D Nethery

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine , Cleveland, Ohio, United States

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Publications (21)128 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have found that administration of dichloroacetate (DCA), an agent that reduces lactic acid generation, increases limb muscle endurance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this agent also improves respiratory muscle performance. To examine this issue, we determined the effect of DCA administration on the response to application of a large inspiratory resistive load (32,000 cm H(2)O/L/s) in unanesthetized decerebrate rats. Studies were carried out in four groups of animals: saline unloaded, DCA unloaded, saline loaded, and DCA loaded. DCA was administered as 100 mg/kg, given intravenously over 30 min, prior to respiratory loading. We found that diaphragm lactate levels were higher in saline-treated loaded animals than in unloaded controls and that DCA administration prevented loading-induced increases in diaphragm lactate (p < 0.001). DCA-treated animals tolerated loading poorly, however, with a more rapid reduction in diaphragm pressure generation and a shorter time to respiratory arrest (42 +/- 3 min) than for saline-treated animals (57 +/- 3 min, p < 0.01). These data indicate that DCA administration decreases the tolerance to loaded breathing despite reductions in diaphragm lactate concentrations. We speculate that suppression of lactate formation by DCA may impair metabolic regulation within the diaphragm during resistive loaded breathing.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/2001; 164(9):1669-74. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.164.9.9902054
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that sepsis is associated with enhanced generation of several free-radical species (nitric oxide [NO], superoxide, hydrogen peroxide) in skeletal muscle. It is also known that this enhanced free-radical generation results in reductions in skeletal muscle force-generating capacity, but the precise mechanism(s) by which free radicals exert this effect in sepsis has not been determined. We postulated that free radicals might react directly with the contractile proteins in this condition, altering contractile protein force-generating capacity. To test this theory, we compared the force generation of single Triton-skinned diaphragmatic fibers (Triton skinning exposes the contractile apparatus, permitting direct assessment of contractile protein function) from the following groups of rats: (1) control animals; (2) endotoxin-treated animal; (3) animals given endotoxin plus polyethylene glycol- superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), a superoxide scavenger; (4) animals given endotoxin plus N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor; (5 ) animals given only PEG-SOD or L-NAME; and (6 ) animals given endotoxin plus denatured PEG-SOD. We found that endotoxin administration produced both a reduction in the maximum force-generating capacity (Fmax) (i.e., a decrease in Fmax) of muscle fibers and a reduction in fiber calcium sensitivity (i.e., an increase in the Ca2+ concentration required to produce half-maximal activation [Ca50]). L-NAME and PEG-SOD administration preserved Fmax and Ca50 in endotoxin-treated animals; neither drug affected these parameters in non-endotoxin treated animals. Denatured PEG-SOD failed to inhibit endotoxin-related alterations in contractile protein function. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of skinned fibers from endotoxin-treated animals revealed a selective depletion of several proteins; administration of L-NAME or PEG-SOD to endotoxin-treated animals prevented this protein depletion, paralleling the effect of these two agents to prevent a reduction in contractile protein force-generating capacity. These data indicate that free radicals (superoxide, NO, or daughter species of these radicals) play a central role in altering skeletal muscle contractile protein force-generating capacity in endotoxin-induced sepsis.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 03/2001; 24(2):210-7. DOI:10.1165/ajrcmb.24.2.4075
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that sepsis is associated with enhanced generation of several free radical species (nitric oxide, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide) in skeletal muscle. While studies suggest that free radical generation causes uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in sepsis, no previous report has examined the role of free radicals in modulating skeletal muscle oxygen consumption during State 3 respiration or inhibiting the electron transport chain in sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of endotoxin-induced sepsis on State 3 diaphragm mitochondrial oxygen utilization and to determine if inhibitors/scavengers of various free radical species would protect against these effects. We also examined mitochondrial protein electrophoretic patterns to determine if observed endotoxin-related physiological derangements were accompanied by overt alterations in protein composition. Studies were performed on: (a) control animals, (b) endotoxin-treated animals, (c) animals given endotoxin plus