Bruce Parks

Arizona Research Center, Phoenix, Arizona, United States

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Publications (6)9.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Almost half of all trauma deaths occur at the scene. It is important to determine if these deaths can be prevented. Penetrating or blunt force trauma deaths were identified through the Office of the Medical Examiner during a 2-year period. Data were also obtained through review of these records. There were 312 deaths at the scene that received no medical care. Almost 60% were firearm-related. About 80% of the victims were men, and 55% of these deaths occurred in people between 20 and 49 years old. Suicide accounted for nearly half of these deaths. Eighty percent of these injured people had Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of 5 or 6. Almost 60% of deaths at the scene occurred at the same time as injury and reflect severe injury to vital regions of the body. These findings suggest that primary prevention of the initial event causing injury may be more important than definitive prehospital emergency medical care to prevent these deaths.
    The Journal of trauma 04/1999; 46(3):457-61. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Almost half of all trauma deaths occur at the scene. It is important to determine if these deaths can be prevented. Methods: Penetrating or blunt force trauma deaths were identified through the Office of the Medical Examiner during a 2-year period. Data were also obtained through review of these records. Results: There were 312 deaths at the scene that received no medical care. Almost 60% were firearm-related. About 80% of the victims were men, and 55% of these deaths occurred in people between 20 and 49 years old. Suicide accounted for nearly half of these deaths. Eighty percent of these injured people had Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of 5 or 6. Conclusion: Almost 60% of deaths at the scene occurred at the same time as injury and reflect severe injury to vital regions of the body. These findings suggest that primary prevention of the initial event causing injury may be more important than definitive prehospital emergency medical care to prevent these deaths.
    The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 02/1999; 46(3):457-461. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 01/1999; 46(3):457-461.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike previous studies in an urban environment, this study examines traumatic death in a geographically diverse county in the southwestern United States. All deaths from blunt and penetrating trauma between November 15, 1991, and November 14, 1993, were included. As many as 150 variables were collected on each patient, including time of injury and time of death. Initial identification of cases was through manual review of death records. Information was supplemented by review of hospital records, case reports, and prehospital encounter forms. A total of 710 traumatic deaths were analyzed. Approximately half of the victims, 52%, were pronounced dead at the scene. Of the 48% who were hospitalized, the most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Neurologic dysfunction was the most common cause of death. Two distinct peaks of time were found on analysis: 23% of patients died within the first 60 minutes, and 35% of patients died at 24 to 48 hours after injury. Although there appears to continue to be a trimodal distribution of trauma deaths in urban environments, we found the distribution to be bimodal in an environment with a higher ratio of blunt to penetrating trauma.
    The Journal of trauma 10/1997; 43(3):433-40. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Unlike previous studies in an urban environment, this study examines traumatic death in a geographically diverse county in the southwestern United States. Methods: All deaths from blunt and penetrating trauma between November 15, 1991, and November 14, 1993, were included. As many as 150 variables were collected on each patient, including time of injury and time of death. Initial identification of cases was through manual review of death records. Information was supplemented by review of hospital records, case reports, and prehospital encounter forms. Results: A total of 710 traumatic deaths were analyzed. Approximately half of the victims, 52%, were pronounced dead at the scene. Of the 48% who were hospitalized, the most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Neurologic dysfunction was the most common cause of death. Two distinct peaks of time were found on analysis: 23% of patients died within the first 60 minutes, and 35% of patients died at 24 to 48 hours after injury. Conclusions: Although there appears to continue to be a trimodal distribution of trauma deaths in urban environments, we found the distribution to be bimodal in an environment with a higher ratio of blunt to penetrating trauma.
    The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 08/1997; 43(3):433-440. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 01/1997; 43(3):433-440.