B Pettersson

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (66)213.41 Total impact

  • M.-L. Johansson · G. Molin · B. Pettersson · M. Uhlén · S. Ahrné ·
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-one strains, labelled Lactobacillus plantarum or Lact. plantarum-like, and isolated from different natural sources, were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene using HindIII and EcoRI cleaved chromosomal DNA, together with Lact. plantarum ATCC 14917T, Lact. pentosus ATCC 8041T, Lact. plantarum ATCC 10776 and Lact. plantarum ATCC 8014. The fermentation patterns on API 50CH were recorded at 30°C and 37°C for all strains. The phenotypes were heterogeneous, and the ability to ferment 17 of the 49 carbohydrates varied. The fermentation of some carbohydrates, for example D-raffinose and D-arabitol, was temperature-dependent. Strains having identical API profiles were separated by the plasmid profile. All strains but one (affiliated to Lact. casei) had identical 16S ribosomal DNA sequences (Lact. plantarum/Lact. pentosus). The RFLP study resulted in identical ribopatterns for 17 of the strains, including the type strain of Lact. plantarum (pattern A1). Four strains had related fragment patterns to that of Lact. plantarum sensu stricto; three of these strains had more than 60% DNA: DNA homology to the type strain of Lact. plantarum, and one had less than 50% DNA: DNA homology to Lact. plantarum ATCC 14917T. Two strains had fragment patterns similar to the type strain of Lact. pentosus, and they had more than 80% DNA: DNA homology to Lact. pentosus ATCC 8041T. One of the Lact. pentosus strains shared one band with the A1 pattern. The ribopatterns of Lact. plantarum were homogeneous (identical for 85% of the strains), irrespective of phenotype and source of isolation. RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes using EcoRI and HindIII might be used for species recognition of Lact. plantarum, but seems less suitable for strain typing.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 03/2008; 79(5):536 - 541. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03174.x · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Alejandra Vásquez · Göran Molin · Bertil Pettersson · Martin Antonsson · Siv Ahrné ·
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    ABSTRACT: The sequence differences within the 16S rRNA genes of Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and related species, Lactobacillus zeae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, were investigated. Thirty-seven strains of mostly human or cheese origin were grouped by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of the total chromosomal DNA and by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. REA verified that all strains were genomically unique and singled out three major clusters, one L. rhamnosus-cluster and two clusters containing L. paracasei strains. The groups obtained by TTGE corresponded with one exception to the REA-clusters. In the TTGE clustering all L. paracasei strains formed one general group with one TTGE-band in common, and this group was sub-divided into five subgroups due to the presence of more than one TTGE-band in four of the subgroups. The occurrence of multiple TTGE-bands was investigated by amplifying and cloning of the 16S rRNA genes from the strains showing this phenomenon, thereby 12 clones from each strain were sequenced, demonstrating polymorphisms in almost all the cases. Subjecting the clones displaying sequence variations to TTGE as well as sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed by ribotyping of the strains, verified the presence of polymorphisms within the 16S rRNA genes. The migration characteristic of amplified DNA from a single clone corresponded to a specific band in the TTGE-pattern of the strain from which the clone originated. Southern blot hybridisation with a 16S rDNA probe demonstrated the presence of at least five 16S rRNA genes in L. casei/paracasei. A higher degree of variable positions than previously reported was observed in the 16S rRNA gene fragments of the members in the complex. Sequence comparison between the 16S rRNA gene copies of L. casei (CCUG 21451T) and L. zeae (CCUG 35515T) demonstrated that the two species shared almost the same sequence in some copies while the others were more different. Our results provide one explanation for the difficulties in reaching clear-cut taxa within the L. casei/paracasei complex.