PEG-SOD, a superoxide scavenger, (d) animals given endotoxin plus L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, (e) animals given only PEG-SOD or L-NAME, (f) animals given endotoxin plus D-NAME, and (g) animals given endotoxin plus denatured PEG-SOD. We found: (a) no alteration in maximal State 3 mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate at 24 h after endotoxin administration, but (b) a significant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 48 h after endotoxin, (c) no effect of endotoxin to induce uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, (d) either PEG-SOD or L-NAME (but neither denatured PEG-SOD nor D-NAME) prevented endotoxin-mediated reductions in State 3 respiration rates, (e) some mitochondrial proteins underwent tyrosine nitrosylation at 24 h after endotoxin administration, and (f) SDS-page electrophoresis of mitochondria from endotoxin-treated animals revealed a selective depletion of several proteins at 48 h after endotoxin administration (but not at 24 h); (g) administration of L-NAME or PEG-SOD prevented this protein depletion. These data provide the first evidence that endotoxin-induced reductions in State 3 mitochondrial oxygen consumption are free radical-mediated.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/2001; 30(1):129-38. DOI:10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00454-8
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    ABSTRACT: Contraction-induced respiratory muscle fatigue and sepsis-related reductions in respiratory muscle force-generating capacity are mediated, at least in part, by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The subcellular sources and mechanisms of generation of ROS in these conditions are incompletely understood. We postulated that the physiological changes associated with muscle contraction (i.e., increases in calcium and ADP concentration) stimulate mitochondrial generation of ROS by a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-modulated process and that sepsis enhances muscle generation of ROS by upregulating PLA(2) activity. To test these hypotheses, we examined H(2)O(2) generation by diaphragm mitochondria isolated from saline-treated control and endotoxin-treated septic animals in the presence and absence of calcium and ADP; we also assessed the effect of PLA(2) inhibitors on H(2)O(2) formation. We found that 1) calcium and ADP stimulated H(2)O(2) formation by diaphragm mitochondria from both control and septic animals; 2) mitochondria from septic animals demonstrated substantially higher H(2)O(2) formation than mitochondria from control animals under basal, calcium-stimulated, and ADP-stimulated conditions; and 3) inhibitors of 14-kDa PLA(2) blocked the enhanced H(2)O(2) generation in all conditions. We also found that administration of arachidonic acid (the principal metabolic product of PLA(2) activation) increased mitochondrial H(2)O(2) formation by interacting with complex I of the electron transport chain. These data suggest that diaphragm mitochondrial ROS formation during contraction and sepsis may be critically dependent on PLA(2) activation.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 08/2000; 89(1):72-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Although protein kinases are known to play a role in modulating a variety of intracellular functions, the direct effect of inhibition of these enzymes on skeletal muscle force production has not been studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine this issue by determining the effects produced on diaphragm force generation by two protein kinase inhibitors: (a) H7, an inhibitor of both cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and of protein kinase C, and (b) H89, a selective inhibitor of PKA. Experiments (n=15) were performed using isolated, arterially perfused, electrically stimulated rat diaphragms. Perfusate temperature was adjusted to maintain muscle temperature at 27 degrees C and arterial pressure was kept at 150 Torr. Animals were divided into three groups: (a) a control group perfused with Krebs-Henselheit solution equilibrated with 95% O(2)/5% CO(2), (b) a group in which H7 (2 microM) was added to the perfusate, and (c) a group perfused with solution containing H89 (4 microM). In all three groups, we assessed diaphragm twitch kinetics, force-frequency relationships and in vitro fatiguability. We found that both H7 and H89 administration slowed twitch relaxation, augmented force generation in response to low frequency stimulation, and increased the rate of development of fatigue. Specifically, for control, H7 and H89 groups, respectively, we found: (a) 1/2 relaxation time averaged 64+/-2 S.E.M., 87+/-6 and 90+/-2 ms, P<0. 003, (b) force production during 10-Hz stimulation averaged 12.6+/-1. 1, 20.1+/-2.3, and 20.3+/-2.1 N/cm(2), P<0.035, and (c) force fell to 14.3+/-2.0, 9.5+/-0.5 and 8.7+/-0.2% of its initial value after 20 min of fatiguing stimulation, P<0.035. These data show that it is possible to produce large increases in low frequency skeletal muscle force generation by directly inhibiting PKA. We speculate that it may be possible to pharmacologically augment respiratory muscle force and pressure generation in clinical medicine by administration of PKA inhibitors.
