibia, cortical area (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.10, 2.28, p=0.01), thickness (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.07, p=0.02) and density (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.18, 2.26, p=0.003) at the 38% site were all associated with incident fractures with the cortical area and density relationships remaining robust to adjustment for the confounders listed above. Further adjustment for aBMD at this site, did lead to attenuation of relationships. Among men, tibial stress-strain index (SSI) was predictive of incident fractures (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 4.13, p=0.005). Adjustment for confounding variables and aBMD did not render this association non-significant. In conclusion, we have demonstrated relationships between measures of bone size, density and strength obtained by pQCT and incident fracture. These relationships were attenuated but in some cases remained significant after adjustment for BMD measures obtained by DXA, suggesting that some additional information may be conferred by this assessment.
    Bone 03/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People in sedentary occupations are at increased risk of hip fracture. Hip fracture is significantly associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the hip. Physical activity is important in the development and maintenance of BMD, but the effects of occupational physical activity on bone health are unclear. We investigated the influence of lifetime physical activity on BMD at the hip. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of the associations between total hip BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at retirement age and lifetime exposure to occupational physical workload (standing/walking ≥4 h/day; lifting ≥25 kg; energetic work sufficient to induce sweating and manual work). Complete data on occupational exposures were available for 860 adults (488 men and 372 women) who had worked ≥20 years. Their mean age was 65 years, and many reported heavy physical workplace activities over prolonged durations. There were no statistically significant associations between total hip BMD and any of these measures of lifetime occupational physical activity in men or women. Lifetime cumulative occupational activity was not associated with hip BMD at retirement age. Our findings suggest that, if sedentary work conveys an increased risk of hip fracture, it is unlikely that the mechanism is through reductions in BMD at the hip and may relate to other physical effects, such as falls risk. Further studies will be needed to test this hypothesis.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 03/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint remodelling and disease progression. This article was prepared following a working meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis convened to discuss the value of biochemical markers of matrix metabolism in drug development in osteoarthritis. The best candidates are generally molecules or molecular fragments present in cartilage, bone or synovium and may be specific to one type of joint tissue or common to them all. Many currently investigated biomarkers are associated with collagen metabolism in cartilage or bone, or aggrecan metabolism in cartilage. Other biomarkers are related to non-collagenous proteins, inflammation and/or fibrosis. Biomarkers in osteoarthritis can be categorised using the burden of disease, investigative, prognostic, efficacy of intervention, diagnostic and safety classification. There are a number of promising candidates, notably urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II and serum cartilage oligomeric protein, although none is sufficiently discriminating to differentiate between individual patients and controls (diagnostic) or between patients with different disease severities (burden of disease), predict prognosis in individuals with or without osteoarthritis (prognostic) or perform so consistently that it could function as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials (efficacy of intervention). Future avenues for research include exploration of underlying mechanisms of disease and development of new biomarkers; technological development; the 'omics' (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and lipidomics); design of aggregate scores combining a panel of biomarkers and/or imaging markers into single diagnostic algorithms; and investigation into the relationship between biomarkers and prognosis.
    Postgraduate medical journal 03/2014; 90(1061):171-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteolysis and subsequent prosthesis loosening is the most common cause for revision following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) could reduce osteolysis through its antiresorptive effects. We studied whether HRT use is associated with reduced revision rates in a community-based cohort of women undergoing TKA or THA for osteoarthritis. Female participants in the General Practice Research Database undergoing a primary TKA or THA from 1986 to 2006 were included. We excluded patients aged <40 years at the date of primary, and those with a history of previous hip fracture or rheumatoid arthritis. Women with at least 6 months of HRT were identified as HRT users. We further explored the associations among HRT use of ≥12 months, adherence (medication possession ratio) and cumulative use and revision risk. Cox models were fitted to model implant survival in years. Propensity score matching was used to control for confounding. We matched 2700 HRT users to 8100 non-users, observed for a median (IQR) of 3.3 (1.5-6.1) years after TKA/THA. HR for HRT ≥6 months was 0.62 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.94), whereas HR for ≥12 months was 0.48 (0.29 to 0.78). Higher adherence and therapy duration were associated with further reductions in revision rates. Preoperative HRT appeared unrelated to implant survival. HRT use is associated with an almost 40% reduction in revision rates after a TKA/THA. These findings require replication in external cohorts and experimental studies.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 01/2014; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. Design HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and BMI. Results 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ≥3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs. 13.6%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09,2.11], p=0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61,2.79], p<0.001) and subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49,5.18], p=0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72,1.33], p=0.869). Conclusions An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2014; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temporal trends in hip fracture incidence have recently been reported in some developed countries. Such data in Spain has previously been incomplete; this study reports the stratified incidence of hip fractures in people over 65 in Spain during the last 14 years. The main objective is to establish whether temporal trends in hip fracture incidence in Spain exist. Ecological study with data from hospital discharges nationwide. The study includes patients aged ≥65 years during a 14-year period (1997-2010). The analysis compares two periods of four years: 1997-2000 (P1) and 2007-2010 (P2). There were 119,857 fractures in men and 415,421 in women. Comparing periods (P1 vs P2) over 10 years, the crude incidence rate/100,000 inhabitant/year increased an average of 2.3 %/year in men and 1.4 % in women. After adjustment, the rate increased an average of 0.4 %/year in men (p < 0.0001), but decreased 0.2 %/year in women (p < 0.0001). In men, younger than 85, the decrease was not significant except in 70-74 years, and from 80 years, the adjusted rate increases significantly (p < 0.0001). In women under 80 years of age, the decrease in adjusted rate was significant; there was no change in 80-84 years, and the adjusted rate increased significantly in individuals 85 years and older (p < 0.0001). Mortality rates declined by 22 % in both sexes, and the index of overaging population rises 30.1 % in men and 25.2 % in women. This study supports other international studies by showing changes in the incidence of hip fractures after age-population adjustment, which denotes a decrease in the younger age groups and among women and shows an increase in both groups over 85 years. The increase in the crude incidence rate of hip fracture in Spain reflects changes in population structure.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    C Cooper, K M Fox, J S Borer