    Systematic and Applied Microbiology 08/2005; 28(5):430-41. DOI:10.1016/j.syapm.2005.02.011 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that canine intestinal spirochaetes consist of Brachyspira pilosicoli and a group of strains that has been provisionally designated 'Brachyspira canis'. The purpose of the present study was to compare 22 spirochaete isolates that were obtained from intestinal specimens of dogs in Sweden (n = 12), Norway (n = 4), the United States (n = 3), Australia (n = 2) and Germany (n = 1) with type and reference strains, as well as field isolates, of Brachyspira species by five biochemical tests and determination of almost-complete 16S rDNA sequences. In an evolutionary tree derived from 16S rDNA sequences, the canine isolates grouped into three clusters. One cluster included the type strain of porcine B. pilosicoli, whereas a second larger cluster, which was monophyletic, contained a canine strain that was identified previously as 'B. canis'. The third cluster consisted of three canine isolates of Scandinavian origin, which grouped together with the type strain of the species Brachyspira alvinipulli (pathogenic to chicken). These three genotypes, which were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, corresponded to four phenotypic groups based on biochemical testing. Two biochemical tests, hippurate hydrolysis and alpha-galactosidase production, were sufficient for rapid identification of each canine cluster.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2004; 53(Pt 4):345-50. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the current study were to collect intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) from farmed and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and to identify and classify those isolates that phenotypically resembled Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, an enteric pathogen of pigs. The isolation rate of Brachyspira spp. was high from both farmed (93 %) and wild mallards (78 %). In wild mallards, it appeared that Brachyspira spp. were more likely to be found in migratory birds (multivariate analysis: RR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1) than in mallards sampled in a public park. Pure cultures of putative B. hyodysenteriae were obtained from 22 birds. All five isolates from farmed mallards and ten randomly selected isolates with this phenotype were used for further studies. All isolates from farmed mallards and two of the isolates from wild mallards were PCR-positive for the tlyA gene of B. hyodysenteriae. Two isolates from farmed mallards were selected for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. These isolates clustered with the type and reference strains of B. hyodysenteriae. 16S rDNA sequence analysis performed on 11 of the strains showed that they were all closely related to each other and to the B. hyodysenteriae-Brachyspira intermedia cluster. Three of the mallard isolates had 16S rDNA sequences that were identical to those of B. hyodysenteriae strains R1 and NIV-1 previously isolated from common rheas (Rhea americana). To conclude, the isolates from farmed mallards and two isolates from wild mallards were classified as B. hyodysenteriae based on the fact that they could not be differentiated by any of the applied methods from type, reference and field strains of B. hyodysenteriae. The remaining isolates could not be assigned irrefutably to any of the presently recognized Brachyspira species. These results point to a broader host spectrum of B. hyodysenteriae than is generally recognized, and to the presence in mallards of strongly beta-haemolytic and indole-producing spirochaetes that possess many, but not all, of the currently recognized characteristics of B. hyodysenteriae.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2004; 53(Pt 4):293-300. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.05488-0 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Crister Olsson · Siv Ahrné · Bertil Pettersson · Göran Molin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Enterobacteriaceae are frequently isolated from food products and it is essential to have methods for correct identification for both food hygiene and epidemiology reasons. Phenotypic methods are not always sufficient and have to be supplemented by DNA based methods. In the present study, 70 strains of Enterobacteriaceae derived from milk, fish and meat that had previously been identified by Biolog GN Microplates were genomically classified together with 15 representative type strains of species of Enterobacteriaceae. The field strains were dominated by Hafnia alvei, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis. All strains were subjected to temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis using amplicons encompassing the V3, V4 and V9 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Selected strains were analysed by ribotyping and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. The type strains were differentiated into 10 different TTGE groups. Two of the groups contained two type strains. Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella planticola were not distinguished due to their identical sequences and Yersinia ruckeri and Citrobacter freundii showed the same migration pattern. The 70 food strains could be differentiated into 14 TTGE groups where 33 strains (47.1%) could be assigned to TTGE groups including type or reference strains. Rahnella strains were dispersed into three TTGE groups of which one group corresponded to Rahnella genomospecies 1 and one to genomospecies 3. The grouping of Rahnella strains was supported by ribotyping and phylogenetic analysis. TTGE can be a useful additional tool for identification on the species level of food related Enterobacteriaceae.
    Systematic and Applied Microbiology 04/2004; 27(2):219-28. DOI:10.1078/072320204322881844 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoidesSC (MmymySC)is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a highly contagious respiratory disease in cattle. The genome of Mmymy SC type strain PG1(T) has been sequenced to map all the genes and to facilitate further studies regarding the cell function of the organism and CBPP. The genome is characterized by a single circular chromosome of 1211703 bp with the lowest G+C content (24 mole%)and the highest density of insertion sequences (13% of the genome size)of all sequenced bacterial genomes. The genome contains 985 putative genes, of which 72 are part of insertion sequences and encode transposases. Anomalies in the GC-skew pattern and the presence of large repetitive sequences indicate a high genomic plasticity. A variety of potential virulence factors was identified, including genes encoding putative variable surface proteins and enzymes and transport proteins responsible for the production of hydrogen peroxide and the capsule, which is believed to have toxic effects on the animal.