    Respiration Physiology 04/2000; 120(2):115-23. DOI:10.1016/S0034-5687(00)00094-3
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports have demonstrated that superoxide is released by the contracting diaphragm. Moreover, extracellular scavengers of superoxide (i.e., exogenously administered superoxide dismutase) reduce diaphragm fatigue rate, arguing that superoxide released from contracting muscles may have functionally significant effects. The mechanism by which free radical formation and release occurs has not, however, been determined, and all past studies of this phenomenon have been conducted at a single muscle length (the length of maximum force generation, Lo) and at a single level of carbon dioxide. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to examine the effect of blockade of two free radical-generating pathways (i.e., to block cyclooxygenase with indomethacin and xanthine oxidase with oxypurinol) on superoxide release by the contracting diaphragm, and (2) to examine the effect of altering muscle length, carbon dioxide levels, and stimulation frequency on superoxide release during contraction. Studies were performed using an isolated, arterially perfused, rat diaphragm preparation in which superoxide release was assessed in real time by measuring arteriovenous cytochrome c reduction gradients across this muscle. We found that superoxide release during contraction was: (1) not altered by indomethacin administration, (2) partially reduced by oxypurinol administration, (3) reduced by decreasing muscle length, (4) reduced by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, and (5) reduced by decreasing stimulation frequency. The first two findings indicate that xanthine oxidase pathways contribute to free radical formation under these circumstances but cyclooxygenase does not. The last three findings suggest that these common physiologic alterations have significant effects on free radical release by contracting muscle.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2000; 161(3 Pt 1):891-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work indicates that endotoxemia elicits severe reductions in skeletal muscle force-generating capacity. The subcellular alterations responsible for these decrements have not, however, been fully characterized. One possibility is that the contractile proteins per se are altered in endotoxemia and another is that the mechanism by which these proteins are activated is affected. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of endotoxin administration on the contractile proteins by examining the maximum calcium-activated force (F(max)) and calcium sensitivity of single Triton-skinned fibers of diaphragm, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles taken from control and endotoxin-treated (8 mg/kg) rats. Fibers were mounted on a force transducer and sequentially activated by serial immersion in solutions of increasing Ca(2+) concentration (i.e., pCa 6.0 to pCa 5.0); force vs. pCa data were fit to the Hill equation. All fibers were typed at the conclusion of studies using gel electrophoresis. F(max), the calcium concentration required for half-maximal activation (Ca(50)), and the Hill coefficient were compared as a function of muscle and fiber type for the control and endotoxin-treated animals. Control group F(max) was similar for diaphragm, soleus, and EDL fibers, i.e., 112.34 +/- 2.64, 111.55 +/- 3.66, and 104.05 +/- 4.33 kPa, respectively. Endotoxin administration reduced the average F(max) for fibers from all three muscles to 80.25 +/- 2.30, 72.47 +/- 2.97, and 78.32 +/- 2.43 kPa, respectively (P < 0.001 for comparison of each to control). All fiber types in diaphragm, soleus, and EDL muscles manifested similar endotoxin-related reductions in F(max). The Ca(50) and the Hill coefficient for all fiber types and all muscles were unaffected by endotoxin administration. We speculate that these alterations in the intrinsic properties of the contractile proteins represent a major mechanism by which endotoxemia reduces muscle force-generating capacity.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 04/2000; 278(4):R891-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that free radicals may play an important role in the development of muscle dysfunction in many pathophysiological conditions. Because the degree of muscle dysfunction observed in some of these conditions appears to be both free radical dependent and modulated by extracellular calcium concentrations, we thought that there may be a link between these two phenomena; i.e., the propensity of a muscle to generate free radicals may be dependent on extracellular calcium concentrations. For this reason, we compared formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; i.e., free radicals) by electrically stimulated rat diaphragms (trains of 20-Hz stimuli for 10 min, train rate 0.25 trains/s) incubated in organ baths filled with physiological solutions containing low (1 mM), normal (2.5 mM), or high (5 mM) calcium levels. Generation of ROS was assessed by measuring the conversion of hydroethidine to ethidium. We found ROS generation with contraction varied with the extracellular calcium level, with low ROS production (3.18 +/- 0.40 ng ethidium/mg tissue) for low-calcium studies and with much higher ROS generation for normal-calcium (18. 