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    ABSTRACT: We explored the cardiac safety of the osteoporosis treatment strontium ranelate in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. While known cardiovascular risk factors like obesity and smoking were associated with increased cardiac risk, use of strontium ranelate was not associated with any increase in myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. It has been suggested that strontium ranelate may increase risk for cardiac events in postmenopausal osteoporosis. We set out to explore the cardiac safety of strontium ranelate in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked datasets. We performed a nested case-control study. Primary outcomes were first definite myocardial infarction, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cases and matched controls were nested in a cohort of women treated for osteoporosis. The association with exposure to strontium ranelate was analysed by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Of the 112,445 women with treated postmenopausal osteoporosis, 6,487 received strontium ranelate. Annual incidence rates for first definite myocardial infarction (1,352 cases), myocardial infarction with hospitalisation (1,465 cases), and cardiovascular death (3,619 cases) were 3.24, 6.13, and 14.66 per 1,000 patient-years, respectively. Obesity, smoking, and cardiovascular treatments were associated with significant increases in risk for cardiac events. Current or past use of strontium ranelate was not associated with increased risk for first definite myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.68-1.61 and OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.79-1.58, respectively), hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.54-1.30 and OR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.83-1.66), or cardiovascular death (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.76-1.21 and OR 1.16, 95 % CI 0.94-1.43) versus patients who had never used strontium ranelate. Analysis in the CPRD did not find evidence for a higher risk for cardiac events associated with the use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of clinical fractures and the associated factors were assessed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus matched controls. We found an increased fracture risk in SLE patients compared to controls. Glucocorticoid use, longer disease duration, neuropsychiatric disease complications and previous osteoporotic fractures were identified as associated factors. The aims of this study were to estimate the risk of clinical fractures in patients with SLE versus matched controls and to evaluate the risk factors associated with clinical fractures in SLE. This is a population-based cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (from 1987-2012). Each SLE patient (n = 4,343) was matched with up to six controls (n = 21,780) by age and sex. Clinical fracture type was stratified according to the WHO definitions into osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic fracture. Cox proportional hazards calculated relative rates (RR) of clinical fracture and time interaction terms to evaluate the timing patterns of fracture. Clinical fracture rates in SLE patients, stratified by age, gender, type of fracture, disease duration and therapy variables, were compared with those rates in controls. Follow-up durations were 6.4 years in SLE patients and 6.6 years in controls. SLE patients had a 1.2-fold increased clinical fracture risk compared to controls (adjusted RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05-1.42), and the risk further increased with a longer disease duration. Glucocorticoid (GC) use in the previous 6 months raised the risk of clinical fracture (adjusted RR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.02-1.58). Cerebrovascular events, seizures and previous osteoporotic fractures were identified as predictors of clinical fractures. We found an increased risk of clinical fracture in SLE patients compared to controls. GC use in the previous 6 months and longer disease duration are associated with the increased fracture risk in SLE. Patients with neuropsychiatric organ damage or previous osteoporotic fractures are also at increased risk of the occurrence of clinical fractures.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

26k Citations
2,851.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
      La Jolla, CA, United States
    • NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2014
    • University of Southampton
      • • MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit
      • • Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
    • Maulana Azad Medical College
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2012–2013
    • International Osteoporosis Foundation
      Nyon, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Medanta The Medicity
      Гургаон, Haryana, India
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of East Anglia
      Norwich, England, United Kingdom
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      • Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine
      Århus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2008–2013
    • VU University Medical Center
      • • Department of Rheumatology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000–2013
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • • Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy
      • • Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Oxford
      • • Botnar Research Centre Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences
      • • Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences (NDORMS)
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus
      Essen, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Center for 22nd Century Medical and Research
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Royal Perth Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2008–2012
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Medical School
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2012
    • University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust
      • • Department of Rheumatology
      • • Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • King's College London
      • Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Geneva
      • Division of Bone Diseases
      Genève, GE, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte
      Hellebæk, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008–2009
    • Circumcision Resource Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 1995–2006
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Brighton
      • Brighton and Sussex Medical School
      Brighton, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1992–2004
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002
    • Keele University
      Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2001
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 1998–2000
    • Procter & Gamble
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      • Centre for Sports Medicine
      Nottingham, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Poole, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1992–1999
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Health Science Research
      Rochester, MN, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1995–1998
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Endocrinology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993
    • University of Newcastle
      • Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1992–1993
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Health Sciences Research
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States