    Genome Research 03/2004; 14(2):221-7. DOI:10.1101/gr.1673304 · 14.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a new type of microarray, restriction site tagged (RST), for example NotI, microarrays. In this approach only sequences surrounding specific restriction sites (i.e. NotI linking clones) were used for generating microarrays. DNA was labeled using a new procedure, NotI representation, where only sequences surrounding NotI sites were labeled. Due to these modifications, the sensitivity of RST microarrays increases several hundred-fold compared to that of ordinary genomic microarrays. In a pilot experiment we have produced NotI microarrays from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and have shown that even closely related Escherichia coli strains can be easily discriminated using this technique. For example, two E.coli strains, K12 and R2, differ by less than 0.1% in their 16S rRNA sequences and thus the 16S rRNA sequence would not easily discriminate between these strains. However, these strains showed distinctly different hybridization patterns with NotI microarrays. The same technique can be adapted to other restriction enzymes as well. This type of microarray opens the possibility not only for studies of the normal flora of the gut but also for any problem where quantitative and qualitative analysis of microbial (or large viral) genomes is needed.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2003; 31(16):e95. · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • Crister Olsson · Siv Ahrné · Bertil Pettersson · Göran Molin ·
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    ABSTRACT: The composition of the initial bacterial flora of pork and the development of the flora after storage at +4 degrees C for 4 days were analysed by amplification, cloning and sequencing of 16S rDNA. A total of 122 clones were obtained, with lengths of > or =400 nucleotides and > or =95% similarity to database sequences. Nineteen clones were similar to sequences in database not assigned to any genera. Fourteen different genera were represented in clones from fresh meat, with 36.5% of the clones most resembling Acinetobacter and 17.3% resembling Staphylococcus and Macrococcus. After storage, the clones were composed of six different genera, with 44.3% resembling Pseudomonas, 17.1% resembling Aeromonas and only 14.3% resembling Acinetobacter. This study shows that the overall pattern of the initial and chill-stored pork flora, as shown by a molecular approach, was in agreement with results obtained in previous studies using traditional cultivation methods.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 06/2003; 83(3):245-52. DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00372-0 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new insertion sequence, ISMmy1, has been identified in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype small colony (MmymySC). The occurrence of ISMmy1 in 15 MmymySC strains and 12 other mycoplasmas was examined by Southern blotting. All MmymySC strains showed identical hybridisation patterns except for the type strain PG1(T), the vaccine strain T1Sr49, and the strain Afadé, which all had unique patterns. ISMmy1-like sequences were also found in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis strain Donetta(T) while mycoplasmas that are phylogenetically closer to MmymySC lack ISMmy1. This observation suggests horizontal transfer between MmymySC and M. bovis.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 04/2002; 208(2):207-13. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1097(02)00459-7 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Joakim Westberg · Anja Persson · Bertil Pettersson · Karl-Erik Johansson ·
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    ABSTRACT: A new insertion sequence, ISMmy1, has been identified in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype small colony (MmymySC). The occurrence of ISMmy1 in 15 MmymySC strains and 12 other mycoplasmas was examined by Southern blotting. All MmymySC strains showed identical hybridisation patterns except for the type strain PG1T, the vaccine strain T1Sr49, and the strain Afadé, which all had unique patterns. ISMmy1-like sequences were also found in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis strain DonettaT while mycoplasmas that are phylogenetically closer to MmymySC lack ISMmy1. This observation suggests horizontal transfer between MmymySC and M. bovis.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 03/2002; 208(2):207-213. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11083.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Oleg N Reva · Valerie V Smirnov · Bertil Pettersson · Fergus G Priest ·
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    ABSTRACT: Four strains of aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from the inner tissues of healthy cotton plants (Gossypium sp., Dushanbe, Tajikistan). The organisms had identical randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns that distinguished them from other bacilli that are commonly isolated from plant tissues, e.g. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA spacer regions suggested that the four strains could be assigned to two highly related taxa, which correlated with differences in cell morphology. However, the cloned spacer region provided a simple and specific hybridization probe for all four strains. The virtually complete 16S rDNA sequences were prepared for representatives of the two groups (strains 2DT(T) and 12DX) and differed by only two bases, thus supporting classification of the four strains in a single taxon at the species level. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain 2DT(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599T with a sequence similarity of 94.8%. It is concluded that the four strains belong to a novel species of Bacillus for which the name Bacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2DT(T) (= UCM B-5715T = CIP 106778T).