90 +/- 2.70 ng/mg) or high-calcium (19.30 +/- 4.50 ng/mg) studies (P < 0.001). Control, noncontracting diaphragms (in 2.5 mM calcium) had little ROS production (3.40 +/- 0.80 ng/mg; P < 0.001). To further investigate this issue, we added nimodipine (20 microM), an L-type calcium channel blocker, to contracting diaphragms (2.5 mM calcium bath) and found that nimodipine also suppressed ROS formation (2.56 +/- 0.85 ng ethidium/mg tissue). These data indicate that ROS generation by the contracting diaphragm is strongly influenced by extracellular calcium concentrations and may be dependent on calcium transport through L-type calcium channels.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/1999; 87(6):2177-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work indicates that free radicals mediate sepsis-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. These previous experiments have not, however, established the source of the responsible free radical species. In theory, this phenomenon could be explained if one postulates that sepsis elicits an upregulation of contraction-related free radical formation in muscle. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis by examination of the effect of sepsis on contraction-related free radical generation [i.e. , formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] by the diaphragm. Rats were killed 18 h after injection with either saline or endotoxin. In vitro hemidiaphragms were then prepared, and ROS generation during electrically induced contractions (20-Hz trains delivered for 10 min) was assessed by measurement of the conversion of hydroethidine to ethidium. ROS generation was negligible in noncontracting diaphragms from both saline- and endotoxin-treated groups (2.0 +/- 0. 6 and 2.8 +/- 1.0 ng ethidium/mg tissue, respectively), but it was marked in contracting diaphragms from saline-treated animals (19.0 +/- 2.8 ng/mg tissue) and even more pronounced (30.0 +/- 2.8 ng/mg tissue) in diaphragms from septic animals (P < 0.01). This enhanced free radical generation occurred despite the fact that the force-time integral (i.e., the area under the curve of force vs. time) for control diaphragms was higher than that for the septic group. In additional studies, in which we altered the stimulation paradigm in control muscles to achieve a force-time integral similar to that achieved in septic muscles, an even greater difference between control and septic muscle ROS formation was observed. These data indicate that ROS formation during contraction is markedly enhanced in diaphragms from endotoxin-treated septic animals. We speculate that ROS generated in this fashion plays a central role in producing sepsis-related skeletal muscle dysfunction.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 11/1999; 87(4):1279-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work indicates that respiratory muscles generate superoxide radicals during contraction (M. B. Reid, K. E. Haack, K. M. Francik, P. A. Volberg, L. Kabzik, and M. S. West. J. Appl. Physiol. 73: 1797-1804, 1992). The intracellular pathways involved in this process are, however, unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that contraction-related formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by skeletal muscle is linked to activation of the 14-kDa isoform of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). Studies were performed by using an in vitro hemidiaphragm preparation submerged in an organ bath, and formation of ROS in muscles was assessed by using a recently described fluorescent indicator technique. We examined ROS formation in resting and contracting muscle preparations and then determined whether contraction-related ROS generation could be altered by administration of various PLA(2) inhibitors: manoalide and aristolochic acid, both inhibitors of 14-kDa PLA(2); arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)), an inhibitor of 85-kDa PLA(2); and haloenol lactone suicide substrate (HELSS), an inhibitor of calcium-independent PLA(2). We found 1) little ROS formation [2.0 +/- 0.8 (SE) ng/mg] in noncontracting control diaphragms, 2) a high level of ROS (20.0 +/- 2.0 ng/mg) in electrically stimulated contracting diaphragms (trains of 20-Hz stimuli for 10 min, train rate 0.25 s(-1)), 3) near-complete suppression of ROS generation in manoalide (3.0 +/- 0.5 ng/mg, P < 0. 001)- and aristolochic acid-treated contracting diaphragms (4.0 +/- 1.0 ng/mg, P < 0.001), and 4) no effect of AACOCF(3) or HELSS on ROS formation in contracting diaphragm. During in vitro studies examining fluorescent measurement of ROS formation in response to a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase superoxide-generating solution, manoalide, aristolochic acid, AACOCF(3), and HELSS had no effect on signal intensity. These data indicate that ROS formation by contracting diaphragm muscle can be suppressed by the administration of inhibitors of the 14-kDa isoform of PLA(2) and suggest that this enzyme plays a critical role in modulating ROS formation during muscle contraction.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(2):792-800.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to alter the development of fatigue and ablate free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation of the diaphragm during loaded breathing by administering oxypurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. We studied 1) room-air-breathing decerebrate, unanesthetized rats given either saline or oxypurinol (50 mg/kg) and loaded with a large inspiratory resistance until airway pressure had fallen by 50% and 2) unloaded saline- and oxypurinol-treated room-air-breathing control animals. Additional sets of studies were performed with animals breathing 100% oxygen. Animals were killed at the conclusion of loading, and diaphragmatic samples were obtained for determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and assessment of in vitro force generation. We found that loading of saline-treated animals resulted in significant diaphragmatic fatigue and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation (P < 0.01). Oxypurinol administration, however, failed to increase load trial time, reduce fatigue development, or prevent lipid peroxidation in either room-air-breathing or oxygen-breathing animals. These data suggest that xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways do not generate physiologically significant levels of free radicals during the type of inspiratory resistive loading examined in this study.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(3):1123-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Free radicals are known to play an important role in modulating the development of respiratory muscle dysfunction during sepsis. Moreover, neutrophil numbers increase in the diaphragm after endotoxin administration. Whether or not superoxide derived from infiltrating white blood cells contributes to muscle dysfunction during sepsis is, however, unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of apocynin, an inhibitor of the superoxide-generating neutrophil NADPH complex, on endotoxin-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. We studied groups of rats given saline, endotoxin, apocynin, or both endotoxin and apocynin. Animals were killed 18 h after injection, a portion of the diaphragm was used to assess force generation, and the remaining diaphragm was used for determination of 4-hydroxynonenal (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and nitrotyrosine levels (a marker of free radical-mediated protein modification). We found that endotoxin reduced diaphragm force generation and that apocynin partially prevented this decrease [e.g., force in response to 20 Hz was 23 +/- 1 (SE), 12 +/- 2, 23 +/- 1, and 19 +/- 1 N/cm(2), respectively, for saline, endotoxin, apocynin, and endotoxin/apocynin groups; P < 0.001]. Apocynin also prevented endotoxin-mediated increases in diaphragm 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine levels (P < 0.01). These data suggest that neutrophil-derived free radicals contribute to diaphragmatic dysfunction during sepsis.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(2):776-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxynitrite may be generated in and around muscles in several pathophysiological conditions (e.g., sepsis) and may induce muscle dysfunction in these disease states. The effect of peroxynitrite on muscle force generation has not been directly assessed. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of peroxynitrite administration on diaphragmatic force-generating capacity in 1) intact diaphragm muscle fiber bundles (to model the effects produced by exposure of muscles to extracellular peroxynitrite) and 2) single skinned diaphragm muscle fibers (to model the effects of intracellular peroxynitrite on contractile protein function) by examining the effects of both peroxynitrite and a peroxynitrite-generating solution, 3-morpholinosydnonimine, on force vs. pCa characteristics. In intact diaphragm preparations, peroxynitrite reduced diaphragm force generation and increased muscle levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (an index of lipid peroxidation). In skinned fibers, both peroxynitrite and 3-morpholinosydnonimine reduced maximum calcium-activated force. These data indicate that peroxynitrite is capable of producing significant diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction. We speculate that peroxynitrite-mediated alterations may be responsible for much of the muscle dysfunction seen in pathophysiological conditions such as sepsis.