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 02/2002; 52(Pt 1):101-7. DOI:10.1099/00207713-52-1-101 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Karl-Erik Johansson · Bertil Pettersson ·

    Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas, 12/2001: pages 1-29;
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    M H Königsson · B Pettersson · K E Johansson ·
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the type strains of three seal mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocae and Mycoplasma phocirhinis (formerly Mycoplasma phocacerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae and Mycoplasma phocarhinis, respectively), were determined by direct DNA cycle sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in all three 16S rRNA gene sequences, showing the existence of two different rRNA operons. In M. phocae, a length difference was found between the operons, caused by an insertion or a deletion of an adenosine in one of the operons. The sequence information was used to construct phylogenetic trees. All three species were found to belong to the hominis group, but to different clusters. M. phocicerebrale and M. phocae were found to be members of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster, within which M. phocicerebrale grouped in the Mycoplasma alkalescens subcluster. M. phocirhinis was found to be a member of the Mycoplasma bovigenitalium subcluster of the Mycoplasma bovis cluster. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all hitherto validly described species within the M. hominis and M. bovis clusters have now been determined.
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 08/2001; 51(Pt 4):1389-93. DOI:10.1099/00207713-51-4-1389 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Mei Wang · Diya Adawi · Goran Molin · Bertil Pettersson · Bengt Jeppsson · Siv Ahrne ·
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial flora of the intestine and the bacteria found in liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, portal and arterial blood after D-galactosamine-induced liver injury, with and without pretreatment with Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843, were studied in the rat. Dominating representatives were identified to species level by 16S rDNA sequencing and typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) for strain definition. It was proven that bacterial strains from the intestine occur at extraintestinal sites after liver injury. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the intestinal flora and were also the most frequently found genus in the liver and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Some of the blood isolates, identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacteroides merdae, were not found as a dominating part of the mucosal flora. Treatment with L. plantarum before liver injury decreased translocation and made the intestinal flora increasingly dominated by lactobacilli.
    Apmis 08/2001; 109(7-8):551-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2001.apm090710.x · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • W Kraatz · U Thunberg · B Pettersson · C Fellström ·
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    ABSTRACT: DNA was extracted from colonic biopsies of 33 patients with and three without evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in the large bowel. The biopsies were subjected to PCR. A pair of primers, generating a 207 bp fragment, were designed to detect specifically the 16S rDNA gene of Brachyspira. PCR products of the expected size were obtained from 33 samples with histologic evidence of IS. The PCR amplicons were used for sequencing. The sequences obtained were aligned to the corresponding 16S rRNA sequences of five type strains of Brachyspira. The sequences of 23 PCR products were 99-100% identical with the corresponding B. aalborgi type strain sequence. Two cases showed 99-100% sequence similarity with the type strain of B. pilosicoli P43/6/78. Six cases could not be referred to any of the known species of Brachyspira. Two PCR products gave incomplete sequences.
    Animal Health Research Reviews 07/2001; 2(1):111-6. DOI:10.1079/AHRR200121
  • C Fellström · B Pettersson · U Zimmerman · A Gunnarsson · R Feinstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 21 of 32 sampled dogs (66%) in a colony of Swedish beagle dogs with a history of diarrhea and from 3 of 17 Swedish pet dogs (17%) with diarrhea. All Swedish isolates were weakly beta-hemolytic and gave a negative indole reaction. Eighty-eight percent showed negative alpha-galactosidase and hippurate reactions, but a positive beta-glucosidase reaction. Two isolates were hippurate positive with a negative beta-glucosidase reaction. One additional German isolate diverged by showing a positive indole reaction in combination with a positive hippurate reaction. Sequencing of 16S rDNA indicated that the hippurate-positive isolates belonged to the species Brachyspira pilosicoli. Four representative isolates were examined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with six reference strains and five porcine isolates of Brachyspira spp. The canine isolates clustered together in the PFGE analysis. Necropsy examination of a culture-positive B. pilosicoli colony-raised beagle dog revealed macro- and microscopical lesions of colitis with numerous spiral-shaped bacteria in the lumens of the crypts, in goblet cells and within the colonic epithelium.