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(2):783-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work indicates that free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation takes place within the diaphragm on strenuous contraction. This phenomenon has only been demonstrated using fairly artificial experimental models and has not been studied during the type of sustained respiratory loading typically seen in patients with lung disease. The purpose of the present study was to measure the levels of several biochemical markers of protein oxidation (protein carbonyl levels) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione levels) in diaphragms of rats subjected to chronic respiratory loading. Respiratory loading was accomplished by tracheal banding; groups of animals were loaded for 4, 8, or 12 days, and a group of sham-operated unloaded animals was used as controls. After loading, animals were killed, diaphragm contractility was assessed in vitro by using a portion of the excised diaphragm, and the remaining diaphragm and the soleus muscles were used for biochemical analysis. We found diminished force generation in diaphragms from all groups of banded animals compared with muscles from controls. For example, twitch force averaged 7.8 +/- 0.8 (SE) N/cm2 in unloaded animals and 4.0 +/- 0.4, 3.0 +/- 0.4, and 3.4 +/- 0.4 N/cm2 in animals loaded for 4, 8, and 12 days, respectively (P < 0.0001). Loading also elicited increases in diaphragmatic protein carbonyl concentrations (P < 0.001), and the time course of alterations in carbonyl levels paralleled loading-induced alterations in the diaphragm force-frequency relationship. Although loading was also associated with increases in diaphragmatic 8-isoprostane levels (P < 0.003) and reductions in diaphragm reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.003), the time course of changes in these latter parameters did not correspond to alterations in force. Soleus glutathione and carbonyl levels were not altered by banding. We speculate that respiratory loading-induced alterations in diaphragmatic force generation may be related to free radical-mediated protein oxidation, but not to free radical-induced lipid peroxidation.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 03/1999; 86(2):651-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that free radical scavenger administration reduces the rate of development of diaphragm fatigue. Much of this work has been done, however, using in vitro muscle preparations; the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of scavengers on in vivo diaphragm contractile function. To accomplish this, we compared the rate of development of fatigue of the electrically stimulated diaphragm in four groups of dogs: (1) animals given intravenous polyethylene glycol adsorbed superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD, 2,000 units/kg) 1 h before a fatigue trial; (2) a group given intravenous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 0.5 ml/kg of a 50% solution) before fatigue; (3) a group given saline before fatigue; and (4) a group treated with denatured PEG-SOD (2,000 units/kg) before fatigue. We measured diaphragmatic concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), a marker of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, on muscle samples taken at the conclusion of fatigue trials. As a control, we also measured TBAR concentrations for muscle samples taken from nonfatigued diaphragm. We found that the rate of development of diaphragm fatigue was much greater in saline and denatured PEG-SOD-treated groups than for animals pretreated with either PEG-SOD or DMSO, with force falling to 23 +/- 4, 21 +/- 4, 50 +/- 7, and 47 +/- 6% of its initial value, respectively, over a 2-h period of electrophrenic stimulation in these four groups of animals (p < 0.01). TBAR concentrations in fatigued diaphragm from saline and denatured PEG-SOD-treated animals were significantly higher than levels for either nonfatigued fresh diaphragm or fatigued diaphragm taken from PEG-SOD- or DMSO-treated animals (p < 0.01). These data suggest that diaphragm fatigue resulting from repetitive low-frequency stimulation is associated with lipid peroxidation within this muscle and that pretreatment with free radical scavengers prevents lipid peroxidation and reduces the rate of development of fatigue.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/1997; 155(2):622-9. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.155.2.9032204
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that loaded breathing elicits an oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) within the diaphragm, but the effects of loaded breathing on GSH and GSSG levels in other respiratory muscles have not been examined. The present experiment examined this issue by using decerebrate unanesthetized rats in which a large inspiratory resistive load was applied until respiratory arrest. Subsequently, muscle samples from the triangularis sterni, diaphragm (Dia), parasternal intercostal (PI), upper rib cage lateral intercostal, lower rib cage lateral intercostal, and soleus were assayed for GSH and GSSG. Glutathione levels were also measured on samples from unloaded control animals. We found that the Dia from loaded animals had a lower GSH level than did control animals (i.e., 653 +/- 99 and 928 +/- 40 nmol/gm for loaded and control groups, respectively; P < 0.05), higher GSSG level (68 +/- 14 and 32 &/- 7 nmol/gm for loaded and control groups, respectively; P < 0.05), and higher GSSG-to-GSH ratios (GSSG/GSH; 17.0 +/- 6.0 and 3.7 +/- 0.9% for loaded and control groups, respectively; (P <0.05). Of the other muscles examined, only the PI muscles had comparable alterations in glutathione levels in response to loading. Specifically, for the PI muscles of loaded and control groups, GSH was 427 +/- 75 and 618 +/- 40 nmol/g, (P < 0.05), GSSG was 71 +/- 16 and 20 +/- 5 nmol/g (P < 0.01), and GSSG/GSH was 22 +/- 8 and 3.6 +/- 1.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). No other muscle demonstrated a significant increase in GSSG or GSSG/GSH with loading, and only the lower rib cage lateral intercostal had a significant reduction in GSH. These findings indicate variation in the degree of glutathione oxidation elicited by inspiratory loading among the different respiratory muscles. The fact that quantitatively similar glutathione alterations were observed in the Dia and PI muscles suggests that these muscle groups may share a similar propensity to generate free radicals during inspiratory loading.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/1996; 81(3):1362-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work has shown that endotoxin administration produces reductions in respiratory muscle contractility and an increase in indexes of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation within these muscles. It is not known, however, whether endotoxin-induced lipid peroxidation occurs only in the respiratory muscles or is a widespread phenomenon affecting all striated muscles. We therefore examined the effects of administration of a range of doses of endotoxin on the isometric force-generating ability and lipid peroxidation of three muscles: the diaphragm (Dia), a leg muscle [i.e., the flexor halluces longus (FHL)], and papillary cardiac muscle (Card). Studies were performed on hamsters divided into groups injected over 2 days with either saline or low, medium, or high doses of endotoxin. The animals were killed on the third study day, force generation by the three muscles was examined in vitro, and the muscles were assayed for 8-isoprostane, an index of lipid peroxidation. We found that endotoxin produced significant reductions in both FHL and Dia force generation, but Card force generation was unaffected. Changes in 8-isoprostane largely paralleled alterations in force, with endotoxin eliciting marked increases in Dia and FHL 8-isoprostane levels but no change in Card 8-isoprostane. These findings suggest that 1) lipid peroxidation and muscle dysfunction in response to endotoxin administration are not limited to the respiratory muscles but also occur in limb skeletal muscle and 2) cardiac muscle appear to be resistant to this particular mechanism of endotoxin-induced dysfunction.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/1996; 81(3):1370-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies have suggested that protective mechanisms downregulate diaphragm activity during loaded breathing so as to prevent respiratory-muscle fatigue. Other work has indicated, however, that loading can sometimes elicit significant diaphragmatic fatigue, and that the development of fatigue may be related to alterations in diaphragmatic glutathione concentrations. One potential explanation for these discrepant observations is that the mechanism of respiratory failure may vary as a function of load magnitude, and that some loads evoke little fatigue whereas others produce substantial fatigue and glutathione alterations. The purpose of this study was to examine this issue by determining the diaphragmatic fatigue and alterations in glutathione concentrations produced by a range of inspiratory resistive loads. Experiments were performed on decerebrate rats divided into a control, unloaded group and a group loaded with small, medium, and large inspiratory resistive loads that were applied until respiratory failure occurred. After respiratory arrest, the animals' diaphragms were excised, an in vitro determination was done of diaphragm contractility characteristics, and samples of muscle were assayed for GSH (reduced glutathione) and GSSG (oxidized glutathione). We found that in vitro diaphragm force generation was severely reduced for loaded breathing, and surprisingly, that the magnitude of the low-frequency fatigue present was similar in the three loaded groups. Reductions in diaphragmatic GSH levels and increases in GSSG levels were found in all three loaded groups. Reductions in diaphragmatic GSH levels and increases in GSSG levels were found in all three loaded groups, but again, the magnitude of these changes were similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/1995; 152(5 Pt 1):1641-7. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.152.5.7582308
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that loaded breathing elicits alterations in diaphragmatic glutathione levels that may be mediated by free radicals and may also be linked to the development of diaphragm fatigue. While free-radical generation in a number of pathophysiologic conditions is known to be a function of ambient oxygen concentrations, the effect of varying inspired oxygen concentration on the diaphragmatic response to loaded breathing (i.e., on diaphragm fatigue and glutathione levels) has not been studied. In this study, we compared the effect of loaded breathing, continued until respiratory arrest in decerebrate rats breathing room air (RA), with the effect of the same load on animals breathing 100% oxygen (O2). After arrest, the animals' diaphragms were excised, force generation was assessed in vitro, and diaphragmatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were determined. Similar measurements were made on unloaded control animals. We found both similarities and differences in the response to loading in O2- and RA-breathing animals. O2-breathing loaded animals had a greater load endurance, lower blood pressure at the end of loading, higher carbon dioxide levels, and greater high-frequency fatigue at the conclusion of loaded trials than did RA-breathing animals. The degree of low-frequency fatigue was similar, however, in the O2- and RA-breathing loaded groups (i.e, twitch force averaged 7.9 +/- 0.6, 8.4 +/- 0.5, 3.8 +/- 0.9, and 4.5 +/- 0.8 N/cm2, respectively, in the RA/unloaded, O2/unloaded, RA/loaded, and O2/loaded groups, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/1995; 152(5 Pt 1):1633-40. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.152.5.7582307
  • G Supinski, D Nethery, A DiMarco
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that free radicals contribute to the diaphragmatic dysfunction observed in sepsis. However, previous work has not determined which species of free radicals are responsible for producing these effects or whether the intercostal muscles are affected similarly during sepsis. The purpose of this study was to examine these issues using a hamster model of endotoxin-mediated sepsis in which diaphragm and intercostal muscle function was assessed on muscle strips excised from these animals after killing. Several groups of animals were studied, including animals injected with (1) saline, (2) endotoxin, (3) endotoxin plus active PEG-SOD, a superoxide scavenger, (4) endotoxin plus active PEG-catalase, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger, (5) endotoxin plus DMSO, a hydroxyl scavenger, and (6) endotoxin plus denatured PEG-SOD. We found that endotoxin administration elicited significant reductions in diaphragm and intercostal muscle contractility. In each of the three groups of animals to which active free radical scavengers were administered, the effects of endotoxin were attenuated. Denatured PEG-SOD did not protect the respiratory muscles from endotoxin-mediated dysfunction, however. These data indicate that both the diaphragm and intercostal muscles are affected similarly by sepsis; moreover, several free radical species (superoxide ions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl ions) play a role in mediating this type of injury.
    The American review of respiratory disease 12/1993; 148(5):1318-24. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm/148.5.1318

Publication Stats

652 Citations
128.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2001
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1999
    • MetroHealth Medical Center
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • School of Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States