    Animal Health Research Reviews 07/2001; 2(1):75-82. DOI:10.1079/AHRR200119
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    Vasquez AS · S Ahrné · B Pettersson · G Molin ·
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a tool for rapid and inexpensive identification of the Lactobacillus casei complex. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus zeae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were identified by PCR-amplification of the segment between the U1 and U2 regions of 16S rDNA (position 8-357, Escherichia coli numbering) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Seven tested Lact. paracasei strains were divided into three TTGE-subgroups. TTGE successfully distinguished between the closely-related target species. TTGE is also a powerful method for revealing sequence heterogeneities in the 16S rRNA genes. Due to rapid and easy performance, TTGE of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments will be useful for the identification of extended numbers of isolates.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 05/2001; 32(4):215-9. DOI:10.1046/j.1472-765X.2001.00901.x · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    L Gumaelius · G Magnusson · B Pettersson · G Dalhammar ·
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    ABSTRACT: To find a biomarker for denitrification in activated sludge, five denitrifying strains isolated from three wastewater treatment plants were studied. These strains were selected from among 1,500 isolates for their excellent denitrifying properties. They denitrify quickly and have no lag phase when switching from aerobic to anoxic conditions. All strains have the cd1-type of nitrite reductase. The strains are Gram-negative rods and they all grow as filamentous chains when cultivated in liquid solution. The strains differ in colony morphology when grown on nutrient agar. Almost full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains are positioned among members of the genus Comamonas in the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. Signature nucleotides and bootstrap percentages were also analysed to verify this position. Strains 110, 123T, 2.99g, 5.38g and P17 were < or = 96.7% similar to known strains, but > or = 99.7% similar to each other, as judged from their 16S rDNA sequences, and grouped tightly together in the phylogenetic tree. Sequence motifs in the 16S rRNA gene were also found, suggesting the monophyletic origin of these strains. Nevertheless, some strains differed from the others, for example strain 110 branches early from the other strains and 5.38g is phenotypically more inert. Therefore, it is proposed that strains 110, 123T, 2.99g and P17 are classified into a new species, Comamonas denitrificans sp. nov., while the taxonomic status of strain 5.38g will have to await the outcome of further studies. The type strain of Comamonas denitrificans is 123T (ATCC 700936T).
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 05/2001; 51(Pt 3):999-1006. DOI:10.1099/00207713-51-3-999 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    Kirsten L. Simpson · Bertil Pettersson · Fergus G. Priest ·
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty-four strains of Lactobacillus were isolated from fermentation samples from 23 malt whisky distilleries located in the major whisky producing regions of Scotland. The strains were assigned to 26 ribotype patterns. Strains of some ribotype patterns were widely distributed and recovered from distilleries throughout Scotland, while strains representing other ribotypes were particular to a specific region or even a certain distillery. Repeated sampling of a single distillery over a 12 month period showed that the range of bacteria present, as indicated by ribotyping, was stable, but was influenced by changes in malt supply and the period of closure for annual maintenance. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis of ribotype representatives revealed Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus pentosus as the major species present in the distilleries; however, four isolates could not be identified by this procedure. Determination of the full 16S rDNA gene sequence from one of these isolates (strain R7-84) revealed >98.5% similarity to Lactobacillus buchneri and its phylogenetic neighbours. DNA from two other strains showed greater than 70% hybridization to DNA from R7-84 under non-stringent renaturation conditions and DNA from strain R7-84 shared less than 65% hybridization with members of the L. buchneri group. It is proposed that these three strains should be placed in a new species for which the name Lactobacillus ferintoshensis represented by the type strain R7-84(T) is suggested.
    Microbiology 04/2001; 147(Pt 4):1007-16. DOI:10.1099/00221287-147-4-1007 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    B Pettersson · J G Tully · G Bölske · K E Johansson ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster (Weisburg et al. 1989) in the hominis group of the mollicutes is re-evaluated in this work to update the phylogenetic framework for classification of species within the genus Mycoplasma. Therefore, sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were determined from previously described species, and 11 were found to be closely related to the M. lipophilum cluster. A selection of members of the other hitherto defined clusters of the hominis group was included for phylogenetic analysis, revealing that the classical M. lipophilum cluster could be re-organized into two clusters, namely the M. lipophilum cluster and the Mycoplasma bovis cluster. The former was found to contain two species, while the latter contained 20 species. The two clusters were closely related, sharing an ancestral branch with the Mycoplasma synoviae cluster. Furthermore, the M. bovis cluster could be divided into subclusters. Interestingly, two species, Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis, formed a distinct and early branch of the M. lipophilum, M. bovis and M. synoviae clusters. This entity was termed the M. equigenitalium cluster. The clusters and subclusters could be verified by using neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses on a variety of data sets, bootstrap calculations, secondary structure analysis and signature nucleotides. Therefore, the new 16S rDNA data presented in this work were used to re-evaluate the M. lipophilum cluster, leading to the definition of two additional clusters. At present, the mollicutes belonging to the hominis group can be classified into ten evolutionary lineages.
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 04/2001; 51(Pt 2):633-43. DOI:10.1099/00207713-51-2-633 · 2.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
213.41 Total Impact Points


  • 1994-2008
    • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
      • • Division of Biochemistry
      • • School of Biotechnology (BIO)
      • • Division of Molecular Biotechnology
      • • Division of Chemical Technology
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2000-2001
    • Heriot-Watt University
      • • International Centre for Brewing and Distilling
      • • Biological Sciences Research
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1998-2001
    • National Veterinary Institute, Sweden
      • Department of Bacteriology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1996-2001
    • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
      • Department of Clinical Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden